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Full text of "Yaman : its early mediaeval history"

YAMAN 



ITS EARLY MEDIAEVAL HISTORY 



BY 



NAJM AD-DIN 'OMARAII AL-HAKAMI 



\LSO THE ABRIDGED IIISTOIIY OF ITS DYNASTIES 



BY 



IBN KHALDUN 



^^•D AN ACCOUNT OF THE KARMATHIANS OF YAMAN 

BY 

ABU 'ABD ALLAH BAHA AD-DlN AL-JANADI 



The Okiginal Texts, with Translation and Notes 

I M ^ ^ 3 

HENRY CASSELS 'kAY ] « "T — T" 

M.R.A.S. " I ' 1 • °^ 



LONDON 

EinVARD ARNOLD 
53ubti5l)fv to tl)r TrnTlia ^^ct 

1892 

^et Price, Seventeen Shillings and Sixpence 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BT GILBEBT AND BIVINGTON, LIUITKD, 
Sr. JOHD's HODSK, CI.EBKBirWfcLI, B.C. 



I 



INTEODUCTION. 



The history of the Arabs of Yaman under Islam has, as it 
seems to me, hitherto received less attention from Western 
scholai'fe than it may fairly be said to deserve ; and hence 
it no doubt arises that readers desirous of information on 
the subject, find their endeavours to obtain it attended with 
almost insuperable diflficulty. Lists of the dynasties have 
been included by Mr. S. Lane-Poole in his Catalogue of 
Coins at the British Museum, and he has added such brief 
explanations as the special purpose of his work would 
permit ; but, with that exception, the subject is in English 
literature simply a blank. And the labours of continental 
scholars, it must be added, are in this particular case, of 
less assistance than might be expected. 

The only book that treats, in a European language, of 
the Muhammadan history of Yaman, is a small volume by 
C T. Johannsen, "written in Latin and published at Bonn in 
1828. It is an abstract of the history of Zabid by the 
Arab author Dayba^, itself an abridgment, but one that 
supplies a historical sketch of the dynasties into whose 
possession the city successively passed, from the date of its 
foundation down to the tenth century of the Hijrah. 
Johannsen's work affords, therefore, a brief account ot the 
leading families that ruled over Yaman previous to the 
sixteenth century of the Christian era. But some, to 
whom Zabid never belonged, such for instance as the 
Zuray'ite Princes of Aden, are necessarily excluded. 
Johannsen's book is, moreover, at the present day some- 
what rare. 

A certain lack of interest in the fortunes of the petty 
states and dynasties of a country so slightly connected with 
the great streams of Muhammadan history, can without 
much difficulty be accounted for. It is no more than 
natural also, that the attention of scholars should be 
mainly attracted to the country as the ancient seat of 
an extinct and as yet little known civilization. But 
its history under Muhammadan influences is nevertheless 

A 2 



\ 



iv Introduction. 

neither destitvite of interest, nor altogether uninstruc- 
tive. Yaman, moreover, borders at the present day upon 
one of the great highways of the worhl. Its principal sea- 
port has for more than half a century been in the possession 
of England, whose influence over the adjoining districts is 
willingly acknowledged by the inhabitants. A contribu- 
tion to its past history may therefore, not unreasonably 
be expected to prove acceptable to English readers. 

Of the not inconsiderable number of native writers bv 
whom the history of Muhammadan Yaman has been treated, 
the earliest in date, and in certain re^ipects the most impor- 
tant, is 'Ouiflrah '' the Yaraanite." His reputation among 
his countrymen rests perhaps somewhat too exclusively upon 
his merits as a poet, but he is held in remembrance also as 
the leading historian of his native country, and as the 
writer to whom almost all is due that can be learnt of its 
history over a period of at least two centuries and a half. 
'Omarah's successors have freely acknowledged the debt 
they owe him, and indeed, for the period in question, they 
have done little or nothing more than reproduce what he 
has written, in a more or less abridged form, whilst very 
generally retaining his actual words. 

Whatever, therefore, the deficiencies in 'Omarah's work, 
It was to be expected that it would be carefully preserved! 
Bug so far is this from being the case, that until quite re- 
cently, no copy was known to exist. None has been in- 
cluded m the important collections of MSS. that have come 
1 r^'^^ ^'''"^ Yaman, and, so far as I am aware, a 
general belief has prevailed that the recovery of 'Omarah's 
History was all but hopeless. The event has happily turned 
out otherwise, and a copy of the book is actually in the 
possession of the British Museum library, acquired in 1886 
according to a note on the fly-leaf of the volume 

It is somewhat remarkable to find that the book has 
evidently been owned by a European. Not only is the 

tt$ of Western fashion, but other signs, pencil marks 
and the label on the back of the volume-I>oc7/me>i^.9 re- 
latins ati Yemeii— put the matter beyond all doubt. Another 
and indeed more singular circumstance is that the portion 
o± the volume consisting of 'Omarah's History, is to all 
appearance a modern transcript, dating, so far as I can 
.ludge from the description of paper and from the style of 

er;?aVro/r;;stt "'^'' '^^' -tur,. „. pe.Ws the 



Introduction. v 

The volume (Or. 3265) is a small quarto. It comprises 
three separate parts. The first, of 85 folios, is Dayba"s 
History of Zabid. The third, 102 pages (52 folios), con- 
tains an account of events in Yaman from a.h. 1215 to 
A.H. 1258 (a.d. 1800 to 1842). The second part, consisting 
of 84 folios or 166 pages, is 'Omarah's history. Neither the 
name of the transcriber nor the date of the copy is given. 
The handwriting is not that of an accomplished penman, 
and the copyist, it may readily be perceived, could make 
no claim to scholarship. Errors, both of commission and of 
omission, are indeed numerous. 

Even for the sole purpose of translation, the book, it 
was evident, would offer difficulty. But I had reason to 
believe that many deficiencies in the MS. would be supplied 
by the works of the author^s successors. My expectations, 
it will be seen, have been amply fulfilled, and I have found 
it possible to print the original text, as well as to translate 
it, a task which without that assistance, I could hardly have 
ventured to undertake, 

A life of 'Omcirah is included in the Biographies of Ibn 
Khallikan (de Slane, vol. ii. p. 367). For his account of 
our author's earlier years, down, that is to say, to the time 
of his final departure for Egypt, the biographer seems to 
have drawn most of his material from the History of Yaman, 
in which 'Omarah touches upon sundry events in his own 
life. He was born, he tells us, at az-Zara'ib, a town on or 
near the coast of northern Yaman, in the district of the 
Banu Hakam, the tribe of which he was a member, as shown 
by his denomination, the Hakamite,* His name and 
designations seem to have been Najm ad-din 'Omarah ibn 
Abi •'1-Hasan ^Aly ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Zaydan. On 
the title-page of the British Museum copy of his History, he 
is styled the Kadi ; but there is nothing to show that he 
ever exercised the office of Judge, and we find him invariably 
spoken of under the title of Faklh, the Jurist. He became 
a student at the College of Zabid, as he himself tells us, 
in A.H. 530, and he was probably born not earlier than 
A.H. 515, the year mentioned by Suyiiti (i. 238). 

* Ibn Khallikan says, according to de Slane, that 'Omarah was 
born in the city of Martan, in the valley of Wasa*, a place I am 
not able to identify. It will be seen that we have mention of 
Matrdn (p. 68 etc.), but it is evidently not the place here in ques- 
tion. 



vi Introduction. 

His final departure from Yaman occurred in a.h. 552, 
when he proceeded to Mecca, and thence to Egypt. The 
spiritual head of the Fatimite Empire and Sect was at that 
time the KhalTfah al-Fa'iz, who at the age of five years, had 
been raised to the throne on the assassination of his father 
az-Zafir in a.h. 549. The Khallfahs were still the nominal 
rulers of the Empire, but it was and had long been 
governed in reality by the Wazirs, as they continued 
to be styled, although not only possessed of the fullest 
political power, but actually invested with the title of Malik 
or King, first bestowed upon one of their predecessors in 
A.H. 530, by the Khalifah al-Hfifiz.* The office, at the time 
of 'Omarah's arrival at Cairo, was held by Tala'i' ibn 
Euzayk, under the title of al-Malik as-Sdlih, the Virtuous 
King. Our author was already personally known to the 
Wazir, by whom, on the occasion of an earlier visit to 
Cairo, he had been treated with distinguished favour, and 
who now again heartily welcomed him to his court. 
Tala'i', a zealous Ismailite, endeavoured to prevail upon 
'bmarah to join the sect. He failed in his purpose, but con- 
tinued nevertheless, throughout the remainder of his life, to 
extend his friendship and patronage to the Yamanite poet. 

The Khalifah al-Fa'iz died in a.h. 555, and was succeeded 
by al-*Adid, the last of the dynasty. Tala'i' perished the 
following year.f His son was raised to his place under the 
title of al-Malik al-'Adil an-I\dsir, but was assassinated in 
the first month of a.h. 558. The dissensions that followed 
supplied the Atabek Nur ad-din Mahmud, Sultan of Aleppo, 
with a pretext lor intervention in the aflairs of the country. 
He despatched an army to Egypt under the command of 
the Kurdish General Asad ad-dln Shirkuh. The re-instate- 
meut of Shawar, one of the rival claimants to the wazTrate 
was speedily efi'ected. But the restored wazIr soon had 
occasion to direct his efforts to the object of ridding him- 
self of his Turkish protectors. He solicited and obtained 
the aid of the Christian King of Jerusalem. During the 
next five years Egypt was the scene of a series of struggles, 
which soon resolved themselves into a conflict between the 
troops of Niir ad-din and the Christian Crusaders for the 

* Makrizi, vol. i. p. 440, I. Athir, xi. 31. See also Suyuti, ii. 
155 and 162-63. 

f An interesting mosque, built by Tala'i' at Cairo close to Bab 
Zuwaylah, is still in existence. 



Introduction. vii 

possession of Egypt. Asad ad-din, the Atabek's general, 
eventually triumphed. * The Crusaders were compelled to 
abandon the country, in which their rapacity and cruelty 
had caused them to be thoroughly detested. Shfiwar was 
slain in a.h. 564, and Shirkuh, though still acknowledging 
the authority of Nur ad-dln, was formally installed as 
Wazir by the helpless Khalifah al-'Adid, under the title of 
al-Malik al-Mansur (the Victorious King). He died before 
the end of the year, and his nephew Salah ad-dm Yiisuf 
(Saladin) was appointed his successor aud invested by al- 
'Adid with the office of wazir, and with the title of Malik 
an-Nasir (the Succouring King), which he bore throughout 
his subsequent career and which he contentedly retained 
until his death. 

In the first month of the year 567, Saladin, yielding to 
his own inclinations, as well as to the solicitations of his 
followers, and to the commands of his master Nur ad-din, 
proclaimed the deposition of the Fatimite Khalifah and the 
re-establishment of the supremacy of the Abbasides. Al- 
'Adid was at the point of death, and it is doubtful whether 
he ever knew that his dynasty had come to an end. The 
country was ripe for the change. It was accepted, out of 
Cairo, with scarcely a murmur on the part of the people. 
To them, indeed, hardly a sign of the great revolution 
that had occurred was perceptible, apart from an alteration 
in the form of the Khutbah, thenceforward recited in the 
name of the Khalifah of Baghdad. But, ere long, a con- 
spiracy was found to be in existence at the capital, for 
the restoration of the Fatimites, with the aid of the Christian 
King of Jerusalem. It was speedily suppressed, and the 
leaders arrested. Among those accusedof being concerned 
in the plot was 'Omarah. He was found guilty and con- 
demned to death. The sentence was carried into execution 
on the 2nd Ramadan, of the year 569, and his body was 
gibbeted and exposed to public view for three days. It 
has been said that it was by 'Omarah's advice that the con- 
quest of Yaman was undertaken and the army of invasion 
placed under the command of Turan Shah, whose absence, 
in the event of the death of his brother Saladin, would, it 
was thought, afford greater assurance of success to the 
objects of the conspirators. 

Among other noteworthy personages of that period, was 
the Kadi Abu 'Aly 'Abd ar-Kahim al-Baysani, more com- 
monly known as the Kadi al-Faclil. He had formerly held 



vlii Introduction. 

an important office as chief secretary under the Fatimite 
Government, and enjoyed a high reputation for general 
ability and for familiarity with the details of Egyptian 
administration. He was, moreover, widely noted for his 
talent as an elegant and ingenious letter-writer. The 
British Museum possesses two volumes (Add. 7807 and 
7465) containing a collection of the Kadi's sayings and 
of his writings, which are still regarded by his countrymen 
as models of epistolary style, of a kind, it must however be 
said, generally too florid to commend itself to the taste of 
Western readers.* In personal appearance the Kadi al- 
Fcidil was ill-favoui-ed, indeed deformed. He was never- 
theless exceedingly popular. Few names are oftener met 
with than his in the pages of Makrlzi's Khitat. He was 
held in the highest estimation by Saladin, of whose cause 
the Kadi became a warm adherent, and who was in the 
habit of listening to his opinions, and of consulting him 
on the most important affairs of the State. He became 
possessed of great wealth, and among his charitable founda- 
tions was one, the revenues of which were applied to the 
ransom of Muslim captives from the hands of the Christians. 
He built also a college, which he endowed with a library 
composed of more than 100,000 volumes. f The Kadi, it 
remains to be added, was one of those who most strenu- 
ously urged upon Saladin the deposition of the Fatimite 
Khalifah. 

'Omarah enjoyed for a time the favour of the Kadi al- 
Fadil, and it was at the latter^s request, as will be seen, that 
the History of Yaman was composed. But between two 
men of such opposite character, friendship, if indeed it 
ever existed, could not long endure. Political events parted 
them, and 'Omarah, ere long, knew the Kadi only as an 
enemy. It is related, that when sentence of death was 
pronounced upon him, the Kadi approached Saladin and 
spoke to him in private. " My lord," cried 'Omarah, 
" listen not unto what he says concerning me ! " The Kadi 
departed in anger, and Saladin, turning to the unhappy 
man, answered with the words : " He was interceding for 



* I had occasion in a paper, printed in the Journal of the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society (vol. xxiii.), to insert a short passage, quoted by 
Makrizi, which may be taken as a favourable specimen of the 
Kadi's literary performances. 

t Makrizi, vol. ii. pp. 79 and 866. 



Introdtiction. ix 

tty life." 'Omarah drooped his liead in silence. To him- 
self, and to all present, the incident was a manifest sign 
that his fate was ordained by divine and irrevocable 
decree. 

Whether or not 'Omarah was guilty of the crime with 
which he was charged, this much is certain, that he excited 
the mistrust and finally the hatred of Saladin's adherents, 
by his bold not to say reckless advocacy of the fallen 
dynasty, and by the impassioned words with which he was 
ever ready to defend it. On one occasion he was along 
with another poet in the presence of Najm ad-din Ayyub, 
the father of Saladin, then inhabiting a palace or pavilion 
known by the name of tlte Pearl, formerly a place of resort 
for the Fatimite Princes, and still bearing the decoration 
with which it had been enriched for the use of its origfinal 
masters. 'Omarah's companion recited to Najm ad-din four 
lines of verse, in which he spoke of the palace as receiving 
greater honour from the Princess presence than it had ever 
derived from that of its former occupants. " The palace," 
he ended, '' is a pearl, whilst they that formerly inhabited it 
were nought but shells. Thou art a pearl, unto whom the 
palace is but a shell.^' 'Omarah indignantly answered his 
companion, in lines of the same metre and rbyme. He 
dealt with the rhetorical figure in which the shell is spoken 
of as the occupant of a pearl, and ended with a line in 
which he denounces the poet as of less account than a dog, 
an animal which, at least, practises the virtues of gratitude 
and fidelity. The story is told by Makrizi, who has pre- 
served also a considerable fragment of a poem by 'Omarah, 
a lament over the fate that had overtaken the Fatimite 
dynasty. The following is the opening line, to which I add 
a few passages taken almost at random : — 

Thou hast blighted, Fortune, the noblest of hands — Thou hast 
stripped a graceful neck of the jewels that once adorned 
it. . . . 

censurer of my love for the sons of Fatimah. . . . Come, I ad- 
jure thee, cease weeping over Siffin and the Camel,* and join 
in my tears over the desolate halls of the twin Palaces. . . . 

* The battles of the Camel and of SiSm were fought in ah. 
36 and 37, between the two contending parties into which the 
Muslim world had already divided itself. At Siffin, although on 
the verge of victory, 'Aly was induced to agree to the reference 
of his claims to arbitration, and thereby brought about the ruin of 



X Introduction. 

Mayhap ye will return (0 sons of 'Aly), that the world may be 

released of its bonds. . . . 
They that have been false in their allegiance, will not escape the 

effects of God's anger . . . Their burning thirst will not be 

slaked by the hand of the noblest of created beings, the 

Seal of the Apostles. . . . 
Love of the Imams is the foundation of faith in God, and of all 

good works. 
They are the divine Light of true guidance, torches piercing 

through the darkness of night. 

The composition of that poem, says Makrizi, was the 
cause of 'Omarah's death. And, indeed, if the verses have 
reached us in the form in which they left the author's hands, 
it is not surprising that he was regarded as an Ismailite, 
and, on the contrary, difl&cult to understand why he per- 
sistently refused to be enrolled as a member of the sect,* 
at a time when every consideration of ambition and self- 
interest must have urged him to do so. 

'Omarah's History of Yaman, it must be confessed, is 
not such as can entitle its author to be ranked among the 
great historians of the world. The object of the book, as 
may be seen at almost every page, is simply that which he 
himself avows. It was written, not ior purposes of in- 
struction, but to amuse the leisure moments of a great 
personage. All that could serve the object is prominently 
and skilfully brought into relief Matters of graver im- 
port are lightly touched upon, and some are, no doubt, 
passed over in silence. But in his own way, 'Omarah has 
preserved for us the leading facts of Muhammadan history 
m his country, down to his own time. The style in which 
he has written is one of perfect simplicity, and one which, 
in many passages, exhibits a natural sense of the pic- 
turesque, and a power of expressing it, somewhat remark- 
able in a writer of his nation and of his time. And finally, 
though not his least merit, 'Omarah has preserved for us 
an exceedingly curious picture of Arab life and manners, 
such, I may perhaps venture to say, as is only excelled iu 

his cause, and the creation of fresh subjects of dissension among 
the followers of Islam. 

By the twin palaces are meant the two great historic palaces of 
the Fatimites, the sites of which are still held in remembrance by 
the modern inhabitants of Cairo. 

* See inpa^ Note 68. 



Introduction. xi 

Arabic literature by the tales of the Thousand aud Oae 
Nights. 

The MS. of the British Museum is^ as I have already 
had occasion to remark, very imperfect. Errors of 
all descriptions are numerous, and nothing is more 
evident than that the copyist has not, as a rule, given 
himself the trouble to understand the plain sense of 
what he wrote. Some faults are habitual, but of a class 
not unfreqaently met with. Such for instance are the 
erroneous substitution of Alif for ya in defective verbs, 
the retention of the letter Allf in the word ihi when it 
ought to be omitted and its omission when it ought to be 
retained. The tashdui and hamzah are, as a rule, omitted, 
even when the absence, especially of the former, prevents 
the true sense in which the word is used from being readily 
apprehended. The two points over the final ta in words of 
the feminine form are almost invariably omitted. All these 
are in addition to orthographical errors of a varying 
character and to omissions, sometimes of single words and 
at others of entire sentences. 

Without speaking of omitted and misplaced diacritical 
points, I have said enough to show that it was out of the 
question to reproduce the text precisely as it stands in the 
MS. I have followed that course as a g'eneral rule ; but 
wherever it seemed useful — perhaps in some cases where 
I need not have done so — I have supplied the missiug 
tashdid and hamzah as well as diacritical points. I have 
refrained from reproducing or noticing certain verbal 
errors, the correction of which could be made without any 
reasonable doubt and which, while in some cases an offence 
to the reader^s eye, were in others calculated to produce 
perplexity, more or less momentary it is true, but likely 
to be an interruption to the reader. It may perhaps 
be considered that I have not been sufficiently careful 
to lay down to myself a strict rule, and I must, indeed, 
confess that I have not heeded a certain degree of in- 
consistency between what I have done in some places and 
abstained from doing in others. 

Ibn Khallikan's Biographies, more particularly that of 
'Aly the Sulayhite, Yakut^s Geographical Dictionary, 
Ibn Khaldun's History, and some other books, to be 
hereinafter more particularly mentioned, have each in their 
turn assisted me in the performance of my task. But my 
chief debt is due to the Histories of al-Janadi and of al- 



xii Introduction. 

Khazraji, o£ whicli it remains for me now to offer tlie reader 
some brief notice. 

It mustj however, in the first place be stated that, with 
one exception, 'Omarah mentions no writer on the history 
of Muhammadan Yaman of a period previous to his own. 
The exception is a history of Zabid, written by Abu ^t- 
Tami Jayyash, one of the early kings of the dynasty of the 
Banu Najah. The book bore the title of Kitdb al-MufldJi 
aMhdr Zabid, the Book of Instruction on the History of 
Zabid, under which it is mentioned in the Kashf az-Zunun. 
That identical title is usually attributed to Omarah^s own 
History, but it does not appear in the Bi-it. Mus. MS., 
which is simply entitled Book of Chronicles by the illustrious 
Kadi 'Omdrah the Yamanite. Khazraji mentions that 
Jayyash's History was exceedingly rare in his day (see 
infra, Note 75). 'Omarah quotes the book at some length 
in his account of the death of 'Aly the Sulayhite and of the 
restoration of the Banu Najah. It is highly probable that 
these passages ai'e all that survives at the present day. 

Janadi's work is mentioned in the Kashf az-Zunun under 
the title of Kitdb as-Sulfdfi tabakCit il-Ulamd'i wa 'l-Muloh, 
Book of the Pearl-threads, containing the consecutive 
Series of Scholars and Kings. An excellent copy is pre- 
served in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, No. 2127, 
Suppl. 767. It is a large-sized volume comprising 207 
folios, and is dated a.h. 820. It is written in a good and 
generally clear hand, diacritical points as a rule absent, but 
on the other hand, the vocalization in the case of names, 
both personal and geographical, is frequently specified with 
great care. The title of the book is absent, but its identity 
with that mentioned in the Bibliographical Dictionary is 
beyond all reasonable doubt. The copy at the Bibliotheque 
appears to have been the property of one of the last 
Princes of the Rasulite dynasty, Ahmad, son of Sultan az- 
Zahir Yahya who reigned from a.h. 831 to 842. The 
inscription on the fly-leaf to that effect is imperfectly legible 
through the edges of the paper being partly cut and partly 
worn away, and owing to slips pasted upon the sheet, but 
I read it as follows : 

(Si^'W) .... 1 



Introdtiction, xiii 

Al-Janadi's full name was Abu *Abd Allah Baha ad-din 
(Yusuf ?) ibn Yusuf ibn Ya'kub, but he is best known by 
his surname al-Janadi, that is to say, the native of Janad, oi' 
it may be, member of the tribe of Janad, a subdivision of 
the Banu Ma'afir.* He died in a.h. 732. His History 
extends, according to al-Ahdal, to a.h. 724, but in 
some copies it was probably continued to a later date. 
The work is really, as indicated by its title, a series of bio- 
graphies, for the most part of men renowned for piety 
and learning. The author does not exclude princes and 
dynasties, but they occupy a subordinate place, for the rea- 
son he expressly gives, that they are of far less importance. 
He begins with the days of the Prophet, passes on to the 
Prophet's successors, and proceeds to sketch the lives of all 
who can claim the slightest connection with Yaman. He 
includes therefore the Imam ash-Shafi'y, the originator of the 
Shafi'ite school of religiods law, of whom it has been said 
that he was born in Yaman. His account of the Imam is 
little more than a panegyric, in which he conspicuously 
dwells upon the contention that ash-Shati'y, had he 
not exclusively devoted himself to theology and juris- 
prudence, would have ranked as one of the greatest 
of poets. t At fob 30 obv. commences a history of 
the Karmathians in Yaman, of which I have included a 
copy and translation in this volume. He then faii'ly enters 
into the subject that forms the main object of his book, the 
lives of the Jurists of Yaman, which he gives in geogra- 
phical order, that is to say, under the heading of the places 
in which they were born or in which they abode. 

* I find al-Janadi everywhere styled Yusuf son of Ya'kub ; but 
he himself (fol. 21 rev.) gives his father that name, and Khaz- 
raji ('Ukud, fol. 133, obv.), mentions Yusuf ibn Ya'kub al- 
Janadi, father of Baha ad-din the historian. 

f It was not without surprise that I found al-Janadi attribu- 
ting to the Imam, in a tone of perfect gravity, certain lines of 
verse which, according to Ibn al-Athir, were written by the 
Okaylite chief Abu '1-Musayyib Rafi'. Janadi says they were 
addressed by ash-Shafi'y to his mother, when on the point of 
leaving her for the purpose of devoting himself exclusively to 
religious studies. A portion, of far too ardent a character to be 
directed to a mother, is not included. The lines, together with 
a translation, may be found in a paper I contributed to the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xviii. p. 518. 



xiv Introduction, 

Al- Janadi tells us, in his Preface, that he has derived 
most of his information from the works of several pre- 
decessors — from the History of Ibn Samurrah, from the 
work of ar-Razi, from that of Ibn Jarlr, from 'Ouiarah's 
Mufld, and finally from the collection of biographies of Ibn 
Khallikan. The notices of these works in Hajji KhalTfah's 
Bibliographical Dictionary (excepting of the last men- 
tioned), seem to be borrowed from al-Janadi and add little 
or nothing to what the latter tells us in his Preface. 

The History of Ihn Samurrah is entitled Tabakdt Fukahd 
H-Yaman wa Rffasd az-Zaman (the Consecutive Series of 
the Jurists of Yaman and of the Chiefs of their time). Its 
author was Abu Hafs 'Omar ibn 'Aly ibn Samurrah, who 
died, according to Hajji Khalifah, in a.h. 586. This, says 
al-Janadi, gives the most complete account of the scholars 
and Jurists of Yaman from the time of the introduction of 
Islam down to a date somewhat later than a.h. 580. The 
book seems to have supplied al-Janadi with the model he 
followed in the composition of his own work. 

Only second to Ibn Samurrah's History, continues al- 
Janadi, is the work of Abu ^l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Abd 
Allah ibn Muhammad ar-Razi, a native, as his surname 
indicates, of ar-Ray, but settled at San'a. Many copies, 
says al-Jauadi, are in existence, but all, he adds, represent 
themselves as being the third volume of the work, and 
though diligent inquiry has been made by the scholars of 
Yaman for the missing portion, the search has been unsuc- 
cessful. The volume in question, he continues, carries 
down the history to about a.h. 460. It has supplied him, 
he adds, with much that was deficient in Ibn Samurrah. 
The British Museum possesses a book (Or. 2903) by the 
same author, copied in a.h. 1090. The title is not given, 
but the book consists of legends and tales relating to 
Yaman and more particularly to San 'a, not, so far as I have 
been able to gathei*, of much interest or value, and it is 
obviously not the book referred to by Janadi. 

Next comes the History of San'a by Ishak ibn Yahya ibn 
Jarir, a descendant of al-Aswad ibn 'Auf, brother of 'Abd 
ai'-Rahman ibn *Auf.* It is a book, says al-Janadi, of 



* 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Auf, of the tribe of Km-aysh, was one 
of the earliest of tlie converts and companions of the Prophet. 
lie died at INIcdinah in a.h. 31. 



IntroductioiK xv 

small bulk but of great value. Tlie titles neither of this 
nor of ar-Razi^s book ai'e mentioned. 

I come now to al-Khazraji, who, of all the writers to 
whose works I have had access, has been of the greatest 
assistance to me. His name was Abu '1-Hasan 'Aly ibn al- 
Hasan al-Khazraji, that is to say, of the tribe of Khazraj. 
He was surnamed Ibn Wahhas, and he died in a.h. 812. 
Hajji Khalifah says that al-Khazraji was the author of 
three historical works. In one the writer, he says, followed 
the chronological order; the second was arranged in 
alphabetical order of the names ; and the third gave a sepa- 
rate history of each dynasty. 

The first of these is probably the History of Yaman under 
the Rasulites, of which the India Office Library posseses a 
well preserved and valuable copy. The book is entitled 
Al-'Uktal al-Lu'lu''iyah fi ahlibdr id-daulat ir-EasuUyah, 
" The Necklaces adorned with Pearls, being the History of 
the Rasulite Dynasty.'' * It consists of 367 folios. The 
author commences with a chapter on the pedigree of the 
Banu Rasul, who, he declares, were of Arab race, descen- 
dants of Jabalah ibn al-Ayham, the last king of the Ghas- 
sanite dynasty. The history ends with the death of the 
Rasulite Sultan al-Ashraf Isma'il in a.h. 803. Fully two 
thirds of the book are a compilation, for the most part from 
three works, the Siratal-Muzaffariy ah, the' Ikd ath-thamin, 
and Janadi's History, from each of which long passages are 
incorporated. 

The first mentioned seems to be a life of Sultan al- 
Muzaffar Yusuf (a.h. 647-694). The 'Ikd atli-tJiamln exists in 
the Library of the British Museum (Add. 27541), under the 
title of Kitdh as-8lmt il-Glidly ith-thaman fi Ahhhdr Muluk 
il-Yaman, written by Badr ad-din Muhammad ibn Hatim, 
a descendant of the Hamdanite Kings of San'a. The 
volume is composed of 114 folios, and it carries down the his- 
tory of the Rasulites to the death of Sultan al-Muzaffar in 
A.H. 694. The titles of the book so largely quoted by Khaz- 
raji and of that at the British Museum, though verbally 



* I have reason to believe that the text and a translation of the 
History of the Rasulites, or at least of its most important part?, 
were prepared for the press by the late Sir James Kedhouse, but 
that certain difficulties unfortunately prevenicd the publication of 
his work. 



xvi Introduction. 

different, have tlie same sig-nification, and I feel satisfied, 
after comparison of several passages, that the two works 
are one and the same. It must, however, be mentioned 
that Khazraji gives, in his Kifayah, an extract from the 
'Ikd ath-thamin, relating to the successors of Ibn Mahdy,* 
not to be found in the British Museum MS. It seems pro- 
bable therefore that the book^^ are two separate editions.f 

Some other writers are referred to by Khazraji, among 
whom I may mention the Sharif *Imad ad-din Idris, a de- 
scendant of Suleyman ibn Hamzah. In the Ukud (fol. 173 
obv.), the death is recorded of the ShariPs father, Jamal 
ad-dm 'Aly ibn al-Hasan ibn Hamzah, in a.h. 699, and 
Khazraji adds that the Sharif Idris was author of several 
historical works, among others of one entitled Kitdh Kanz 
il-Ahliydr fi ^i-tdrikhi tea 'l-ahhhdr, a book which, if it is 
still in existence, will probably be found to throw light 
upon the history of the Zaydite Imams of Yaman, 

The other works by Khazraji mentioned in Hajji Khali- 
fah's dictionary are probably represented by the MSS. pre- 
served in the Library of the University of Leiden, Nos. 
Dccv. and dccclxviii. (Old Cat. vol. ii. pp. ] 73 and 190). 

The last mentioned, despite its large size and its 369 
pages, is but a fragment. It is entitled Tirdz A'ldm iz- 
Zamaii fi tahakdti A'ydn tl- Yaman, The book, according 
to the explanation of its plan given by the author in his 
preface, commences with an Introduction, containing in 
the first place a life of the Prophet, and next that of each 
of the Khalifahs, from Abu Bakr to al-Musta'sim. A bio- 
graphical dictionary, supplying an account of the scholars, 
kings, etc. of Yaman, the chief purport of the work, begins 
at p. 280 and the MS. ends abruptly at p. 369, before com- 
pletion of the first letter of the alphabet. The author tells 
us that the book was composed by command of the Kasu- 
lite Sultan al-Ashraf Isma'il (a.h. 778-803), who, he says, 
prescribed its form and the arrangement of its contents. 
AUKhazraji, it must be added, handsomely acknowledges 
the debt he owes to the earlier labours of al-Janadi. " We 
have drawn,'"" he says, " from his abundant springs, and we 
have drunk under his guidance. Without him we had not 

* See infra, Note 101. " 

t The British Museum MS. is dated a.h. 1062 (a.d. 1652), and 
a note which follows the colophon states that the copy was care- 
fully collated at the end of the following year. 



IntrodtLction. xvii 

ventured to enter so deep a gulf, neither could we have 
found our way to this our resting-place." 

The Leiden MS. dcccv. is entitled -flK^afe tarlhh il-Kifdijatl 
wa 'l-A'ldm finnan waliya 'l-Yamana wa sakanalia min al- 
Isldm. It consists of 384 pages. The author appears to 
have divided his work intoj^ye books, each subdivided into 
chapters, but the Leiden MS. contains the fourth and fifth 
books only. The fourth is divided into ten chapters. In 
the first five, the author, after citing certain traditions pro- 
ving the high estimation in which the country and people of 
Yaman were held by the Prophet, gives an account of its 
conversion to Islam, of its government in the days of the 
Prophet and of his immediate successors, and under the 
Omayyads and Abbasides. The sixth contains the history 
of the Karmathians in Yaman, and the seventh (fol. 38) 
gives an account of the subsequent condition of San'a 
until it was taken by 'Aly the Sulayhite. (See infra, Note 
8.) The eighth chapter is the history of the Sulayhite 
dynasty, the ninth that of the Hamdanite Kings of San^a, 
and the tenth that of the Zuray'ite Princes of Aden. 

The fifth book is divided into twelve chapters. The first 
four (pp. 77-108) contain the history of the Ziyadites, of their 
successors the Banu Najah, of the Abyssinian Wazirs who 
became the actual rulers of the country, and of *Aly ibn 
Mahdy ; the fifth that of the Ayyubite dynasty. With the 
sixth commences the history of the Easulites, and it includes 
the reign of Sultan al-Mansur 'Omar (a.h. 626-647), the 
first of the dynasty. To each of his successors one of the 
remaining chapters is devoted, and the work ends with the 
twelfth chapter at the same point as the MS. of the India 
Office Library.* The three last chapters of the fourth book 
and the first four of the fifth, that is to say, pp. 47 to 108, 
are for the most part an adaptation of 'Omarah's History. 
The author omits some passages and abridges others, often 
very slightly, and 'Omarah's language is frequently repro- 
duced almost verbatim. 

I have already had occasion to speak of a writer of much 
later date, Dayba', and of the small volume to which he has 
given the title of History of Zabid. The British Museum 
Library possesses two copies. Or. 3265 and Add. 27540. 
It will be sufficient to add that the book is to all intents 
and purposes an abridgment and adaptation of a larger 

* See Dozy's Catalogue of the Leiden Library, vol. ii. p- 173. 

a 



xviil Introduction. 

work by the same author, entitled Kitdh Knrrat il-'UyunJi 
akhhdr il-Yaman al-Maymun. The name of the author was 
Wajih ad-dln 'Ahd ar-Rahmdn ibn 'Aly ad-Dayha', of the 
tribe of Shayhdn* He died in a.h. 944 (a.d. 1536-7). The 
British Museum possesses two copies of the work^ Add. 
25111 and Or. 3022. The latter is a modern transcript of 
a MS. belong^ing to the Khedivial library at Cairo, executed 
in A.H. 1295 (a.d. 1878). Add. 25111 consists of 191 folios. 
The end of the book is wanting, but according to the Cairo 
copy only one folio is absent. 

The greater portion of the book is little, it might almost 
be said nothing, but an epitome of the Kifdyali. The author 
commences with Khazraji's fourth book, which he calls his 
first.f He reproduces it in an abridged form, chapter by 
chapter, in the same order as that of the Kifdyah and each 
under the same heading. Next follows his second book, 
Khazraji's fifth. The twelfth chapter ends at fol. 133 
rev. To this he adds six more, in which he carries the 
history of the Rasulite dynasty to its conclusion. Then 
follows the third book, commencing at fol. 144 rev. It is 
divided into three chapters, containing the history of the 
Banu Tahir, down to the end of the dynasty and to the 
conquest of Yaman by the troops of the last Mamluk 
Sultan of Egypt. It will be seen, therefore, that it is only 
the latter part of the work, commencing at fol. 133, that 
can be said to be of any material value from the 
historian's point of view. In his Preface the author 
acknowledges his indebtedness to Khazraji, to whose book, 
it may be noted, he gives the title of Kitdh al-'Asjad. 

Another writer to whom I have had occasion to refer in 
the following pages is al-Ahdal. He was the author of 
several works, of some of which the titles are given by 
Hajji Khalifah, and whereof one exists in the Library of the 
British Museum (Or. 1315). The first and last pages of the 
MS. are wanting and have been replaced by a fabricated 
title-page and colophon. There is, however, no room to 
doubt that it is al-AhdaPs work, the same to which Hajji 
Khalifah gives the title Tuhfat az-Zaman fi Ahjdni Ahl il- 
Yaman. The full name of the author was Abu 'Abd Allah 

* The author of the Tiij al-'Arus says that Dayha' is a Nubian 
word and that it signifies tvliite. 

t He begins, therefore, at the same point as the Leiden ]\IS. 
of Khazraji's Kifdyali. 



Introduction. xix 

al-Husayn ibn 'Abd. ir-Rahmaa il-Ahdal al-Hasayni, and be 
was member of a family of some note in Yamaa, but origin- 
ally fi-om 'Irak. He was born, according to his own state- 
ment, about A.H. 779, and was living in a.h. 848. He him- 
self designates his work an abridgment of Janadi's History. 
It is, indeed, but little more, ihough it contains sundry 
additions, which bring it down to the author's own time. 
The British Museum MS, consists of 318 folios. 

Al-Ahdal complains that his copy of al-Janadi was very 
imperfect, and he makes the following remarks on the 
subject : 

Here end my abridgments from al-Janadi and the additions 
with which I have been able to supplement them. The copy of 
his book which has served me, contains many faulty passages, 
which I have striven to elucidate to the best of my ability. 
Let him who finds errors in my work correct them. From God 
cometh the aid that ensureth success.* 

Of the geography of Yaraan — excluding, it must be said, 
the portion of the country recently surveyed by Dr. 
Eduard Glaser — our knowledge is as yet very imperfect. 
I have endeavoured to supplement the information obtain- 
able from Western authorities, by reference to the works of 
native writers, but the task is one attended with much diffi- 
culty. Hamdani^s Description of Arabia (he died a.h. 334) 
treats largely of Zaman, and the work is one the merits of 
which it is hardly possible to overstate. The well-known 
edition published by D. H. Miiller has been of the greatest 
service to me.f But al-Hamdani's Geography pre-supposes 
in its reader a certain knowledge of the chief features of 
the country, of the direction of its principal chains of moun- 
tains and valleys and of the situation of many towns. It 

* Fol. 262. See also fol. 312. 

t Miiller's second volume, containing his notes and indices, had 
not yet appeared at the time I occupied myself with Hamdani, 
nor did I becoTPe aware of its publication until after I had passed 
on to other matters. The book reached me, however, in time to 
be still of much service. 

a 2 



XX Introduction. 

is not possible to construct a map, however rude, from his 
descriptions. A correct map, showing the general outlines 
of the country, is on the contrary necessary for the purpose 
of enabling the student to follow the author in his descrip- 
tions. That published by Dr. Glaser in Petermann's Mitthei- 
luugen (1886, I.), may be said amply to fulfil the required 
condition. Indeed, a sure test of its excellence may be 
found in the fact that the student is able, with its assis- 
tance, to follow al-Hamdani step by step, with hardly any 
other difficulty but that of identifying, in certain cases, the 
modern with the ancient names of places. And of that 
difficulty, in many important particulars, the reader is 
relieved by explanations supplied in the letter-press. 

But, unfortunately, Dr. Glaser's map comprises only the 
northern part of the country. For the southern portion I 
have chiefly relied upon the map published by Manzoni in 
1884 along with the account of his travels. Apart, how- 
ever, from the delineation of his own lines of travel, the 
accuracy of which can no doubt be fully trusted, Mr. 
Manzoni has been compelled to rely upon the work of his 
predecessors, and creditably as his task has been performed, 
it is beyond all question that he is often led astray. The 
difficulties to be overcome by the student will be at least 
partially perceived on attempting to reconcile the great 
divergencies to be found between Dr. Glaser's and Mr. 
Manzoni's maps on the border country, where the two 
ought to combine into one, and where, on the contrary, 
their disagreement could hardly be exceeded. 

During the course of my work, I marked down, for my 
own use, on a roughly drawn sheet, the situation, as nearly 
as I could arrive at it, of several places, the localities of 
which require to be understood in following ^Omarah in his 
history and al- Janadi in his account of the Karmathians. I 
have, with some hesitation, decided upon printing the 
map, such as it is. But the reader will understand that, 
so far at least as hitherto undetermined localities are con- 
cerned, I presume to do no more than indicate, more or less 
approximately, where certain of these places, or their 
remains, are to be sought — such, for instance, as Mudhay- 
khirah, Sharjah, 'Aththar, Haracj or Mahall Abi Turab, az- 
Zara'ib and others. Considerable difficulty in the attempt 
to determine the situation of some places is caused by the 
great changes that have occurred on the coasts of the Red 
Sea and of Yaman in particular. For many centuries past 



Introduction. xxi 

the sea has gradually but steadily retired, with the result 
that old harbours have silted up and have disappeared, and 
that new ones have been created, where at one time only 
deep water was to be found. See Dr. Glaser's remarks on 
the subject, p. 3. The coast line on the accompanying map 
is that of the Admiralty Chart. 

The frequent inaccuracy of native writers — Yakiit, Ibn 
Sa'ld, Ibn Khaldun and others — are a further addition to the 
difficulties that attend the study of the subject. Such, for 
example, are the misleading statements that Dhu Jiblah 
stood on Mount Sabir, that Mudhaykhirah and Aden La'ah 
adjoined one another, that Aden Abyan and the well-known 
seaport of Aden were two different places. Yakiit borrows 
(probably at second hand) much of his information from 
*Omarah. In such case he adds nothing to what we have 
in our text. In others I have generally found that his 
information requires some scrutiny before it can be re- 
ceived. He seldom gives us the situation of a place with 
any degree of precision, and when he says, as he often 
does, that it is "near Zabid " or "near San 'a," the asser- 
tion must always be received with caution. His Geogra- 
phical Dictionary, in fact, useful as it undoubtedly is, is a 
compilation from writings of a very varyiDg degree of 
merit, and, according to a custom unfortunately very 
common among his countrymen, he does not, as a rule, 
make known the source from which his information is 
borrowed. 

The author of the Commentary on the Kamiis, known 
as the Td) al-'Arus, deals to a considerable extent with 
geographical names. He was a native of Yaman, and it 
might be expected that his great work would be of material 
assistance in the study of the geography of his country. 
But it is not so. He tells us occasionally, when mention- 
ing a place, that he has visited it, but he adds no informa- 
tion of his own, and contents himself with simply copying 
the words of old writers and principally of Yakut. 

I have been hardly less disappointed with the extracts 
fi-om Ibn al-Mujawir, given by Dr. Sprenger in his 
Reiserouten. Ibn al-Mujawir gives in most cases the dis- 
tances in parasangs between places mentioned ; but they 
cannot be trusted. They are not only in frequent contra- 
diction with one another, but also quite irreconcilable with 
certain measurements obtainable, with small risk of serious 
error, from modern maps. 



xxii I lit ro due Hon . 

It is only by the labours of competent travellers, wli 
may make the topography and the archaeological remains c 
the country an object of study, that any material advanc 
in our geographical knowledge of Yamau will be achievec 
I shall be well satisfied if the few notes I have collected i 
the pages of this volume prove of some little assistance t 
the explorer, and above all if I have succeeded in showin 
that a not unimportant and an interesting work offers itse 
to anyone able and willing to undertake it. 

I have had occasion, when speaking, of Janadi's book, t 
mention his chapter on the Karmathians of Yaman, a cop 
and translation of which are included in this volum 
'Omarah barely mentions the Karmathians, and it is hard 1 
explain the omission, excepting on the supposition that tl 
subject was not likely to commend itself either to tl 
taste of his Israailite patrons at Cairo, or to his ow 
Ismailite sympathies. Al-Khazraji, in his KlfCufoh, likewis 
arives us an account of the Karmathians, drawn from tl 
same source as al-Janadi's. He has not, on this occasioi 
contented himself with borrowing at second hand, but 1 
adds nothing of material importance to the particulai 
given by al-Jauadi. 

I have, moreover, included the text and a translation ( 
Ibn Khaldun's epitome of the History of Yaman, extracte 
from his General History. Ibn Khaldun, it will be see 
has fallen into sundry errors, chiefly, as it appears to m 
attributable to his having placed undue reliance upon tl 
works of his countryman Ibn Sa'id. I have thought thi 
a copy of his version, as it exists in the best MSS, wouL 
nevertheless, be acceptable to most readers. It is precede 
by a slight sketch of the early Muhammadan history of tl 
country, and the geographical details with which it coi 
eludes, though requiring correction in certain particular 
are not without interest. 

The version of Ibn Khaldun's text here printed is founde 
upon that contained in the Bulak Edition, which howeve 
1 have carefully collated with the valuable MS. in tl 
British Museum Library (Add. 23272, fols. 68 to 79), < 
which it is consequently a reproduction. The chapter c 
the Banu Rassi has, in like manner, been collated with tl 
MS. at the Bibliotheque Nationale, " Suppl. Ar. 742 M 
fol. 50. 

I had practically completed my task when I first becan 
aware of an important addition to the Oriental Departme) 



Introduction. xxiii 

of the British Museum Library, through the acquisition by 
the Trustees of a considerable number of MSS. relating to 
the Zaydites of Yaman. Some unavoidable delay occurred 
before I was able to examine them and the result of the 
work, though by no means fruitless, has, I must confess, 
been somewhat of a disappoiutment. I have found the 
Zaydite writers far more deficient in historical matter, 
properly so called, than I had allowed myself to expect. 
The particular information which, at the cost of no incon- 
siderable labour, I had sought in other quarters, and which 
I found for the most part in the pages of Khazraji and of 
al-Ahdal, could have been more easily obtained from the 
Zaydite MSS., but rectifications as well as additions have 
not been as important as I anticipated. 

The two most useful works for my purpose have been 
the Hadaik al-Wardh/ah and the Yawakit as-Siyar* Of 
the former the Museum Librarv has acquired two copies, 
each in two volumes, Or. 3785-86 and Or. 3812-13. It 
contains the lives of the principal Imams down to 
the thirteenth century of our era, eighteen in number, 
beginning with al-Kasim the Rassite and ending with al- 
Mansur 'Abd Allah. 

The Fawakit as-Siya7- (Or. 3771) commences with the 
history of the Creation, with that of Adam, then with the 
lives of the prophets who succeeded him, and next with a 
life of Muhammad, based upon that contained in an earlier 
work, the Jawdhir wa 'd-durm- (Or. 3911). At fol. 141 the 
Yawakit enters into an account of the Zaydite Imams, 
descendants of 'Aly. It is little more than a list of their 
names, and where fuller particulars are given, the author 
has for the most part copied or abridged the Hada'ik. The 
book, which is evidently incomplete, ends at fol. 173, with 
the death of the Imam Ahmad ibn Husayn in a.h. 656, 
and with a few words on the dissensions that followed. 

The other historical MSS. treat of special subjects, each 
however, as is likewise the case with the Jawahir, pre- 
ceded by an account of the succession and pedigrees of the 
Imams. Discrepancies in the several accounts of the succes- 



* Dr. Eieu's descriptive list of the MSS., which he was good 
enough to place in my hands, was of great service to me, enabling 
me, as it did, to select at a glance the books most likely to servo 
my objects. 



xxiv Introduction. 

sion are numerous, and the absence of dates so freque 
tliat it is almost the general rule. 

The Bugliyat al-Murld (Or. 3719) is an account of t 
descendants of 'Aly al-Amlahy (died in a.h. 977 — a.d. 15GI 
descendant of Yusuf ad-Da'y and grandfather of t 
Imam al-Kasim son of Muhammad surnamed al-Mansur, 
whom I have had occasion to speak in the latter part 
Note 130. 

The Kdshifat al-Gkimmah (Oi\ 3791) is for the mc 
part devoted to the religious opinions and controvers 
writings of the Imam an-JSTasir li-diu Illah, who reigned 
the end of the seventh and beginning of the eighth ce 
turies of the Hijrah. The value of the introductory portio 
on the succession of the preceding Imams, is much ii 
paired by the general absence of dates, even more notic 
able in the present instance than in others. 

It remains for me to express my sense of obligation 1 
the friendly help I have received throughout the course 
my work. I owe my acknowledgments to Dr. Rieu a: 
Dr. Rest for assistance always so readily afforded in t 
recourse I have had to the libraries under their char^ 
To my old friend, M. Henri Lavoix, I am indebted f 
never-failing good offices, of special service to me ( 
the present occasion, in the futherance of my work 
the Bibliotheque Nationale. I am under great obligati* 
to M. Zotenberg, keeper of Oriental MSS. at the Bibh 
theque, and in particular for the favour he has done me 
collating with the original the passages I have pi-int< 
from al-Janadi. And finally I have to offer my thanks 
Professor de Goeje for facilities so cordially granted to r 
at the Library of his University, for his kindness in revisii 
with the original the principal extracts I have printed fro 
Khazraji, and, let me add, for the pleasant memories wi 
which my visit to Leiden is associated. 



XXV 



MUHAMMADAN AND CHRISTrAN" DATES. 

{From Wihtenfel(Vs Tables.) 



A.H. 


Began 


A.D. 


A. II. 


Began A.D 


201 


Wed., July 30 


bl6 


401 


Tues., Aug. 15 1010 


206 


Thur., June 6 


821 


406 


Tues., June 21 1015 


211 


Fri., April 1 3 


826 


411 


Wed., April 27 1020 


216 


Sat., Feb. 18 


831 


416 


Thur., March 4 1025 


221 


Sun., Dec. 26 


835 


421 


Fri., Jan. 9 1030 


226 


Sun., Oct. 31 


840 


426 


Sat., Nov. 16 1034 


231 


Mon., Sept. 7 


845 


431 


Sun., Sept. 23 1039 


236 


Tues., July 15 


850 


436 


Sun., July 29 1044 


241 


Wed., May 22 


855 


441 


Mon., June 5 1049 


246 


Thur., Mar. 28 


860 


446 


Tues,, April 12 1054 


251 


Fri., Feb. 2 


865 


451 


Wed., Feb. 17 1059 


256 


Fri.. Dec. 9 


869 


456 


Thur , Dec. 25 1063 


261 


Sat., Oct. 16 


874 


461 


Fri., Oct. 31 1068 


266 


Sun., Aug. 23 


879 


466 


Fri., Sept. 6 1073 


271 


Mon,, June 29 


884 


4?1 


Sat., July 14 1078 


376 


Tues., May 6 


889 


476 


Sun., May 21 1083 


281 


Wed., Mar. 13 


894 


481 


Mon., Mar. 27 1088 


286 


Wed., Jan. 17 


899 


486 


Tues., Feb. 1 1093 


291 


Thur., Nov. 24 


903 


491 


Wed., Dec. 9 1097 


296 


Fri., Sept. 30 


908 


496 


Wed., Oct. 15 1102 


301 


Sat., Aug. 7 


913 


501 


Thur., Aug. 22 1107 


306 


Sun., June 14 


918 


506 


Fri., June 28 1112 


311 


Mon., April 21 


923 


511 


Sat., May 5 1117 


316 


Mon., Feb. 25 


928 


516 


Sun., March 12 1122 


321 


Tues., Jan. 1 


933 


521 


Mon., Jan. 17 1127 


326 


Wed., Nov. 8 


937 


526 


Mon., Nov. 23 1131 


331 


Thur., Sept. 15 


942 


531 


Tues., Sept. 29 1136 


336 


Fri., July 23 


947 


536 


Wed., Aug. 6 1141 


341 


Sat., May 29 


952 


541 


Thur., June 13 1146 


346 


Sat., April 4 


957 


546 


Fri., April 20 1151 


351 


Sun., Feb. 9 


962 


551 


Sat., Feb. 25 1156 


356 


Mon., Dec. 17 


966 


556 


Sat., Dec. 31 1160 


361 


Tues., Oct. 24 


971 


561 


Sun., Nov. 7 1165 


366 


Wed., Aug. 30 


976 


566 


Mon., Sept. 14 1170 


371 


Thur., July 7 


981 


571 


Tues., July 22 1175 


376 


Thur., May 13 


986 


576 


Wed., May 28 1180 


381 


Fri., Mar. 20 


991 


581 


Thur., April 4 1185 


386 


Sat., Jan. 25 


996 


586 


Thur., Feb. 8 1190 


391 


Sun., Dec. 1 


1000 


591 


Fri., Dec. 16 1194 


396 


Mon., Oct. 8 


1005 


596 


Sat., Oct. 23 1199 



THE HISTOEY OF YAMAN 



BY 



NAJM AD-DIN 'OMARAH AL-YAMANI. 



In the name op God, the Merciful, the Gracious. 

Praise be to God, the most meet to be praised, the 
most worthy of worship. His blessings and saluta- 
tions of peace be upon Muhammad the Prophet, the 
most pure in lineage, the most beneficent of apostles, 
and upon his family, the most perfect in knowledge, 
the most steadfast in judgment. 

And after. In the year 563 I attended the 
receptions of the most illustrious and learned Kadi 
(al-Padil) Abu 'Aly 'Abd ar-Rahlm, son of the most 
noble Kadi Baha ad-Din Abu '1-Majd 'Aly al- 
Baisani (native of Baisan). May God preserve his 
greatness and perpetuate his dignities. He was 
Chancellor and Chief Secretary to the Khalifah al- 
'Adid. He urged me, nay, he guided me, to the 
composition of a book comprehending all that is pre- 
served in my memory touching the land of Yaman, 
its plains and its hills, its dry land and its waters, 
the extent of its kingdoms and the course of its 
roads, the wars of its people and their battles, their 
memorable deeds and their achievements, the history 
of its Kadis and of its Da'ys,^ of its nobles and of 

B 



2 ^ Omar ah. 

its princes, of its poets, tliose of wliom lie Lad lieai 
and those I had seen. 

I obeyed his commands, and I placed reliani 
upon his indulgence on my work being submittc 
to him. He is not one in whose presence I fe 
overcome by the reverence with which I regard b 
exalted station, and were I not encouraged by n 
knowledge that judgment (upon ray work) rests 
his hands, yet w^ould my own lowliness (throng 
his graciousness) convert my fears into boldness. 

It has been related to me by the Sheykh ai 
Jurist Nizar ibn *Abd al-Malik, the native of Mecc 
and by the Jurist Ahmad ibn ^Iiihammad al-Ash'f 
— and both are well acquainted with the histories 
the people, with their genealogies and with th( 
poetry — and I have also read in the book entitl 
Al-Muf~id li-Ahlihar ZahJd (the Instructor on t 
history of Zabid), composed by the mighty Kii 
Abu 't-Tami Jayyash, sou of Najfdi, Nasir ad-d 
(Defender of the Faith), sovereign of Zabid — th 
report that in the year 199 (a.h.) certain persoi 
descendants of ^Ahd Allah ('Obayd Allah) son 
Ziydd* were brought to (the Khalifah) al-Ma'mfi 
2 son of ar-Rashid. One, named Muhamma 
grandson of 'Abd Allah ibn Ziyad, claimed to 
descended from ('Obayd Allah son of) Ziy£ 
Another represented himself to be descended frc 
Suleyman, son of (the Omayyad Khalifah) Hishi 
son of 'Abd al-Malik. Khalf ibn Abi Tahir, wa: 
of the Amir Jayyash son of IN'ajah, was a desce 
dant of that man. 

Al-Ma'mim, in reply to the Omayyad, object 
that 'Abd Allah ibn (Muhammad ibn) 'Aly ibn ('A 
Allah ibn) 'Abbas beheaded Suleyman ibn Hisha 
and caused his two sons to be executed on t 
same day. " I am a descendant," answered t 
Omayyad, "of Suleyman' s youngest son, then 
* Eead adherents of the Omai/yads, 



The Ziyadites. 3 

I his childhood. We form a tribe at Basrah, where 
we live in a state of obscurity." Another man, 
Muhammad, son of Harun, claimed to be a member 
of the tribe of Taghlib. On hearing his name, 
al-Ma'mim wept and exclaimed : " Verily I am 
answerable for Muhammad son of Harun ! " He 
referred to his brother al-Amin. He theu ordered 
the two Omayyads to be put to death, bat the 
Taghlibite to be pardoned for the sake of his name 
and of that of his father. 

Ibn Ziyad thereupon exclaimed, addressing the 
Khalifah : " How falsely do people speak, Prince 
of the Faithful, when pretending that thou art lenient, 
forgiving, and averse to shedding blood without 
just cause ! If it be thy purpose to slay us by 
reason of our misdeeds, behold, we have not for- 
saken obedience unto thee, neither have we, in our 
allegiance, dissevered ourselves from the counsels of 
the nation. And if thou desirest to punish us for 
the crimes of the Omayyads against thy race, behold 
God, be he exalted, hath said : — 'No burdened soul 
shall bear the load that belongeth to another.^^ ^ Al- 
Ma'mun approved and commended the words of 
Ibn Ziyad. All his prisoners were pardoned, and 
they were more than one hundred in number. He 
placed them under the care of Abu '1-^Abbas al-Fadl 
ibn Sahl Dhu 'r-Bi'asatayn, or, according to others, 
under that of al-Fadl's brother, al-Hasan. 

In Muharram a.h. 202, the proclamation took 
place at Baghdad of Ibrahim, son of (the Khalifah) 
al-Mahdi (and uncle of al-Ma'mun — in pursuance 
of an attempt to usurp the throne). At that same 
time a letter came from the governor of Yaman 
with tidings of the revolt of the Ash'arites and 

3'Akkites.^ Al-Fadl ibn Sahl spoke to al-Ma'mun 
in praise of Muhammad ibn Ziyad, of the Marwanite, 
and of the Taghlibite. He urged that they were 
men of distinction, and unsurpassed in their capacity 

B 2 ' 



4 ^ Omar ah. 

to render good service. He advised their being 
sent to Yaman, Ibn Ziyad as Amir, Ibn Hisham as 
Wazir,' and the Taghlibite as Judge and Mufti.* 
From the sons of the Taghlibite Muhammad ibn 
Harim, are descended the Kadis of Zabid, known 
as the Banu Abi 'Akamah, and the office continued 
to be inherited in the family until they were deprived 
of it by 'Aly ibn Mahdy, on the dissolution at his 
hands of the Abyssinian dynasty (of the Banu 
Najah).^ 

The liberated prisoners accompanied the array 
despatched by al-Ma'mun to Baghdad against 
Ibrahim, son of al-Mahdi. In a.h. 203 Ibn Ziyad 
and his companions performed the pilgrimage. Ho 
proceeded on his way to Yaman and conquered the 
Tihamah (of Yaman), f after a war with the Arabs 
who inhabited that province. In Sha'ban, a.h. 204, 
the date of the death, at Misr (in Egypt), of the 
Jurist and Imam Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi'y 
(the mercy of God be upon him), Ibn Ziyad laid the 
foundations of the city of Zabid.^ In k.w. 205, 
Ja'far, freedman of Ibn Ziyad, started from Yaman 
to perform the pilgrimage, carrying with him a 
considerable sum of money and presents. He 
proceeded to'Irak, where he was received in audience 
by al-Ma'mun. He returned to Zabid in 206, 
bringing with him one thousand horsemen, including 
seven hundred adherents of the Abbasides of 
Khurassan. The rule of Ibn Ziyad extended itself, 
and he became possessed of the whole of Yaman, 
both of the mountains and of the maritime provinces. 
Ja'far was appointed governor of al-Jibal (the 
Highlands), where he founded a city known by the 
name of al-Mudhaykhirah, situated in the district 
of Rayraat al-Asha'ir, possessing streams of water 
and extensive gardens.*^ The country over which 

* The Mufti is the official expounder of reli<?ious law. 
t For the word Tihamah see infra (Geo-raphical Index). 



The Ziyadites. 5 

he ruled is known to this day under the name of the 
Mikhlaf of Ja'far. The word Milchlaf, as used by 
the people of Yaman, signifies an extensive district. 
This Ja*far was a man of great capacity and 
astuteness. It was through him that the dynasty 
of Ibn Ziyad acquired its greatness, and for that 
reason Ibn Ziyad received a surname actually 
derived from the name of Ja'far. It was he who 
stipulated with the Arabs of Tihamah that they 
should not make use of riding horses. Ibu Ziyad 
became master of Hadramaut, of Diyar Kindah, of 
Shihr, of Mirbat/ of Abjan, of Lahj, of Aden and 
of the maritime provinces on the Eed Sea as far as 
Haly. From Haly to Mecca (may God guard it) 
is eight days' journey. He possessed also in the 
Highlands, Janad and its dependencies, Mikhlaf al- 
Ma'afir, Mikhlaf Ja'far, San'a, Sa'dah, Xajran and 
Bayhan. Ibn Ziyiid and his posterity after him 
caused the Khutbah to be recited in the names of 
the Abbaside Khalifahs, and sent them tribute and 
valuable presents. 

His descendants were Ibrahim, son of this same 
Muhammad the first of the dynasty. JS"ext after 
Ibrahim came his son Ibn Ziyiid (Ziyad ?), whose 
reign did not long endure. He was succeeded by 
his brother Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak, son of Ibraiiim, 
whose life was prolonged over a long period. When 
he had attained a great age, and his reign had 
endured for eiglity years, some of the provinces 
separated themselves from his kingdom. Among 
those who manifested an evil disposition was the 
King of 8an'a, a descendant of the Tubbas and of 
Himyar.^ His name was As'ad ibn Ya'fur. The 
Khutbah was recited and the coinage was struck, in 
his provnice, in the name of Abu '1-Jaysh ibn Ziyad ; 
but As'ad paid him neither voluntary offerings nor 
contributions of stores nor tribute. His revenues 
did not exceed 400,000 (dinars) a year, most of which 



6 ^ Omar ah. 

he expended in charitable deeds and in hospitality.* 
The rulers of Bayhan, of Najran, and of Jurash* 
were likewise subject to Ibn Ziyad. As for Sa'dah, 
it became the scene of the revolt of the Hasanite 
Sherif (al-Hadi Yahya) known by the surnames of 
the Eassite and the Zeydite. It would not be 
proper to relate his history at this place, although ^° 
.... there is not in all Yaman a larger, pleasanter, 
or more populous city than San'a. It is situated 
on the equator, and enjoys a temperate chmate, so 
that no person requires throughout the course of his 
life to move his residence from one spot to another, 
5 either for winter or for summer, and the length 
of the days in either season is almost the same. 
It contains a large building, now in ruins and 
reduced to a high mound. It is known by the name 
of Ghumdan. None of the (later) kings of Yaman 
have built a palace like unto it, or so lofty. 

In the kingdom of As'ad ibn Ya'fur, Prince of 
San'a, is the mountain Mudhaykhirah, and it has 
been reported to me that it is about twenty para- 
sanofs in heiofht. It contains cultivated lands and 
(running) waters, and it produces the plant known 
as \Vars,1[ similar to saffron. The mountain is 
accessible by only one road. 

Muhammad (read 'Aly) ibn al-Fadl the Da'^^, 
(was ?) known as the Sheykh of La'ah, and this 
place La'ah, which adjoins it, is a pretty village 
known as 'Aden-La'ah." It is not the same as the 
seaport of 'Aden-Abyan. I have visited 'Aden- 
La'ah. It is the place at which the Alide supremacy 
was first proclaimed in Yaman, and thence issued 
forth Mansur al-Yaman. The Da'y Muhammad 
(read *Aly) ibn al-Fadl was a native of the place, 
and among others who came to it was Abu *Abd 
Allah ash-Shiya'i, who proclaimed the Alide su- 

» Cf. Ibn Haukal, p. 20. 

t Memecylon tinctoriiim (Freytag). 



The Ziyadites, 7 

premacy in North Africa. It was there also that 
'Aly, son of Muhammad the Sulayhite, studied in 
his youth. It was one of the centres of the Alide 
mission in Yaman. 

Muhammad ('Aly) ibn al-Fadl, whom I have here 
mentioned, conquered Mount Mudhaykhirah and 
estabUshed there the Khutbah in the name of the 
Ahdes in the year 340 (read 291 ?). Then it was 
retaken by the people of As'ad ibn Abi Ya'fur, but 
the followers of Muhammad ('Aly) ibn al-Fadl again 
recovered possession of it. 

The mountain of Shibam was situated in the 
dominions of As'ad ibn Abi Ya'fur, Prince of San'a. 
It is a strong place of defence, containing villages 
and cultivated lands, as also a great mosque, and it 
forms an independent government. Cornelian and 
onyx are found upon it. These are hard stones, the 
beauty of which appears when they are cut. 

Among other governors of Abu '1-Jaysh son of 
Ziyad, who revolted, was Suleyman ibn Tarf, ruler 
of 'Aththar. He was one of the Princes of 
Tihamah. His dominions extended over a length 
of seven days' journey by two in width, namely, 
from ash- tShar jail to Hali. His annual revenues 
amounted to 500,000 ('Aththariyah) dinars. Al- 
though he refused to attend in person at the Court 
of Ibn Ziyad, he caused the Khutbah to be recited 
and the coinage to be struck in the name of that 
Prince. He paid him also an annual tribute and 
sent him presents, but I know not the amount 
thereof. 

Among the Princes of Tihamah who, like Ibn 
Tarf, recited the Khutbah and struck the coinao-e 
in the name of Ibn Ziyad and paid him a hxed 
amount of tribute, was al-Harami, ruler of Hali, a 
Prince oi: inferior power to that of Ibn Tarf. 

The portion of Yaman that remained subject to 
Ibn Ziyad in his old age extended in length from 



8 ^Onuirah. 

ash-Sliarjali to Aden, a distance of twenty days* 
journey, and from Gliulafikah to San'a, five days' 
journey. I have seen a statement of the revenues 
of Ibn Ziyad in a.h. 366, and notwithstanding the 
reductions they had undergone, they amounted to 
a million of 'Athtliarlyah dinars,'^ This did not 
include various duties he levied upon ships from 
India, nor contributions of musk, camphor, amber- 
gris (spikenard), sandal-wood and china. It was 
exclusive also of taxes levied upon ambergris on the 
shores of Bab al-Mandab, at Aden, at Abyan, and 
at ash-Shihr and other places, and exclusive of 
imposts on the pearl fisheries, and of tribute im- 
posed upon the ruler of the city (read island) of 
Dahlak, comprising, among others, one thousand 
head of slaves, whereof five hundred were Abys- 
sinian and Nubian female slaves. The Kings of 
the Abyssinians, on the further side of the sea, sent 
him offerings of presents and sought his alliance. 

Abu '1-Jaysh died in the year 371, leaving a child 
of the name of 'Abd Allah, or, as it is also said, of 
the name of Ziyad. The guardianship of the child 
was assumed by his sister Hind, daughter of Abu '1- 
Jaysh, and by one of the slaves of Abu '1-Jaysh, an 
Abyssinian eunuch of the name of Rushd. The 
latter [did not long survive, but he] possessed a 
Nubian slave known by the name of llusayn ibn 
Salamah, Salamah being the name of Husayn's 
mother. Husayn grew up a man of ability and 
resolute character, and abstemious in his habits. 
On the death of his master Rushd he became wazlr 
to the son of Abu '1-Jaysh and to the Prince's sister 
Hind. The outlying provinces of their dominions 
had fallen into a state of decay, and the governors 
of the fortresses in the Highlands had possessed 
themselves of the districts entrusted to them. 

The Ka id Husayn ibn Salamah made war upon 
the mountain chiefs and compelled them to submit. 



The Ziyadites. 9 

Ibn Tarf and Tbn al-Harami also re-entered into 
subjection. Ibn Salamah recovered the original 
limits of the kingdom, and he founded the cities of 
al-Kadra on the "Wadi Saham, and of al-Ma'kir on 
7 the Wadi Dhuwal. He was a just ruler, profuse in 
bestowing alms and donations for the love of God 
(whose name be exalted), and following generally 
in his conduct the example of (the Khalifah) 'Omar 
ibn 'Abd al-'AzIz. He ruled for thirty years, and 
died in a.h. 402." 

Among the splendid works executed by Husayn 
ibn Salamah must be reckoned the construction of 
great mosques and lofty minarets along the road 
from Hadraiuaut to the city of Mecca (may God 
Most High guard it). The distance extends over 
sixty days' journey. He dug wells and channels 
with running water in solitary wildernesses, and he 
erected alono' the road constructions on which were 
indicated the distances in miles, in parasangs and 
in stages. Some of these works I have seen, either 
in good order or in ruins, and o*f the remainder I 
have received descriptions from other persons, all 
agreeing with one another. The first stations were 
at Shibam and Tarim, two cities of Hadramaut.* 
A series of mosques was built extending thence to 
Aden, to Abyan, and to Lahj, a distance of twenty 
days' journey. At each interval of one day's jour- 
ney, there stood a mosque with a minaret and a 
well. As to A-den, it contained a mosque built by 
(the Khahfah) 'Omar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, which was 
restored by Husayn ibn Salamah. 

From Aden the road to Mecca divides itself into 
two, one of which ascends the mountains and the 
other passes through the low country (Tihamah). 
The highland road is bordered by the mosque of 

* See note 11. Of Tarim, al-Hamdani merely says that it was 
a large city (p. 87, 1. 17). 



lo * Omar ah. 

al-Hawali (al-Juwwah ?),* a large building, wliich I 
have seen in good order, as erected by Hiisayn 
ibn Salamali. Of the other mosques on the high- 
land road, I have seen that of al-Janad, which is 
like unto the mosque of Ahmad ibn Tulun at Misr. 
There stood formerly on its site a pretty mosque 
originally erected by Mu'adh ibn Jabal, on his 
being sent to Yaman. Mu'adh was one of the 
companions of the Apostle of God, upon whom be 
blessings and peace/^ The people of Janad and 
of the surrounding villages relate singular stories 
touching the merits of that mosque. They affirm 
that a visit paid to it, in the first week of tlie 
month of Rajab, is equivalent to a visit to the holy 
places of Mecca, or even to the performance of the 
rites of pilgrimage. The custom of annually resort- 
ing to it grew, until at length the practice* was 
regarded as one of the religious ceremonies attend- 
ing the pilgrimage to Mecca, and the building was 
looked upon by the people as a sacred place of 
resort. If one man owe a debt to another, he will 
beg to be allowed to remain undisturbed until after 
the pilgrimage, by which he simply means the visit 
to al-Janad. Next is Dhu Ashrak, where there is 
a mosque with the following inscription, carved in 
stone over the entrance : One of the mosques the 
erection of which teas ordered by ''Omar son of 'Aid 
8 al-^ Aziz son of Mar tv an. Next is the city of Ibb, 
then an-Nakil, then Dhamiir. [Thence to San'a is 
a distance of five days' (?) journey, at each of which 
a station has been built. J Then the mosque of 
San'a, a large building. From San'a to Sa'dah is 
ten days' jommey [with a mosque at each stage], 
and from Sa'dah to Taif, seven days. At eacti 
interval of a day's journey there are a mosque and 
reservoirs for water. Then the traveller reaches 
the pass of Taif, which occupies a day to him who 
* For al-Juwwali, see note 111, the latter part. 



The Ziyadites. ii 

ascends from Mecca, and half a day to him that 
goes down to the city. The road was constructed 
by Husayn ibn Salamah of such width that three 
laden camels can travel abreast upon it. 

The above is the highland road. The Tihamah 
(low country) road likewise divides itself into two 
branches. One, the maritime road, extends along 
the coast. The other, the royal highway, runs half- 
way between the coast and the mountains. The 
two roads diverge from Tihamah (Aden ?), and 
upon both, at each interval of a day's journey, 
stands a great mosque. On the maritime road 
stands al-Makhnak, at a distance of one nio-ht's 
]Ourney from Aden. It has a well eighty (thirty) 
fathoms in depth, which I have several times 
visited, as also a ruined mosque. Then al-'Arah, 
then*'Athr, and next as-Sukya, with a mosque, 
and a well forty fathoms in depth. Then Bab 
al-Mandab, and then Mokha. Then as-Suhari, 
al-Khauhah, al-Ahwab, GhuJafikah, Bi'ah (?), 
al-Jardah (al-Hirdah), az-Zar'ah (?), ash-Sharjah, 
al-Mufajjar (al-Hajar ?), al-Kandir (?), and 'Aththar, 
which is the seat of an ancient kingdom. -^^ Then 
ad-Duwaymah, Hamidah, Dhahaban, Hali, as- 
Sirrayn and Juddah. These are the mosques on 
the maritime road, every one of which I have seen 
either in good repair or in ruins. 

On the middle road stand Dhat al-Khayf 
9 (Khubayt ?), Mauza', al-Jadim (?), Hays, Zabid, 
Fashal, ad-L)ija' (written with Kisra to the letter 
Dad), al-Kahmah, al-Kadra, which was the resi- 
dence of Ibn Salamah and was founded by him, 
al-Jaththah, 'Irk an-Nasham, al-Mahjam, Maur, al- 
Wadiyani, Jizan, al-Musa'id, Ta'shar, al-Mabny, 
Riyah and al-Fajr. Then the royal highway and 
the maritime road unite. They diverge on leaving 
as-Sirrayn. Thence to Mecca are five days' jour- 
ney. The first building erected by Ibn Salamah 



■y 



12 



^ Omar ah. 



which is reached by the pilgrims, is Bayn (Bir ?) ar- 
Riyadah, then Sabakhat al-Ghurab, next al-Llth. 
Then they reach Wadi Yalamlam, where there is a 
well with an abundant supply of drinking water, 
ten fathoms in depth and five or six in width. Here 
the travellers separate into two parties. Those 
whose destination is Mecca find on their way Ibn 
Salamah's buildings at Birad, next al-Bayda, then 
al-Karln, and finally Mecca. Those proceeding to 
*Arafat reach a well constructed by Ibn Salamah in 
Wadi ar-Rahm, thence to jN'a'man,and then 'Arafat. 
He built also a mosque on Jabal ar-Rahmah, at 
'Arafat. May God have mercy upon him ! ^^ 

I have been informed by the Fakih (Jurist) Abu 
Muhammad 'Abd Allah ibn Abi '1-Kasim al-Abbar, 
under whom I studied the Shafi'y doctrines, that the 
following incident was related to him by his father, 
Abu '1-Kasim. The same was reported to me by 
'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Aly al-'Absi, and by al- 
Mukry (the Kur'an reader) al-Husayn, grandson of 
Husayn, son of Salamah. All these attained the 
age of nearly one hundred years. They relate that 
people were, on a certain occasion, assembling in 
crow^ds to attend the morning reception of Husayn 
ibn Salamah, when a man approached and said 
unto him : " The Apostle of God (upon whom be 
blessings and peace) hath commanded me to come 
unto thee, that thou mayest pay me one thousand 
dinars." " It may be," answered Husayn, " that 
the Evil Spirit hath visited thee in a false shape." 
" It is not so," replied the man, " and the sign 
between me and thee is, that for twenty years past, 
thou hast every night, two hundred times invoked 
blessings on the Apostle." Husayn, on hearing 
these words, wept and exclaimed : " This I swear 
by Allah is a true sign, for none knew of it but God 
alone ! " And he ordered the money to be paid.^'^ 
The following anecdote has moreover been re- 



The Ziyadites. i -» 



o 



ported to me by the Jurist Abu 'Aly ibn Tallk, 
10 who was a pious man and eminent scholar, and who 
inhabited the city of al-Ma'kir. It had been 
related to him, he said, by his father and by others 
his predecessors, all members of families dis- 
tinguished for learning and for sober living. A 
man, it was said, complained in that valley, to 
Husayn ibn Salamah, who was on his way from 
Zabid to al-Kadra, that he had been robbed of a 
leathern bag, containing one thousand or, as it is 
also said, two thousand dinars. This, he said, had 
occurred in Wadi Maur, which is several days 
distant from the place where he made his complaint. 
Husayn ordered the man to be brought to him, and 
made him sit down among his followers (in the 
mosque of al-Kadra). He rose to perform his 
devotions, and he prolonged them to an unusual 
length. He then lay down in the Mihrab and slept, 
and the people gradually crowded towards the 
spot from all parts of the mosque. The narrator's 
father said that he was one of those v7ho approached 
nearest to the Prince, and he heard him command 
one of his followers to proceed with the man to such 
and such a village on the coast, to receive the 
property from so and so, son of so and so, and to 
do that person no harm. " For," he said, " the 
Apostle of God (upon whom be blessings and 
salutations of peace) hath interceded for him, in- 
forming me that the person in question is one of 
his descendants, and hath acquainted me with the 
facts of the case." The history of Husayn and a 
relation of his good deeds in Yaman, would fill 
volumes. 

Sovereignty over the dominions of the Banu Ziyad 
then passed on to a child of the family, whose name 
I do not know, but I believe it to have been 'Abd 
Allah (read Ibrahim ?). He was placed under the 
guardianship of a paternal aunt and of a eunuch of 



14 'Omar ah. 

the name of ]\rarian, one of the slaves of Husayn 
ibn Salamah, who exercised the office of wazlr. He 
had two Abyssinian slaves, vigorous men, whom 
he had brought up from their childhood, and whom, 
on their attaining manhood, he appointed to the 
administration of affairs. One bore the name of 
Nafis,* and was entrusted with the direction of 
affairs at the capital. The other was named Najfili, 
and he was the ancestor of the kings of Zabld, 
whose dynasty was brought to an end by ' Aly ibn 
Mahdy in a.h. 554. He was father of the king 
Sa'id al-Ahwal, the slayer of the Amir 'Aly ibn 
Muhammad as-Sulayhi, who was" Dfi'y (guardian 
and propagator) in Yaman of the Fatimite doctrines 
and of the supremacy of the (Egyptian) Khalifate, 
at that time held by al-Mustansir. Najah was 
likewise father of the most excellent and riofhteous 
King Abu 't-Tib (read Abu 't-Tilmi) Jayyash, in 
whose hands and in the hands of whose descendants, 
supreme authority remained until the above-men- 
tioned date. 
11 Najrdi ruled over al-Kadrfi, al-lMahjam, Maur 
and al-Wadiani, and these four districts are the 
finest provinces north of Zabid. Jealousy arose 
between him and Nafis touching the exercise of 
the office of wazlr at the capital. Nafls was of a 
tyrannical disposition and was dreaded by the people, 
whilst Najah was merciful, righteous, and beloved. 
Their master, Marjan, nevertheless inclined unto 
NafIs, and favoured him at the expense of Najah. 
^ It was intimated to the former that the aunt of his 
master Ibn Ziyad, was in correspondence witli 
Najah, and that she favoured him. Nafis com- 
plained thereof to Marjan, who laid hands upon the 
Princess and upon her brother's son, and delivered 
them to Nafis. 

The young Prince in question was the last of his 
* See note 13, last par. 



The Ziyadites. 15 

race. With him the dynasty of the Banu Ziyad 
came to an end in Yaman, and their power passed 
into the hands of men, originally their slaves. The 
dynasty endured two hundred and three years 
(read two hundred and six years, a.h. 203 to 409), 
for they founded Zabld in a.h. 204, and the dynasty 
ended in a.h. 409. 

Nafis, having gained possession of the Princess 
and of her nephew, caused them to be immured. 
They stood, praying for mercy, and adjuring him in 
the name of God Most High, so long as an aperture 
remained, and until the wall was completely closed 
upon them. 

When the Ziyadites received tidings of the 
weakened condition of the Abbaside Khalifate, of 
the assassination of al-Mutawakkil (in a.h. 247), 
and of the deposition of al-Musta'in (in a.h. 252), 
they appropriated to themselves the entire revenues 
of Yaman and, when riding forth, the royal 
umbrella was borne over them ; ^^ but they tran- 
quillized the minds of their subjects, by continuing 
the recitation of the Khutbah in the name of the 
Abbasides. When NafTs murdered Ibrahim (or 
*Abd Allah), son of his master, and the boy's aunt, 
he assumed the royal dignity, adopted the use of 
the umbrella, and struck the coinage in his own 
name. 

Najah, on hearing of the treatment his master 
had undergone at the hands of Nafis, summoned his 
neighbours to his assistance, Arabs and non-Arabs. 
He marched upon Zabid, and repeated battles were 
fouo-ht between the two rivals — the battles of Rima' 
and of Fashal, in both which Najah was worsted, 
that of al-'Ukdah in which he was victorious, and 
that of al-'Irk in which Nafis was killed near the 
Gate of Zabld, with the loss on the two sides of 
five thousand men. Najah captured the city of 
Zabld in the month of Dhu '1-Ka'dah of the year 



1 6 • 'Omar ah. 

412. He then asked Marjan : " What hath Nafis 
12 done with thine own and our masters ? " *' They 
are in that wall," he replied. Najah removed the 
bodies, prayed over them, and erected a mausoleum 
over their place of burial. Marjan was immured 
alive along with the corpse of Nafis, in the wall in 
which the two bodies were found. 

Najah now adopted the use of the royal umbrella 
and struck the coinage in his own name. He 
entered into correspondence with the supreme 
authorities in 'Irak, tendering them his submission, 
and he received the title of al-Ma'ayi/ad Nasir 
ad-DJn. He was empowered to appoint as Kadi 
whomsoever he chose, and to administer all the 
affairs of the country of Yaman. He continued to 
rule over Tihamah, and to exercise control over 
most of the people of the Highlands, and he was 
styled King, both in the Klmtbah and in official 
documents, with the title of Our Lord. He had 
several children, among whom were Sa'Id, Jayyash, 
Mu'arik, adh-Dhakhlrah and Mansur. 

But the governors appointed by Husayn ibn 
Salamah in the Highlands, seized upon the mountain 
fortresses. ^^ Aden, Abyan, Lahj, ash-Shihr and 
Hadramaut were taken by the Banu Ma'n, who, I 
believe, were not descendants of Ma'n ibn Zaidali 
the Shaybanite."*' Samadan, a place of greater 
strength than Dumluwah, also the fortress of Savva, 
that of DamlQwah, the fortresses of Sabir, of 
Dhakhir, of Ta'kar (which commands Janad), also 
the provinces of Janad (Ja'far), of 'Unnah and of 
al-Ma'afir were appropriated by a family, descended 
from Himyar, known as the Banu '1-Kurandi. They 
achieved distinction by generous and noble deeds, by 
their powerful rule and brilliant estate. The fortress 
of Habb, which is like unto at-Ta'kar, that which 
bears the name of 'Azzan, that of Beyt 'Izz, that 
of as-Sa'r (ash-Sha'ir),a great fortress, that of Niir 



The Ziyaditcs. 17 

(Anwar), an-Nakll, and as-Sahfil, the fortresses of 
Khadicl, and of ash-Sliawaki (Shawafi). All these 
were conquered by the Sultan Abu *Abd Allah al- 
Husayn ibn at-Tubba'y, and by his son. Sahul is 
the place in which the cloth known by the name of 
Sahuliyah is woven, of which two pieces were used 
as winding-sheets for the Apostle. The valley 
belono's to the Banu Asbah, a tribe to which the 
■ Jurist Mrdik al-Asbahi, Imam of the City of the 
Flio-ht, belon^ed.2'' Sultan Abu 'Abd Allah al- 
33 Husayn is he who contrived the stratagem whereby 
Sa'ld al-Ahwal, son of IS^ajah, who had killed the 
Amir 'Ali, son of IMuhammad the Sulayhite, was 
himself slain. The province of Uhazah (also called 
Wuhazah), of which the seat of government is 
the stronghold of Baybars (Yaris ?), was likewise 
appropriated. Among its other fortresses are 
Dahwan (Zahran), Yafuz, Sha'r (Sha'b?), and al- 
Khadra. Its chief city is Shahit. Nizar, son of 
the Jurist Zayd ibn al-Husayn al-Wuhazi, wrote 
the following lines on the Sultan of the country : — 

They tcld us the Sultan was at Shahit. — He ascends the mountains 

from the barren pLiins. 
I asked, Does the Sultfm occupy the highest point ? — Nay, they 

answered, he has gone down."^ 

The fortresses of Wuhazah were conquered by 
the Banu Wail, who are descendants of Dhu '1- 
Kala'. They are an ancient family of chieftains, 
but their people are a silly folk, who imagine them- 
selves to be absolutely the noblest race descended 
from Adam. I may mention that I was once on a 
hot summer's day travelling along the road from 
the market of Jabhab (Jabjab), the greatest market 
held in the district, when I was overtaken by two 
horsemen of the tribe, who were urging on their 
horses with their heels, and whose lances were held 
by the riders pointed in my direction. I alighted 
from the beast upon which I was mounted, and I 





1 8 ''Omarah. 

climbed up the side of the bill. The horsemen, on 
reaching me, said that the question who are the 
noblest descendants of Adam was in dispute be- 
tween them, and that they had agreed to abide by 
my decision. One of them maintained that the 
Banu Wii'il are absolutely superior to every other- 
race. The second contended that the Banu Wa il 
and Banu Kuraysh are equal in nobility. To rid 
myself of them I rephed that the Apostle (upon 
whom be blessings and peace) is the noblest of all 
mankind, and that the Banu Wa il exceed in nobility 
tbe tribe of Kuraysh. One of the two men answered : 
"By Allah, hadst thou spoken otherwise, thou 
hadst not escaped me ! " and thereupon _they left 
me. The Sultan As'ad ibn Wail ibn 'Isa, cele- 
brated for his generosity and the theme of exuberant 
praise, is a member of the tribe of Wa'il. 

The fortress of Ashyah, seat of the King and 
Da'y Saba, son of Ahmad the Sulayhite, and the 
fortress of Wusab and its territories, were con- 
quered by a family belonging to the tribe of Bakll,-^ 
1^ descended from Hamdfin. San'il and its depen- 
dencies were conquered by a Hamdanite family. 
That of 'Abd al- Wahid seized the provinces of 
Bura', al-'Amad, and Li'san. They possessed 
themselves also of the fortress of Masar, which has 
no equal in Yaman, with the exception only of at- 
Ta'kar, of Samadan, and Habb. It was at Masar, 
in Haraz, that as-Sulayhi first arose proclaiming 
the supremacy of the Fatimite Khalifah al-Mustan- 
sir. Haraz is the name of the district, and its 
inhabitants are designated after it. I'hey are 
closely allied with the tribe of Hamdan, and it was 
with their support that the Da'y 'Aly, son of 
Muhammad the Sulayhite, raised himself to power.^* 



The Sulay kites. 19 



The History of the Da'y *Alt, son op Muhammad 

THE SULAYHITE. ThENOE PROCEEDS THE MOST 
IMPORTANT PART OP THE HiSTORY OP YaMAN, AND 
THEREWITH THE SUBJECTS OP THE REMAINDER OP 
THIS BOOK, TOUCHING THE KaDIS, THE Da'YS, THE 
DISTINGUISHED MEN AND THE POETS OP THE COUN- 
TRY ARE CLOSELY CONNECTED. 

The Kadi Muhammad son of 'Aly, father of the 
Da'y 'Aly the Sulayhite, was a follower of the Sumii 
doctrines, and he exercised great influence over the 
men of Haraz, who were 40,000 in number. "When 
the office of Da'y was transferred to 'Amir ibn 'Abd 
Allah az-Zawahy (ar-Rawahy ?), so named after a 
village in the province of Haraz,^^ he applied himself 
to win the favour of the Kadi Muhammad ibn 'Aly, 
father of the Da'y 'Aly ibn Muhammad, the Sulayh- 
ite. Az-Zawahi was in the habit of riding to the 
dwelling-place of the Kadi, who was a man of 
authority, holding the dignity of a chief, and both 
virtuous and learned. He steadily persevered in 
his designs and finally won the affection of the 
Kadi's son *Aly, then below the age of puberty, in 
whom he had perceived signs of future greatness. 
It is said that 'Amir possessed a description of as- 
Sulayhi, contained in the Kiiah as-Suwar (Book of 
Delineations), one of the treasures of the ('Obaydite) 
Imams, upon whom be peace."*^ He made known to 
*Aly the revelations contained in the book touching 
the destinies reserved for him in the future, and the 
noble career he was to fulfil. He did this secretly, 
without the knowledge of the youth's father and 
family. Az-Zawahi ere long died, bequeathing to 
'Aly his writings and his learning. Before his death 

c 2 



20 ''OinaraJi. 

'Aly's mind had become deeply impressed by az- 
Zawalii's teaching. He was liip:!!!}^ intelligent, and 
applied himself to study. Ere lie had reached the 
age of manhood, he had become filled with know- 
15 ledge, by means of which and of good fortune, he 
attained the highest objects of his ambition. He 
was learned in the jurisprudence of the Imperial 
sect, and versed in the science of (mystical) interpre- 
tation (of the KurTm). He began his career as 
leader of the pilgrims, for several years, by way of 
as-Sarat * and la'if. He alone led the pilgrimage 
during that time, and in his early years his condi- 
tion gradually rose from lowliness to exaltation, 
from poverty to wealth. Illustrations thereof were 
related to me by the Jurist Abu '1-Husayn 'Aly ibn 
Suleyman. He was a man of advanced age, a poet, 
author of the following lines referring to 'Omar ibn 
'Adnan the 'Akkite : — 

Though my night watchings be attended with forebodings of evil — 
(yet I know that) Ibn 'Adnjin will be unto me a protector 
from oppression. t 

Similar circumstances were related to me also by 
az-Zibrikan ibn al-Fuwaykar (Ghuwayfar ?), the 
*Akkite, on the authority of a certain poet. He 
was the author of the following lines, part of an ode 
in which be satirized his own people : — • 



Who will buy the 'Akkites at the cost of a copper %• 
behold I will sell them all, absolutely, and without the option of 
cancelling the bargain. 

- Both these men and other persons have repeated 
to me an anecdote related by the Kadi 'Omar ibn al- 
Murajjal, who bore the surname of \he Hanafile and 
belonged to that school of religion, and who was a 
distinguished scholar. He said that near the gate 

* For the words Sarat and Sarawat, see infra (Geographical 
Index). 

t The accuracy of these lines, as they stand in the MS., is, I 
think, very doubtful. 



TJie Sttlay kites. 2 r 

of Zablcl, witliin tlie walls, there was the house of 
an Abyssinian of the name of Faraj as-Sahrati (the 
Sahrite) a man of benevolence and of exceeding 
charity. Whoever entered his mosque he welcomed 
and entertained. His thoughts were occupied with 
his guests, and he was in the habit of entering the 
mosque and of making private inquiries respecting 
them, without the knowledge of his agents and 
servants. He went forth one nio^ht and found in 
the mosque a person occupied in reading the Kur'an. 
He questioned him touching his evening meal, and 
the man in reply recited the following lines of al- 
Mutanabbi : — 

Who liath taught the mutilated negro the performance of generous 

deeds % — 
His noble-minded masters or his enslaved forefathers % ^^ 

The Abyssinian took the man with him. He led 
him to the chief room of his house, and treated him 
with the most liberal hospitality. He asked his 
guest the reason of his journey to Tihiimah. As- 
Sulayhi replied that he had a paternal (read 
maternal) uncle named Shihab, whose daughter 
Asma had few equals in beauty, and was unmatched 
6 in literary culture and intelligence. He had asked 
her in marriage, and had been met with a demand 
for dowry exceeding in its amount the bounds of 
moderation, her mother urQ:in2: that she should be 

* CD tj 

married to none other but to one of the Hamdanite 
Kings of San'a, or to one of the kings of the family 
of the Banu Kurandi in Mikhlaf Ja'far. They, in 
short, exacted a sum which it was wholly beyond 
his power to command. He was now, he added, on 
his way either to the Banu Ma'n at Aden, or to the 
Banu Kurandi in the district of al-Ma'ahr. The 
Kaid Faraj as-Sahrati, continued the narrator, 
supplied him with a large sum of money, double the 
amount that as-Sulayhi actually paid. The bride 



2 2 ''Omar ah. 

and bridegroom were equipped on a scale sucli as 
kings strive to provide when allying themselves 
with women of the most noble lineage. As-Sulayhi 
returned, by direction of the Abyssinian, to his 
uncle and married Asma. She was the mother of 
the king al-Mukarram, husband of the Lady, the 
Queen Sayyidah (the Lady Arwa ?), daughter of 
Ahmad the Sulayhite. Asma was of a generous 
and noble disposition, liberal in the rewards she 
bestowed upon poets, and in the large sums she 
p-ranted in furtherance of the service of God, of 
acts of benevolence, and of other good deeds. The 
renown of her splendid virtues extended to her 
children, her brothers, and her kindred. Her 
husband's poet, named As'ad ibn Yahya al-Hay- 
thami, spoke of her in the following terms, in au 
ode which commences with the words : " She of tlie 
white hands hath bestowed gifts : " 

She hath impressed upon beneficence the stamp of generosity — Of 
meanness she allows no trace to appear. 

I say when people magnify the throne of ]iilkis — Asma hath ob- 
scured the name of the loftiest among the stars.^ 

Among other anecdotes of the Da'y 'Aly as- 
Sulayhi is that related to me by Ahmad ibn Husayn 
al-Amaw}^, surnamed ibn as-Sahali (as-Sabkhah ?). 
He held it from his father, who had been told the 
story by my informant's grandfather. He dwelt, 
he said, in the city of Hays, distant a night's jour- 
ney from Zabid. As-Sulayhi, on conquering Zabid, 
rode to the Court of the Kadi, and delivered to him 
a judicial deposition he had sworn in tlie daj^s of his 
youth. Then, after some private conversation with 
the Kadi, he took his leave. After the Amir's de- 
parture, the Kadi repeated what had been told him 
by the Prince. He had on one occasion, he related, 
come to the city of Hays for the purpose of gaining 
17 intelligence touching the two slaves of Marjan, 
Nafis, and Najah. He was met by a person who 



The Sulayhites. 2 



knew him, whereupon he changed his garb, and 
assumed the dress of an oil-presser, a seller of oil 
at one of the oil-mills of Hays. The statement of 
evidence referred to, he took to the house of a man 
of the name of as-Sabkhah. After he attained 
supreme power, an aged woman came to him with 
the paper in his handwriting. He immediately 
recognized it, and could allow himself no rest until 
he had fulfilled his obligation. His deposition, he 
said, was in precise accordance with what he had 
written at the time he undertook the duty. 'Aly 
ibn Muhammad, Kadi of Haraz, bore witness to the 
truth of this anecdote, and he committed it to writing 
with his own hand, that under the will of God Most 
High, it might be borne in remembrance. 

Another anecdote of as-Sulayhi, relating to the 
commencement of his career, was told me by the 
Sultan Nasir, son of MansCir the Wailite, who held 
it from his grandfather 'Isa ibn Yazid. 'Aly, son 
of Muhammad the Sulayhite, was, he said, leader of 
the pilgrimage by the road of the Sarawat for 
fifteen (years). The people were in the habit of 
telling him, when he jSrst rose to eminence, that 
according to what had come to their knowledge, he 
was destined to reign over the whole of Yaman, to 
earn a great name, and to be the founder of a 
dynasty. As-Sulayhi censured and disavowed what 
was thus said to him, though it was a thing that 
had spread far and wide among the people, and was 
on the lips of all, both high and low. 

In the year 429, as-Sulayhi raised his standard on 
the summit of Masar, the highest peak of the moun- 
tains of Haraz. He was then at the head of sixty 
men, from whom he had received an oath of fidelity 
at Mecca in a.h. 428, during the celebration of the 
pilgrimage ceremonies of the month of Dhu '1-Hijjali, 
They had sworn to stand by him unto death, in 
support of his work as Da'y for the establishment 



24 ''Oinarah, 

of the Ismailite doctriues. Every oue of his com- 
panions was a member of his family, and of his 
tribe, which comprised numerous and distinguished 
men. No building existed on the summit of the 
mountain. It was a peak, forming a defensive 
position of great natural strength. Before noon of 
the day followmg the night on which as-Sulayhi 
seized upon the spot, he was suiTOunded and 
besieged by 20,000 swordsmen, who reviled and 
insulted him. '*Come down," they said, "or we 
will cause you and all that are with you to perish 
by famine." He told them in reply that all he had 
done was occasioned by his apprehensions for their 
own safet}^, as well as for the protection of himself 
and of his companions. If, he added, they would 
leave him, he Avould guard the place. If not, he 
would come down to them. Thereupon they de- 
parted. 

Before the expiration of many months, he had 
erected buildings on the mountain and had strongly 
fortified the place. He remained at Masar, gradu- 
ally increasing in power, from the year 429, the 
commencement of his career, concealing his purpose, 
that of winning adherents to the Ismailite supremacy. 
IS He lived in dread of Najah, the Prince of Tihamah, 
but sought to win his favour, assuming a humble 
demeanour, but never desisting in his efforts against 
him, until he succeeded in brinmnor about the death 
of JNajrdi by poison, with the help of a beautiful 
female slave whom he sent as a present to his 
rival. Najah died at al-Kadra in the year 452. 

As-Sulayhi wrote to the Imam al-Mustansir (at 
Cairo),^^ asking permission to make open proclama- 
tion of the Ismailite doctrines and supremacy. He 
received an answer granting his prayer. He rapidly 
overran the country and conquered both the (moun- 
tain) fortresses and the low country. Before the 
end of the year 455, he had subjected the whole of 



The Sulay kites. 25 

Yaman to liis authority. None of its plains or of 
its hills, of its lands or of its waters remained 
unsubdued. No parallel case can be found of so 
rapid a conquest, either in the days of ignorance or 
in the days of Ishlm. On a certain occasion when 
delivering the Khutbah (sermon) at al-Janad, he 
declared that on the day corresponding with that 
on which he spoke, he would, under the will of God, 
preach from the pulpit of Aden. A man exclaimed 
derisively, " holy one, worthy of praise ! " As- 
Sulayhi ordered the man to be arrested, and on the 
day he had indicated, he preached the Khutbah 
from the pulpit of Aden. The same man thereupon 
exclaimed, " twice worthy of praise, twice 
holy ! " and forthwith took the oath of allegiance 
and joined the Imperial sect. 

From the j^ear 455, the residence of as-Sulaylii 
was established at San'a. He brouofht thither the 
Yamanite kings whom he had deprived of their 
thrones, giving them places of abode near himself, 
and appointing governors over the strongholds 
they had formerly possessed. He built several 
palaces at San'a. I was told by one of the citizens, 
Muhammad ibn Bisharah, in a.h. 535, wlien he 
stated himself to be nigh unto eighty years of age, 
that all the palaces of as-Sulayhi were in ruins, 
and, he added, all who have built houses at San'a, 
from that time down to the present, have made use 
of materials taken from as-Sulayhi's palaces. 
Neither the brick nor the stone nor the timber have 
j)erished. 

As to Zabid and its dependencies in Tihamah, 
as-Sulayhi had sworn that he would appoint as 
governor only such as would pay him a sum of one 
hundred (thousand) dinars. Afterwards he repented 
of his oath and he desired to appoint his brother-in- 
law As'ad ibn Shihab, brother of his wife Asma, 
daughter of Shihab. She weighed out the money 



26 ^ Omar ah. 

to liim on belialf of her brother. *' Mj lady," he 
said, " whence hast thou ohtalned this?'^ '* It is the 
gift of God,'^ she answered. " Verily^ God hestoweth 
His bounty upon ichovi He u'ilhth, and taheth no 
account thereof. ^^ * As-Sulayhi smiled and under- 
stood that the money came from his own treasury. 
He received it saying : " This is our iwoperty which 
hath come hack unto us.'^ f To which Asmfi quickly 
added (in the remaining words of the verse), " And 
we loill provide for our kinsfolk and care for our 
hrother.^^ 

As'ad ibn Shihab entered Zabld in 456, and 
distinguished himself by his just treatment of his 
subjects. He protected the Sunnis in the public 
exercise of their religion. He established his resi- 
dence in the palace of Shahar. This is a building 
against w^hich the assaults of Ruin are made in vain, 
and which Decay, the most powerful of kings, is 
unable to subdue. It was erected by Shahar, son 
of Ja'far, the ruler of ]\Iiklilrif Ja'far. 

I was one day reposing," said As'ad ibn Shihab, 

and, as I lay extended on my back, I reflected 
over my affairs. Behold, I said to myself, as- 
Sulayhi is a man held in the highest honour, who 
has appointed me ruler over Zabid, and regards me 
as equal to Sultan As'ad ibn 'Arraf, to 'Amir ibn 
Suleymiin az-Zawahi, and to such and such other 
kings. My Lady Asma has overwhelmed me with 
kindness, and whenever I measure my deserts by 
the increasing flow of her favours, I perceive how 
unworthy I am of her benevolence. On the other 
hand, I am wholly averse to laying my hands 
tyrannically and extortionately upon my subjects and 
subordinates. Whilst occupied with these thoughts 
I fell asleep. I was awakened by dust that fell and 
sprinkled my face, and which was charged with 

* Kur'an, S. Hi. v. 32. 
f Kur'an, S. xii. v. 65. 



(C 



The Sitlayhites. 27 

gold. I mounted upon tlie roof, and on examining 
it and the ceiling I found chests containing gold and 
silver and treasure exceeding in value three hundred 
thousand dinars. I first set apart one third of the 
amount and expended it in works of charity. The 
second third I sent to the Lady Asma, in discharge 
of my obligations to her. With the remainder I 
acquired unto myself goods and property, and I 
vowed unto God Most High that I would not 
oppress any of his creatures. I continued ruler of 
the province for fifteen years, and no arbitrary act 
during that period is, within my knowledge, charge- 
able upon my conscience." 

Continuing his narrative, As'ad ibn Shihab stated 
that as-Siilayhi appointed three men to assist him 
in the administration of the country, who, in the 
performance of their duties, obeyed his wishes by 
entirely abstaining from all unlawful interference 
with the property of the people. One of them was 
Ahmad ibn Salim, who had the superintendence of 
affairs from "Wadi Harad to near Aden. He relieved 
As'ad of the cares proceeding from the contentions 
of local officials, and of the task of levying the 
imposts. 

No sums were exacted from him excepting on 
distinct accounts, or in accordance with payments 
actually received. The second was the Kadi Abu 
Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Abi *Akamah, a descen- 
dant of Muhammad ibn Harim the Taghlibite, 
whom the Khahfah al-Ma'mun appointed as Chief 
Judge over Yaman in conjunction with Ibn Ziyad, 
He was As'ad's deputy in administering the sacred 
law, and in the execution of his duties, he displayed 
sound judgment and effectually protected the people 
from wrong.* The third was Abu'l-Hasan 'Aly ibn 

* The above doubtless conveys the general sense intended by 
the writer, but I am not able to translate the passage, as it stands 
in our text, witliout considerable hesitation. 



28 ''Omar ah. 

Muliammad al-Knmm, father of Husayn ibn 'Aly 
ibn Muhammad al-Kumm, the poet, and one of the 
most distinguished of men for generosity, for his 
fitness to command, and for his business abihties. 
He was, moreover, a distinguished poet, and it was 
he who wrote in a short piece the following line 
touching his brother, whom he reproached for the 
exaggerated affection he displayed towards his son 
Husayn : — 

Beliold him ever watching — his sons. Truly all men arc not 
manly. 

Abu '1-Hasan 'Aly, it Avas stated by As'ad ibn 
Shihab, was placed with him as wazlr and private 
secretary by his master, the Da'y 'Aly ibn Muham- 
mad as-Sulayhi. The Prince and the Lady Asma 
gave him strict orders to decide nothing without 
first consulting 'Aly ibn al-Kumm. " 1 used to 
send him each year," said Ibn Shihab, " as my dele- 
gate to San'a, accompanied by Ahmad ibn Salim, 
governor of Tihamah. I levied every year from 
Tihamah, in money alone, a sum of one million of 
dinars, and my two friends invariably returned to 
me with presents from my master and mistress, 
amounting to fifty thousand dinars, which I divided 
with my followers." 

Among other events in the life of the Amir 'Aly 
ibn Muhammad as-Sulayhi, it is related, that in the 
year 460, he received intelligence that Ibn Tart' had 
been joined by the Kings of Abyssinia and by a 
21 mixed multitude of Africans. As-Sulavhi marched 
against them at the head of two thousand seven hun- 
dred horsemen. The tw^o armies met at az-Zara'ib, 
in the dominion of Ibn larf, the place in which I was 
born and which my family inhabits to the present day. 
The Arabs on the first day suffered severe losses. 
Then, however. Fortune turned against the Blacks, 
and their force was reduced to one thousand men, 






The Sulay kites. 29 

"whom my grandfather, Ahmad ibn Muhammad, re- 
ceived in his castle at 'Ukwah. Al-^TJkwaiani (the 
two 'Ukwahs) are two mountains of great natural 
strength, which no one would willingly attack. 
They are the places mentioned by the leader of the 
Caravan of pilgrims, when he says, addressing his 
eyes inflamed with want of sleep, — 

When ye behold the two mountains of 'Akad, 
And when the two 'Ukwas rise before you, 
Eejoice, weary eyes, at the prospect of rest. 

The two mountains of *Akad look down upon the 
city of az-Zara'ib, and their inhabitants have pre- 
served the Arabic language in its purity from pre- 
islamitic days down to the present. Their speech 
has been preserved from corruption, through their 
refraining from intermarriage, or association with 
townspeople. They are a sedentary people, who do 
not wander or quit their homes. ^'^ 

I may mention that in the year 530, being then 
under twenty years of age, I came to Zabid for the 
purpose of studying jurisprudence. The Professors 
of all the Colleges were much surprised to find that 
I never committed a solecism in speaking. " I take 
oath by God Most High," said the Jurist Nasr Allah 
ibn Salim, " that this youth has made a deep study 
of grammar." After a considerable lapse of time, 
friendship having been established between us, lie 
used, whenever we met, to exclaim : *' Welcome he 
on whose account I have forsworn myself." When 
my father visited me at Zabid, along with seven of 
my brethren, I arranged a meeting between them 
and the Jurists. They conversed together and by 
Allah, with one exception, no solecism was com- 
mitted by my friends, whilst the author of that 
single inaccuracy of language was immediately 
reproved by his companions. 

Bat let us return to the history of the Da'y 'Aly 



30 ''Omar ah. 



ibn Muhammad the Sulayhite. I myself have seen 
the bones and horses hoofs, that are uncovered on 
the battle-field, and exposed to view whenever a 
22 violent wind blows. After visiting Zabid, as- 
Sulajhi returned to San'a (may God ^uard it), and 
he remained there for twelve years without moving 
from the city. 

Among other passages in the history of Yaman is 
the story of the slaughter of the Da'y 'Aly the 
Sulayhite, an event which occurred on the twelfth 
of the month of Dhu '1-Ka'dah of the year 473, or 
as it is also said of the year 459, and the latter is 
the correct version.^^ The Amir, the Glorious Da'3% 
the Triumphant in the wars for the Faith, the 
Friend of the Prince of the Faithful, 'Aly, son of 
Muhammad the Sulayhite, had appointed as gover- 
nors over the fortresses and highlands persons whom 
he could trust. Having determined upon going to 
Mecca (may God Most High guard it), he resolved 
to take with him tlie kings (to whom he had given 
places of abode at San'a), and also tlie Lady Asmfi, 
daughter of Shihab, and mother of the king al- 
Mukarram. He made the latter governor of San'a, 
and appointed him his deputy. He set forth at 
the head of two thousand horsemen, of whom one 
hundred and sixty were members of the Sulayhi 
tribe. On reaching al-Mahjam he halted on a 
cultivated tract, near the outskirts of the city, 
known under the name of Umra ad-Duhaym, and 
also under that of Bir (Well of) Umm Ma'bad. He 
encamped his soldiers, and placed around his own 
tent the Princes, among whom were Ma'n (read 
Aly ?) ibn Ma'n, Ibn al-Kurandy, Ibn at-Tubba'y, 
Wail ibn 'Isa al-Wuhazy, and others, all of whom 
he had brought with him for fear of their raising a 
revolt against him during his absence. Suddenly 
and without warning the news spread among his 
people, who were occupying themselves with their 



The Sidayhiies, 31 

personal affairs, scattered and divided into separate 
parties, that the Amir *Aly and his brother *Abd 
Allah ibn Muhammad the Sulayhite had both been 
beheaded. The troops were surrounded, and not 
a man escaped. Power passed into the hands of 
Sa'id, son of Najah al-i\.hwal, who caused the men 
to be massacred by his spearmen. He spared Wa'il 
ibn 'Isa al-Wuhazy, Ibn Ma'n, and Ibn al-Kurandy, 
but he slew the others, and captured Asma, daughter 
of Shihab and mother of the king al-Mukarram. 
Sa'Id then started from al-Mahjam on his way back 
3 to Zabid, with the two heads borne in front of the 
Princess's litter. On his arrival at Zabid he raised 
them on high, opposite the casement of a house he 
assigned for her residence. And Asma remained a 
full year the captive of Sa'Id ibn Najah. 



How THE King al-Mukarram Ahmad, son of 'Alt, 

SON OF MURAMMAD AS-SCTLAYHI, SuPREME CfllEP 

OP THE Arabs, Sultan under the Prjnce of 
THE Faithful, proceeded from San'a to Zabid 
to release his mother asma, daughter op 
Shihab, from her captivitz. 

It is related that all attempts to transmit a letter 
from Asma to al-Mukarram, or from him to his 
mother, having failed, the Princess herself devised 
an artifice whereby the object was accomplished. 
She hid a letter in a cake of bread, and contrived 
means by which it was given to a mendicant. The 
latter transmitted the letter to al-Mukarram, who 
received it in the month of Shawwal of the year 
475. The Princess wrote to her son as follows : 
. " I am great with child by the squint-eyed slave 



32 ■ ^Omarah, 

(al-Aliwal).''^ See that thou come unto me before my 
delivery. If not, everlasting disgrace will ensue." 

Al-Mukarram, on reading the letter, assembled 
his friends and showed it them. They burst into 
lamentations, but soon became eager to vindicate 
the honour of their tribe. Al-Mukarram marched 
from San'a at the head of a body of three thousand 
horsemen, whom he had sworn to fidelity, whoso 
assistance he claimed, and whose spirit he stimulated 
by his addresses. He was an eloquent speaker and 
a brave warrior, widely known for his resolute 
character as well as for his bravery. No one in his 
day was his equal in strength and stature, or able 
to wield his arms, his lance, his sword, and his bow. 
At each halting-place he exhorted the people, saying 
that whosoever cared only for the preservation of 
his hfe should not be one of them. Sixteen hundred 
horsemen * from among his allies steadfastly adhered 
to him, and fourteen hundred drew back. 

I have been told by the Sheykh and Jurist al- 
Mukri (the Kur'an teacher) Suleyman son of Ya-SIn 
that the following anecdote was related to him by 
the pious Sheykh Muhammad son of 'Ulayyah. " I 
was on a certain Friday," said Sheykh Muhammad, 
** at near the hour of daybreak, in the mosque of 
Turaybah. The country people had taken refuge 
24 in the city of Zabid out of fear of the Arabs. I 
was engaged in a recitation of the entire Kur'an, 
and had reached the chapter commencing with the 
words. By the Heavens containing the mansions of 
the stars.f I had no other occupation and the 
mosque in which I sat, stood on a desolate spot. I 
was suddenly startled by the arrival of a horseman, 
whom I could not distinctly see on account of the 
still lingering darkness. He deposited his lance on 
the ground, with its point resting against the wall 

* Or, according to Janacli, three thousand, 
f Kur'an, S. Ixxxv. 



The Snlay/nfcs. 2,2> 

of tbe western aisle, in which I was seated. Then 
he dismounted, and a person approached me, than 
whom I have seen none among the sons of Adam of 
more perfect form, or of more noble appearance, 
a man of kingly aspect. Standing up at my side 
he performed his morning devotions. The early 
light soon began to shine, and I perceived that the 
stem of his lance was a Kulamite cane (or bamboo), 
an equal to wbich could not be met with.* His 
horse resembled (in its powerful appearance) a 
beast of burden. He desired me to finish the 
section of the Kur'an upon which I was engaged. 
I obeyed and he listened to my chanting. He then 
desired me to pray. I did so, and to each of my 
petitions he responded with ejaculations of Amen. 
The sun now rose, and horsemen began to issue 
forth in detachments and troops from the hollows 
of the plain. Each party as it came forward saluted 
the Chief and then stood still. The words they 
used were, ' God grant a day of bounteous grace 
unto our Lord, and perjpetuate his renown ! ' In 
his reply he confined himself to the words, ' Wel- 
come, ye Arab nobles ! ' On their number being 
complete, certain persons came forth unto him at 
the mosque. The only one known to me was As'ad 
ibn Shihab, with whom I was acquainted, seeing 
that he had been governor over us citizens of Zabid. 
I inquired of him who were these persons. * That 
man,' he answered, ' is al-Mukarram, al-Malik as- 
Sa'ld (the auspicious king) Ahmad ibn 'Alj^, the 
Sulayhite, that is al-Karam f the Yamite, and that is 
*Amir az-Zawahi, the most generous Arab that ever 
bestrode a horse.' The men called upon a fourth 
to come forward, but he declined. He was the 

* Kulami I take to signify imported from Kulam, now known 
as Quilon, on the Malabar coast. See Ibn KhonJadlthali, ed. de 
Goeje, p. 62, also Yule's Marco Polo, ii. p. 312, note. 

f 'Abbas son of al-Karam 1 

D 



34 



'Omarak. 



paternal uncle of As'ad ibn Shihab and of tlie Lady 
Asma, and not inferior to the other four in nobility 
of race or in personal merit. Then al-Mukarrara^ 
arose and addressed them, speaking so that he 
could be clearly heard. The following passage ofj 
his speech has remained in my memory : — 

' ye believers, if the undertaking upon which ye have^ 
entered were but newly resolved upon, I would of a certainty 
25 seek to sharpen your determination. But I will not now add to 
what ye heard from me yesterday, and to what I have said before 
yesterday. The words I have spoken are sufficient. I offered 
you the option of returning when the distance ye had travelled stillj 
permitted you to draw back. But now the choice is with your^ 
enemy. Ye have penetrated into his country as into a lion's den, 
and your only alternatives are to encounter death or to suffer | 
dishonour by unavailing flight.' " 

He then recited the words of Abu 't-Tayyib al- 
Mutanabbi, as follows : — 

" Grasping my death-dealing sword, I will go down among my 

foes, — 
A field Avhence only they return who deal effectual blows." * 

The Abyssiniaus had assembled to the number of | 
twenty thousand foot. Tlie right wing of the Arabi 
force was under the command of As'ad ibn Sliihab,, 
and the left under that of his uncle. " Ye are not,"' 
said al-Mukarram, "like unto the other members 
of this army. Ye have personal wrongs to avenge, 
for our lady is sister to one of you and niece to the| 
other." ^1-Mukarram himself took command ofl 
the centre. The two armies entered into action. 
The centre of the Abyssinians fought strenuously! 
for a time, but the two wings closed upon them. 
The Abyssinians were defeated, and immense num- 
bers were slain. Sa'id ibn N"ajah and those] 
surrounding him fled from the field and took refuge 
in Dahlak and its neiorhbourincr islands. The 
slaughter of the Abyssinians, near the gate of the] 

* See Dieterici's Mutanahhi, p. 463. 



The Stday kites. 35 

city, ceased not until the hour of midday prayer. 
The first warrior to reach the spot where the two 
heads were set up, and to stand below the casement 
of Asmii, daughter of Shihab, was her son, al- 
Mukarram Ahmad. He said unto her, and she did 
not recognize him, " May Grod safeguard and per- 
petuate thy renown, our lady." " Welcome," 
she replied, " noble Arab ! " Ai-Mukarram's 
two companions saluted her in the same words as 
his. She asked him who he was, to which he 
answered that his name was Ahmad, son of 'Aly 
son of Muhammad. " Verily the name Ahmad sou 
of 'Aly," she answered, "is borne by many Arabs. 
Uncover thy face that I may know thee." He 
raised his helmet, whereupon she exclaimed, " Wel- 
come, our Lord al-Mukarram ! " 

At that moment he was struck by the wind, a 
shudder passed over him, and his face was con- 
tracted by a spasm. He lived many years 
thereafter, but continued subject to involuntary 
movements of the head and spasms in his face. 
She then asked who were his two companions, and 
he named them. Upon one she conferred a grant 
of the revenues of Aden for that year, amounting 
to one hundred thousand dinars. To the other she 
gave the two fortresses of Kaukaban and Hauban (?), 
together with their territories, the assessments upon 
which are not inferior to the revenues of Aden. 

Then the army entered by detachments, whilst 
she stood at the casement with her face uncovered. 
Such had been her custom in the days of her hus- 
band, a sign of her exalted rank over the men from 
whom other women are secluded. Al-Mukarram 
ordered the two heads to be taken down, and he 
erected over them a mausoleum, which I have 
known as the Mausoleum of the Two Heads 
[MasJthacl ar-Ua'sayii). It is said that when al- 
Mukarram uncovered his face Asma exclaimed : 

D 2 



I 



36 ^ Omar ah. 

** He whose coming is like unto tliy coming hatli 
not tarried, neither hath he erred." 

The statement in her letter, that she was with 
child by the slave Sa'id, son of Najah, was not 
actually true, but she thought thereby to excite' 
and stimulate her son to the vindication of his 
honour. Al-Mukarram's heralds now proclaimed 
his orders to unsheathe the sword against the 
people of the captured city. But he warned the: 
army that the Arabs of Tihamah beget cliildren 
by black concubines, and that a black skin was 
common to both slave and free. " But if ye hear 
a person pronounce the word azra, azm (as if ifc 
were written with the letter z), know that he is an 
Abyssinian and slay him. If he pronounce it azm 
(with the letter z), he is an Arab, and ye shall spare 
him." 

He appointed his maternal uncle, Ahmad (As'ad? 
see below) ibn Shiliab, to be ruler over Tihamah as 
before, and he then departed for SanTi, serene in 
mind after his victory, and accompanied by Asma,t 
daughter of Shihab. A saying became common: 
among the people of Zabid which has been pre 
served down to my own time. If a man of the! 
lower classes revile one of his neighbours, and if hej 
be reproached for his evil language towards the 
man, he will answer : " By Allah ! the man who' 
took his mother from Zabid, and who slew on her 
account twenty thousand Abyssinians, by my life ! 
he was truly a man ! " "^^ 

Al-Mukarram having appointed his maternal 
uncle As'ad ibn Shihab to the rulership over Zabid 
and its dependencies, (joined with him ?) on that 
occasion Ahmad ibn Srdim. As'ad sent him to 
San'a in charge of the tribute of the province of 
Tihamah. Asma distributed the greater part 
among the Arab envoys. Ahmad ibn Salim there- 
upon began to tear his beard, saying : — " I have 



The Sulay kites. 37 

passed through fire for the sake of this money, and 
see now what has been done with it ! " "If money 
7 be not spent upon those who are deserving of it," 
answered Asma, " then it is but vanity and un- 
profitableness." 

But she wrote to her brother As*ad ibn Shihab 
desiring him to pay twenty thousand dinars to 
Ahmad ibn SaUm out of the current year's revenue, 
as a present and mark of good-wilL 

IVot long after, Asma, daughter of Shihab, died, 
at San'a, in the year 497.* That same year al- 
Mukarram ordered the MaliJci dinars to be struck. 
They are so named after him, and they are the 
dinars of Yaman. The inscription they bear is 
the following : The King and Lord al-Mukarram, 
Sufreme Chief of the Arabs, Sultan under the Prince 
of the Faithfnl. They continued to be struck ac- 
cording to tliat desis^n until the present day (that is 
to say), until the Da'y 'Imran ibn Muhammad ibn 
Saba the Zuray'ite made the inscription as follows : 
The Un^Kiragoned among the Kings of the age, King 
of the Arabs and of Yaman, "Imran, son of Muham- 
mad.^^ 

In that same year the Banu Najah returned. 
They drove Ahmad (read As'ad ?) ibn Siiihab out of 
Zabid, and made themselves masters of the city. 
But they were themselves again expelled by al- 
Mukarram ibn 'Aly, and Sa'id al-Ahwal, son of 
Najah, was killed under the walls of the fortress of 
ash-Sha'ir, the result of a stratagem effected by the 
Sultan Abu 'Abd Allah at-Tubba'i, the particulars 
of which will be recounted in the history of the 
Honourable Lady the Queen Sayyidah, daughter of 
Ahmad. The death of Sa'id al-Ahwal took place 
in the year 481. That same year Jayyash, son of 
Najah, together with the wazir Khalf ibn Abi Tahir 
the Omayyad, escaped in disguise to Aden, and 
* Read 479, as in al-Jauadi and Dajba'. 



38 'Omar ah, 

travelled tlience to India. There tliey remained for 
six months, and then returned to Zabld, which they 
conquered before the expiration of the year. At 
that period As'ad ibn 'Arraf was named ruler of 
Zabld, and 'Aly ibn al-Kumm, son (read father) of 
al-Husayn ibn *Aly ibn al-Kumm the poet, was 
appointed his wazir and private secretary, in ac- 
cordance with the precedent of his former appoint- 
ment under As'ad ibn Shihab. There are persons 
^^ who nffirm that 'Aly, son (read father) of Husayn, 
son of 'Aly ibn al-Kumra, ruled over Zabld, under 
As'ad ibn vShihab, before the appointment of As'ad 
ibn ' Arraf. ^^ 



TfiE History of the Honourable Lady the Queen 
Sayiddah, Daughter of Ahmad. 

Her name was Sayyidah, daughter of Ahmad, son 
of Ja'far, son of Musa tlie Sulayhite, and her mother 
was ar-Kadrd.i, daughter of al-Fari', son of Miisa. 
Ar-Radah was left a Avidow by the death of her 
husband Ahmad, father of the Lady Sayiddah, and 
she then married 'Amir, son of Suleyman, son of 
'Amir, son of 'Abd Allah az-Zawrdii, to whom she 
bore Suleyman, son of 'Amir, son of 'Abd Allah the 
Zawahite. The latter was therefore half brother 
to the Lady Sayyidah. By her authority he was 
appointed Da'y of the Hashimites,* but he was 
assassinated by the Amir al-Mufaddal, son of Abu '1- 
Barakat, son of Abu '1-Walid, who caused poison 
to be administered to him. May God have mercy 
upon him ! 

The Lady Sayyidah was born in the year 440 
(read 444), and Asma, daughter of Shihab, superin- 
tended her education. It is related that she one 
* Read Fatimites. See infra (chapter on the Da'ys of Yaman). 



The Sulayhites. 39 

day told Asma that she had dreamt she held in her 
hand a broom with which she swept the king's 
palace. " It is as though I had shared thy vision," 
exclaimed Asma. " By Allah ! fair-complexioned, 
thou shalt sweep away the dynasty of the Sulayhites 
and thou shalt appropriate their kingdom." 

In her personal appearance, Sayyidah was of fair 
complexion tinged with red, tall, well proportioned, 
but inclined to stoutness, perfect in beauty, of a 
clear-sounding voice, well read and a skilful writer, 
her memory stored with history, with poetry and 
with the chronology of past times. Nothing could 
surpass the interlinear glosses, upon both verbal 
construction and interpretation, inserted in her 
handwriting on the pages of books. Al-Mukarram 
married her during the lifetime of his father 'Aly 
son of Muhammad the Sulayhite, in the year 461. 
She bore him four children, Muhammad, 'Aly, 
IVitimah, and Umm Hamdan. Muhammad and 
'Aly died in childhood at San'a. Umm Hamdan 
was married to Sultan Ahmad ibn Suleyman the 
Zawahite, son of her maternal uncle, to whom she 
bore a son 'Abd al-Musta'la. Fatimah, daughter 
of the Lady Sayyidah and of al-Mukarram, married 
Shams al-Ma'ali 'Aly, son of the Da'y Saba, son 
of Ahmad (the Sulayhite). Umm Hamdan died in 
516 (or 510 ?). As for Fatimah, her death occurred 
two years after that of her mother, namely in 
A.H. 53-1. I have heard more than one aged man 
amonof the natives of Dliu Jiblah affirm that as- 
Sulayhi treated Sayyidah, in her earliest years, 
with a degree of deference he showed to no other 
person. " Show her respect," he used to say to 
Asma, for, by Allah, she will be the preserver of 
our race and the guardian of our crown unto 
whoso endureth of our dynasty." Much more, my 
informants added, was heard from him to the same 
effect and in different places. 



40 *0ma7^ah. 

The circumstances that led to al-Mnkarrara's 
removal from San'a to the city of Dha Jiblah were 
the following. Upon the death of his mother Asma, 
daughter of Shibab, he made over the superinten- 
dence of affairs to his wife, Queen Sayyidah, 
daughter of Ahmad. He, on his part, gave himself 
up to the pleasures of music and wine. The queen 
remained alone in charge of the affairs of the kinp-- 
dom. It is said she begged to be accorded li'er 
personal freedom, and liberty to attend to the task 
on which she was engaged, saying that a woman who 
was desired for the marriage-bed, could not be fit 
for the business of the state, but he would not 
consent. 

After a time she departed from San'a at the head 
of a large army, and she went forth to behold Dhu 
Jiblah. Jiblah was the name of a Jew who sold 
pottery on the spot where the first royal palace was 
afterwards built, and the city was named after 
him.^'^ Its founder was 'Abd Allah, son of Muham- 
mad the Sulayhite, who was killed at al-Malijam by 
Sa'id al-Ahwal, together with his brother the Amir 
and Da'y 'Aly. The latter had appointed him 
governor of the fortress of Ta'kar, a stronghold 
which looks down upon Dhu Jiblah. That city 
stands below the fortress, between two streams 
flowing with water both in summer and in winter. 
It was founded by 'Abd Allah, son of Muhammad, 
in the year 458. 

The people of Mikhlaf Ja'far gathered together 
around Sajaddah's stirrup, acknowledging her 
30 authority. On her return' to San'a she said to 
al-Mukarram : "My lord, send notice to the people 
of San'a to assemble to-morrow and to come unto 
this plain." On their assembling she told him to 
cast down his eyes upon the people and to look at 
what he should see. He did so, and nought met 
his eyes but the lightning-flashes of drawn'' swords 



The Sulay kites. 41 

and of lance-blades. On going to Dhu Jiblah she 
desired al-Mukarram to assemble its people and 
those of the neighbourhood. They gathered to- 
gether on the morning of the following day, where- 
upon she said : " Look down, my lord, and behold 
these people." He did so, and his eyes fell upon 
men leading rams or carrying vessels filled with ghee 
or with honey. "Life among these (industrious) 
people," she said to al-Mukarram, "is to be pre- 
ferred." The Amir a]-Mukarram removed to Dhu 
Jiblah, and he built the second royal palace upon 
an uncultivated tract of land. It was surrounded 
by a garden and by numerous trees, and looked 
down upon the two streams and upon the first 
palace. The Queen Sayyidah ordered the latter to 
be converted into a cathedral mosque. It is the 
second cathedral mosque. It contains the tomb of 
the queen, which exists to this day. May God be 
merciful unto her! The second, the great palace, 
bearing (like its predecessor) the name of Dar al-'Izz 
(abode of majesty), was erected in the year 481. 
Al-Mukarram appointed as his deputies over San'a, 
*Imran ibn al-Fadl, of the sub-tribe of Yam and of 
the tribe of Hamdan, and As'ad ibn Shihab. 

In that year also, the queen encompassed by a 
stratagem the death of Sa'id ibn Najali al-Ahwal. 
She desired al-Husayn ibn at-Tubba'y, Prince of 
Sha'ir to write to Sa'id al-Ahwal at Zabid, to re- 
present to him that al-Mukarram was afilicted with 
paralysis, that he had abandoned himself to the 
pursuit of pleasure, that the business of his govern- 
ment was conducted by his wife, and that Sa'id 
himself was now the most powerful king in Yaman. 
Further, he suggested, as commanded, a joint attack 
upon Dhu Jiblah, by Sa*Id from Tihamah and by 
al-Husayn himself from the mountains. Sa'id, he 
represented, could then reheve himself of his enemy 
and recover possession of the entire country. " If 



42 ^ Omar ah. 

you approve of my advice," be said, •' let it be acted 
upon. For your rule," be continued, "is better in 
31 tbe eves of tbe Musbms tban tbat of tbese beretics." 
VYben Sa'id ibn Najjlh read tbe letter of Husayn 
ibn at-Tubba'y, be greatly approved of wbat was 
proposed, and be was filled witb gladness. On tbe 
day appointed by at-Tiibba'y, be set fortb from 
Zabid for Dbu Jiblab at tbe bead of tbirty tbousand 
spearmen. Tbe Queen Sayyidab bad meanwbile 
sent orders to As'ad ibn Sbibab, and to 'Imran ibn 
al-Fadl at San'a, desirinof tbem to ' marcb into 
Tibamab in tbe rear of Najrdi, witb tbree tbousand 
horsemen, and to follow bim stage by stage. 
Tbey obeyed, and upon Sa'id ibn Najrdi baiting 
below tbe fortress of asb-Sba'ir, tbe two armies 
fell upon bim from eitber side. He and all bis 
followers were put to tbe sword, but it is also said 
tbat two tbousand escaped. His bead was put up 
below tbe window of the palace Dar al-'tzz, in- 
habited by tbe Queen Sayyidab. His wife Umm 
al-Mu'arik was witb bim, and it was by ber means 
tbat bis bead was recognized among tbe slain. It 
was set up close to tbe window of tbe apartment 
tbat was assigned to ber. "0 tbat tbou badst eyes. 
Lady Asma," exclaimed tbe Queen, " wberewitb to 
see tbe bead of tbe squint-eyed slave below tbe 
window of Umm al-Mu'arik ! " 

Al-Mukarram, son of 'Aly, died in a.h. 484, be- 
queatbing tbe office of Ba'y to tbe Most Noble 
Amir, tbe Unparagoned, tbe Victorious, tbe Pillar 
of tbe Kbalifate, Prince of Amirs, al-Mansur Abu 
Himyar Saba, son of Abmad al-Muzaffar, son of 
*Aly tbe Sulaybite.^^^ 



The Sulayhites. 43 



History of the Da'y Saba, son 'op Ahmad, son of 

AL-MUZAFFAR, SON OF 'AlY TUK SuLAYHITE. 

In Ills external ap|3earaiice, the Da'y Saba was ill- 
• favoured [and sliort in stature], nor did he appear to 
advantage in the saddle. But he was of a benevo- 
lent and geoerous disposition, an accomplished poet, 
learned in the doctrines of the Pure Sect, well 
32 acquainted with the sayings of the wise, nurtured on 
poetry. He requited eulogists with eulogy, as well 
as with substantial rewards. On that point 'Aly 
ibn al-Kumm has said of him : — 

When I panegyrized al-Hayzari,* the son of Ahmad — he rewarded 

me and he requited me Avith praise for my praise. 
He gave me verses for my verses, and added — gifts, those my 

capital in trade, these my profits. 
I forced my way through tlie crowd until I beheld him — as one 

that hath pierced through darkness unto morning's light. 
An evil time it were, deprived of the son of Ahmad! — but assuredly 

free from evil is the age in which he liveth ! ^* 

His residence was a stronghold called Ashyah, a 
lofty castle equal in stateliness and strength to 
Masar and Ta'kar. It has been related to me by 
the Kur'an reader, Suleyman ibn Ya-Sin, who was 
a Hanafite, that he once spent several nights in 
the fortress of Ashyah. In the morning, he said, 
he could see the sun rising in the east, but shedding 
no light (upon the country). Turning towards 
Tihamah, so much lingering darkness still prevailed 
as to prevent the wayfarer from recognizing a 
companion walking close beside him. Ibn Ya-Shi 
supposed tliis to be caused by clouds or mists, but 
he eventually determined it to be the result of a 
protraction of the darkness of night. He vowed, 
in consequence, always to reckon the hour for the 
performance of morning prayer according to the 
* Hayzar, according to the Kamiis, is a proper name. 



44 ^ Omar ah. 

rules of the Sbafy'ites ; for the followers of Abu 
Hanlfah postpone the hour until the sun has almost 
risen over the low^-ljing plains of Tihamah. The 
actual fact is simply that the eastern aspect from 
33 Ashyah is unimpeded by mountains, in consequence 
of its own situation on a lofty summit. 

The fortresses of the Banu Muzaffar overlooked 
the plain of Tihamah. They bordered closely upon 
the territories of Zabid; and of all the mountains, 
those upon which these fortresses stand, are the 
nearest to Tihamah. Among other strongholds in 
the possession of the family were Makr, Wusab, 
Kawarir, az-Zarf, and ash-Sharaf. The last 
mentioned is the place where Ibn Mahdi rose in 
insurrection. The remaining places were Dhu 'i'- 
Rassah, Zafar (Zafiran ?), and Raymah, with its 
districts.* As his territories adjoined Tihamah, 
Saba used to make Jayyash taste the vicissitudes 
of war. His Arabs, on perceiving the approacli of 
winter, were iu the habit of descending into the 
low country. Jayyash would thereupon retire, but 
to no great distance, and Saba would collect the 
revenues. He Avas careful, nevertheless, not to act 
oppressively towards the inhabitants, and on the 
contrary, in reckoning with the collectors, he made 
allowance for the sums raised by Jayyash during 
the summer and autumn months. AVhen winter 
and spring passed away, the Arabs withdrew from 
Tihamah to the mountains, and Jayyash re-entered 
into possession. The withdrawal of the Arabs was 
sometimes attended with fighting, and sometimes it 
was peaceful. 

On the return of Jayyash to Zabid, the Kur'ans 
were spread open, his subjects joined in supplica- 
tions for his prosperity, the Jurists came forth, and 
the 'Ulama (the doctors of the law) offered up 
prayers for the prolongation of his reign. In 

* See note 24. 



The Sulay kites. 45 

reckoning witli the governors and collectors, 
Jayyasli likewise allowed for tlie sums levied by 
Saba during the months of winter and spring. 

That situation continued until the wazTr Khalf 
ibn Abi Tahir advised the son of Javvash to im- 
prison his father, to seize his treasure and property 
. . . and to appoint Muhammad ibn al Ghifari his 
wazir. This was carried into execution. After a 
time, Khalf pierced an opening through the walls of 
his prison, and took refuge with Saba, by whom he 
was well received. He ceased not to urge upon 
Saba the invasion of Tihamah, and indicated to 
him means and artifices whereby he could reduce 
Jayyash to utter ruin ... to Saba a stated sum 
to stand in lieu of the half, and that he should 
stipulate with Saba for the banishment of the wazIr 
Khalf from his court. Jayyash followed the advice 
of the wazir, but thereupon the greed with which 
the Arabs coveted the country increased, and they 
reckoned themselves to be secure . . . The Ka'id 
Rayhan al-Kahlani, freedman of Sa'id, son of Najah, 
34 at the head of ten thousand men, surprised the 
Arabs by night near the gate of Zabid, where they 
were arrayed to the number of three thousand horse 
and ten thousand foot. Only a small remnant 
escaped. Nearly all were speared, and Saba fled 
on foot among a mixed and disorderly body of 
fugitives. Towards the end of the night a party 
met and rescued him. The Arabs did not thereafter 
return to Tihamah.^*^ 

Among other passages in the life of the Da^y 
Saba, son of Ahmad, is that related to me by the 
Jurist Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn 'Aly al-Bajali,* 
who had learned it from his father. The latter 
resided at Dhu Jiblah, and was one of the retainers 
of the Da'y. When, he said, al-Mukarram son of 
*Aly died, leaving the Queen Sayyidah daughter of 
* That is to say, member of the tribe of Bajlhih. 



46 'Omar ah, 

Ahmad a widow, the Da'y Saba asked her in 
marriage. She refused, whereupon he collected 
troops and marched from Ashyah, purposing to 
attack her at Dhu Jiblah. She likewise assembled 
a host, more numerous than his. The two armies 
met and the fire of war was kindled and raged for 
several days. The queen's half-brother, Suleyman 
ibn 'Amir az-Zawahi, son of her mother, then said 
to Saba : " By Allah ! she will not agree to thafc 
which thou desirest excepting by command of the 
Imam al-Mustansir billah, Prince of the Faithful." 
The Da'y Saba ibn Ahmad al-Auhad (the Unpara- 
goned) al-Mansiir desisted from fighting against 
her troops and returned to Ashyah. He despatclied 
to the Imam al-Mustansir two messengers, the 
Kadi (Abu 'Abd Allah al-) Husayn ibn Isma'U al- 
Isfahani and Abu 'Abd Allah at-Tavyib. In the 
course of the correspondence the Klialifah wrote to 
the Ladv three lines, commandinsf her to wed the 
Da'y Saba, and he sent her also one of his own 
eunuchs, known under the designation of Hamil al- 
Madyah, who bore moreover the honorific surname 
of Yaman ad-Da'wah (right hand of the Ismailile 
Mission), empowered to enter into the presence of 
the queen. Al-Jabali (Bajaly) relates that he was 
one of the persons sent by the Da'y Saba from the 
castle of Ashyah to Dhu Jiblah to accompany the 
two envoys and the eunuch who had arrived from 
Cairo the Mu'izzite. Upon their entering into the 
presence of Queen Sayyidah, daughter of Ahmad, 
in the palace, the Dar al-'Izz at Dhu Jiblah, the 
eunuch, surrounded, said the narrator, by her 
ministers, her secretaries, and the ofiicials of the 
state, all standing up as he stood, addressed her in 
the following words : " The Prince of the Faithful 
35 returueth salutations of peace unto the Honourable 
Lady, the Queen Sayyidah, thp Favoured, the Pure, 
the Uuparagoned of her time. Sovereign Lady of 



The Sulayhitcs. 47 

the Kings of Yaman, the Pillar of Islam, the 
Treasure of the Faith, Refuge of the truly directed, 
Asyluni of those who seek aid, the Friend of the 
Prince of the Faithful, the Guardian of his favoured 
servants, and he saith unto her : JJnio no heliever, 
male 7ior female, belomjeth liberty of choice when 
God and His apostle have decreed a command, and 
tohosoever opposeth God and His apostle tvandereth 
signalli/ astray.'^ Our lord, the Prince of the 
Paithful, gives thee in marriage to the Da'y, the 
Unparagoned, the Victorious, the Triumphant, the 
Pillar of the Kbalifate, the Prince of the Amirs, 
Abu Himyar Saba, son of Ahmad, son of al-Muzaffar 
'Aly the Sulayhite, with the dowry he has provided, 
of one hundred thousand dinars in money, and fifty 
thousand dinars in articles of rarity and value, in 
perfumes and in robes," Sayiddah answered : 
" As for the letter of our lord, I say of it : Verily a 
gracious letter hath been conveyed unto me. It is 
from Solomon, and behold it saith : In the name of 
God, the Merciful, the Gracious. Resist me not but 
come unto me ivith submission. I say not touching 
the command of our lord, ye counsellors advise me, 
and nought ivill I determine until ye shall have 
sptolien.'^^ But as for thee, Ibn al Isfahani, by 
Allah ! thou hast not carried unto our lord from Saba 
a sure and truthful message. Ye have wrested the 
words from their true sense and your souls have 
prompted you to commit an act of wickedness. My 
recourse is now to the comely virtue of patience, and 
God is He ivhose help is to be implored against the 
evil ije have set forth.'" * The queen's wazir Zuray* 
ibn Abi '1-Fath al-Isfahani and others of her chief 
officers advanced, and ceased not to speak to her in 
pacifying terms until she gave her consent. A 
marriage contract was drawn up, and Saba hastened 
to Dhu Jiblah, accompanied by a large retinue. 

* Kur. xii. s. 18. 



48 ''Omurah. 

He remained for a month, during wliicli his cam]) 
was the scene of profuse feasting, and he expended 
upon his soldiery a sum equal to the dowry he paid 
to the Princess. But the contemplation of her 
lofty aims, and of her noble deeds, caused the Da'y 
Saba ibn Ahmad to feel humbled in his own esti- 
mation. He perceived that his reputation was 
dimmed, and that no person could be fitly compared 
36 with her. All her peo])le were in the habit of saying 
that their Lady was their Mistress. 

The Da'y Saba secretly sent a message to the 
queen, requesting her to receive him in her ])alace, 
that it might be believed by the people that the 
marriag^e had been consummated, to which she 
consented. Some of the inhabitants of Dhu Jiblah 
assert that she received him in her own apartments 
for one night, and tliat in the early morning he 
depart-ed. Others say that she sent him one of her 
female slaves who bore an exceeding resemblance 
to herself, that he received warning thereof, and that 
the girl remained standing throughout the night at 
the head of his couch, whilst he sat without ever 
raising his eyes upon her, until when day dawned, 
he performed his morning devotions and ordered 
the drums to be beat for departure. He then said 
to the slave girl : " Tell our lady that she is a 
precious pearl, to be worn only by whoever is 
worthy of her." He then departed, and they did 
not meet again. *^ 

It is reported of the Da'y Saba that he never had 
intercourse with a slave girl, and that he never 
tasted intoxicating beverages. His wife al- Jumanah, 
daughter of Suwayd, son of Yazld the Sulayhite, 
was in the habit of saying that she was undisturbed 
by jealousy on account of her Lord Saba, seeing 
that he abstained from all intercourse with concu- 
bines, and it was a common saying among the Arab 
women that none among the posterity of Eve had 



Al-Mufaddal. 49 

been so privileged as al-J"umanali, with the excep- 
tion only of Asma, daughter of Shihab. 

At this period Shuja' ad-Daulah arrived in Yaman. 
He was enriched by the gifts bestowed upon bim, 
and Shams al-Ma'ali (son of Saba and husband of 
Fatimah daughter of al-Mukarram and of the 
Queen Sayyidah), who was of a most generous dis- 
position, gave him sums of money amounting to 
thousands. After a time Shams al-Ma'ali took a 
second wife and Fatimah wrote to her mother 
imploring her aid. The Princess sent troops to 
her assistance, under the command of al-Fadl (al- 
Mufaddal), son of Abu '1-Barakat. Fatimah, having 
put on the garb of a mau, escaped from her hus- 
band's castle to tbe camp of al-Mufaddal, who sent 
her on to her mother. He continued to besiege 
the Prince until an arrangement was arrived at, 
whereby Shams al-Ma'ali was banished from his 
kingdom, under a safe conduct against all personal 
barm. He reacted the court of al-Afdal (at Cairo), 
and implored his assistance, but al-Afdal paid no 
regard to his request and showed him no hospi- 
tality.^^ The Amir Shuja' ad-Daulah, whom Shams 
al-Ma'ali had enriched in Yaman, sent him thirty 
ardebs of barley, but did not supply him with a 
morsel of bread, nor did he admit him into liis 
37 society. 'Aly Shams al-Ma'ali son of Saba re- 
turned to Yaman, and gained possession of his 
father's fortresses, but the Amir al-Mufadclal 
employed a person who poisoned him in the year 
495. 



The Stoet of the Kma al-Mufaddal, son op 
Abu 'l-Barakat son op al-Walid, the Him- 
TARiTE, Prince of Ta'kar. 

When al-Miikarram, son of 'Aly, built the palace of 
Dar al-'Izz at Dhu Jiblah, and removed from San'a 

E 



^O ^Oniarah. 

to the Province of Ja'far, 'Abd Allah ibii Ya'la 
composed the followmg lines : — 

The gentle zephyr Wew, and I spent the night as one distracted, — 

yearning after family and friends. 
Not Cairo, nor Baghdad, neither can Tiberius — be compared to the 

city enclosed between two streams. 
Khadid commands the north, Habb overlooks the east — and to 

Ta'kar the lofty, belong the southern climes of Yaman. 

At-Ta'kar was at that time in the hands of 
Sultan As'ad son of 'Abd Allah son of Muhammad 
the Sulayhite, son, therefore, of the paternal uncle 
of the King al-Mukarram, the same 'Abd Allah who 
was killed at al-Mahjam, along with his brother the 
Da'y Aly son of Muhammad. His conduct became 
bad, and al-Mukarram removed him from Ta'kar, 
Sfivinof him in exchano^e the fortresses of Eavmah. 
[He placed Abu 'l-Barakat, son of al-WalTd, in 
command over Ta'kar and its dependencies, and he 
appointed] Abu 'l-Barakat's brother Abu 'l-Fath 
(read Futfdi) son of al-Walld, over the fortress of 
Ta'izz.'^ Al-Mufaddal entered the service of the 
King al-Mukarram at Dhu Jiblah. He was one of 
the young pages of the palace, admitted into the 
presence of the Honourable Lady the Queen with 
messages from al-Mukarram, touching matters of 
business between thera. Upon the death of the 
Amir al-Mufaddal's father Abu 'l-Barakat, which 
followed that of the King al-Mukarram, the Queen 
appointed al-Mufaddal successor to his father in the 
governorship of Ta'kar. That fortress was used 
by the Sulayhites as a depository for the treasures 
they had won from the kings of Yaman. The 
88 Queen was in the habit of going up thither, and 
making it her place of residence during the summer, 
returning to Dhu Jiblah for the cold season. Al- 
Mufaddal exercised the powers which the Princess 
delegated to him and had access unto her, along 
with her chief wazirs, with the Amirs and with her 



Al-Mufaddal. 51 

principal slaves. He was supreme administrator of 
affairs. In all things reliance was placed upon liis 
judgment and upon his sword. The Queen came 
to no decision without his advice. He rose, conse- 
quently, to a state of great dignity, and his words 
were listened to with respect. He invaded Tihamah 
on several occasions, with results sometimes in his 
favour and at others against him. He also several 
times made war upon Aden, and ere long no per- 
sonage in Yaman could rival him in power. Having 
attained this exalted position, he one day said to 
the Queen at Ta'kar : " Consider, my lady, the 
treasures that are contained in this castle. Carry 
them away, I pray you, to the Dar al-'Izz, or remove 
them to some other palace, and leave this place 
(meaning thereby Ta'kar) entirely to me, renouncing 
henceforward your authority over it." " Hadst 
thou not spoken these words," she replied, "I would 
not have allowed any cause for their utterance to 
exist. The castle is thine. Thou art the confi- 
dential minister in my palace, and I have forbidden 
thee nothing in the past, in consideration of thine 
exalted condition." He was filled with confusion, 
and hung his head. The Queen went down to Dhu 
Jiblah, but made no change in her conduct towards 
al-Mufaddal. He used to s^o down to her and en- 
tr§-^.t} her to return to Ta'kar, as she had been in 
tlio'habit of doing, but she never consented. She 
nevertheless applied herself to conciliate his good 
will by presents such as were most agreeable to 
him, of singing girls, valuable stuffs and perfumes, 
slaves, eunuchs, and other gifts. She would not 
listen to those who blamed her on his account, or 
who cautioned her against him. And his fame is 
connected with memorable battlefields, in which he 
defended her, and protected her territories. He 
fought against the Da'y Saba ibn Ahmad when 
the latter asked her in marriage. She refused, and 

E 2 



6 



52 'Omar ah. 

al-Mufaddal marched against Saba with a lar^e 
array. He fons^ht also against 'Aly ibn Saba 
(Shams al-Ma'ali), Prince of Kaydan (Kayzan),^' 
and expelled him from his province, and against 
'Amru ibn Karmatah (read 'Arkatah) al-Janbi, and 
ao^ainst others of the tribes of Sinhan, of 'Ans, and 
of Zubayd. He recovered for her also, from the 
Banu Zuray', one half of the revenues of Aden, 
39 [which amounted to] one hundred thousand dinars 
a year. 

Sheykh Abu Trdiir al-Kabuni has related to me 
that he was on one occasion with al-]\rufaddal ibn 
Abi 'l-Barakat, at at-Ta*kar, when lialf the revcnnes 
of Aden, fifty thousand dinars, reached him. He 
immediately sent the money to the Queen at Dhu 
Jiblah, without retaining any portion of it. Sheykh 
Abu Tahir disapproved of such scrupulous conduct, 
but al-Mufaddal rephed that he required nothing 
besides what the Queen gave him. When the 
money reached her she returned it, desiring liim to 
retain it, "for," she said, "you have more need of 
it than we." Al-Mufaddal, said Abu Tahir, divided 
among the people present ten bags, and he gave me 
one containino^ one thousand dinars. 

Al-Mufaddal was in the habit of secluding himself 
until people despaired of again seeing him. Then 
he would re-appear. The messengers who j^^oad 
gathered around his gates had to wait, whilst octh 
weak and powerful (claimants) were admitted. He 
examined into the affairs of the 2:overnors and of 
their provinces, and answered every letter that had 
reached his gates. He would then again disappear, 
and could neither be seen, nor could any message 
be transmitted to him. Such was his custom from 
the time when he attained his exalted position. 

When al-Mausur, son of [Fatik son ofj Jayyash, 
was driven forth from Zabid, and replaced by his 
brother (read uncle) 'Abd al-Wrdiid son of Jayyash, 



Al-Mtifaddal. 53 

he fled with his slaves to Mufacldal, and they pledged 
themselves to deliver unto him one fourth of the 
country in return for his assistance. Al-Mufadclal 
marched with them against their enemies, expelled 
'Abd al- Wahid from the city, and reinstated al- 
Mansilr and his followers. He then, however, 
conceived treacherous designs against them, and 
purposed making himself master of Zabld. 

But al-Mufaddal's absence in Tihamah had pro- 
longed itself, and Ta'kar, deserted by the Prince, 
was committed to the charge of a deputy, known by 
the name of al-Hamal. This man w^as held in great 
respect, and was strongly attached to the (orthodox) 
faith. Seven jurists, brethren of al-Hamal, went 
up to him at Ta'kar. Among them were Muhammad 
ibn Kabas (Kays ?) the Wuhazite, 'Abd Allah ibn 
Yahya and Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Zeydan. The 
latter was their acknowledyjed leader, and he was 
my uncle, the full brother of my father by both 
parents.*^ They received possession of the fortress 
from al-Hamal. The Sunni subjects of the Su- 
layhites had desired the jurists, on their gaining 
possession of the fortress, to kindle a fire on the 
summit. They did so during the darkness of night. 
In the morning twenty thousand men assembled at 
the gates of the castle in support of the jurists, who 
became possessed of an amount of wealth such as had 
never before been seen. The news reached the Amir 
40 al-Mufaddal in Tihamah. He set out and turned 
neither to the right nor to the left till he reached 
Ta'kar. He besieged the jurists, but the Banu 
Khaulan rose to their assistance. The siege, how- 
ever, continued, and ere long the garrison perceived 
that the Khaulanites were prepared to abandon 
them. Thereupon Ibrahim ibn Zeydan declared to 
his companions that he was determined not to die 
until he had slain al-Mufaddal, after which, death, 
he said, would be welcome. He seized the concu- 



54 ^ Omar ah. 

bines of al-Mufacldal, and brought tlicm forth 
wearing tlieir most magnificent apparel. Placing 
tabours in tlieir hands, he set them npon the roof 
of the palace, whence al-Mufaddal, who was in a 
tent at 'Azzan at Ta'kar, and all that were with 
him, could see and hear them. Al-Mufaddal was 
the most jealous and sensitive of men, and it is said 
that he died that night. By some it is stated that 
he sucked the poison from a ring he wore, prepared 
for a case of need, and that he was found dead in 
the morniriQf with the rino: in his mouth. His death 
occurred in the month of Ramadan of the year 504. 

The Queen thereupon ascended from Dliu Jibhih, 
and encamped on the open ground, near the 
gate of the fortress. She wrote to the jurists, 
and adopted with them the most conciliatory 
measures, even to giving them a bond under her 
own hand, granting them all their demands, their 
personal safety, and retention of the treasure they 
had seized. They stipulated that she should depart 
with her forces, that she should send them, as 
governor, a person whose appointment should be 
subject to their approval, and that they should 
remain with him (in occupation of the fortress) 
until their booty should be in a place of safety. 
The Queen faithfully observed the conditions agreed 
upon, and she appointed over Ta'kar her freodraan 
Fath ibu Miftfih. I have been told by Sultan Nfisir 
ibn MansQr, that my uncle Ibrahim ibn Zeydan 
informed him, after his withdrawal from Ta'kar, 
that his share of ready money amounted to twenty 
thousand dinars. 

Part of the tribe of Khaulan had entered and 
settled in Mikhlaf Ja'far before the death of al- 
Mufaddal, to the number of six thousand souls, a 
mixed multitude consisting chiefly of Banu Bahr, 
Banu Uinnah, Marran, Rawah (Razih ?), Sha'b-Hay, 
and Banu Juma'ah.^^ Al-Mufaddal dispersed them 



The Khatilanites, 55 

among tlie strongholds of the country and made 
them take the oath of allegiance to the Queen. 
Upon the death of al-Mufaddal, a man of the sub- 
tribe of Marran, of the name of Muslim ibn az-Zarr, 
41 attacked the fortress of Khadid, drove therefrom 
the Sultan 'Abd Allah ibn Ya'la the Sulayhite, the 
accomplished poet and learned scholar, and took 
possession of the stronghold. 'Abd Allah ibn Ya'la 
was possessed of great wealth, which passed into 
the hands of Muslim ibn az-Zarr, whose power was 
thereby greatly increased. He joined the Queen 
and her adherents, and formed hopes that she 
would appoint him to succeed al-Mufaddal, son of 
Abu '1-Barakat.'*^ He sent her his two sons, 
'Imran and Suleyman, whom she received with 
kindness and by her command, although they had 
reached the years of maturity, they were taught to 
read and write. Afterwards she married them to 
two of her slaves brought up under her care. 
They visited their father by turns, at Khadid, and 
they were protected by the tribe of Khaulan, which 
possessed great power and influence. Upon the 
death of Muslim, his son Suleyman succeeded to 
the fortress of Khadid. 'Imran remained with the 
Queen and acquired favour with her. Path ibn 
Miftah had, after the death of Muslim, entered into 
a state of opposition to the Queen his mistress, and 
had declared himself independent at the fortress of 
Ta'kar. 'Imran made friendly advances to Fath, 
and after his rebellion, asked his daughter in 
marriage. On the night of the wedding Suleyman 
and 'Imran gained possession, by treachery, of the 
castle of Ta'kar, but 'Imran protected his father-in- 
law from personal harm. Fath stipulated with the 
two brothers for certain things, which they granted. 
One was that they should give him, as a free gift, a 
certain castle called Shar.* Thither he removed all 
* Sliar is mentioned by Yakut as the name of a castle in Yaman. 



56 ^ Omar ah. 

that lie held most valuable. On obtaining possession 
of the fortress of Ta'kar, 'Imran sent the Honour- 
able Lady the Queen repeated assurances of loyalty 
and homage, of which she took no heed. The 
Khaulanites stretched forth their hands against the 
people, whom they oppressed and plundered. The 
night on which they gained possession of Ta'kar 
was that of Sunday, the twelfth day of Rabi' al- 
Awwal of the year 505. 

Such continued to be the condition of things be- 
tween the Banu Khaulan and the Queen. When she 
saw their exceeding wickedness, she sent a letter to 
*Amru ibn 'Arkatah al-Janbi (of the tribe of Janb), 
consisting of one or two lines in her handwriting. 
She ordered the country of Suleyman and 'Imran to 
be occupied by an army of horse and foot, and they 
were not to be relieved of its presence, until they 
42 humbled themselves unto her and made a request for 
its withdrawal. Sultan Yazid ibn 'Isa the AVa ilite 
told me that he remembered being sent to the Queen 
by 'Imran ibn az-Zarr, then facing the Araljs of 
'Amru in order of battle. 'Imran asked her assist- 
ance, and she sent him ten thousand dinars to serve 
for the purchase of supplies. But the mone}^ was 
returned. " Does she not know," exclaimed 'Imran, 
"what it is that can be of real service to me?" 
She thereupon -syrote an order wdth her own hand, 
added Yazid ibn 'Isa, to 'Amru ibn 'Arfatah al- 
Jabani ('Arkatah al-Janbi) in the following terms : 
" On receiving this our command, depart from the 
country of the Banu Zarr, with our thanks for your 
.services." On reading the order 'Amru immediately 
directed the signal for departure to be proclaimed 
to his people. It consisted in the utterance of the 
words Bashid, son of MaTUli}'^ Before an hour had 
elapsed, not one of his people remained in the place. 
" This, by the Lord," said 'Imran to his brother, 
" is truly (a receiving of) honour and obedience ! " 



Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, 57 



The History op Ibn Najib ad-Daulah. 

In the year 513 Ibn Najib ad-Daulali came to Yaman, 
and the following is the history of al-Muwaffak Ibn 
Najib ad-Daulah : — 

At the commencement of his career, he was 
custodian of the library of al-Afdal (Shahinshah, at 
Cairo). He had a well-stored memory, had studied 
the doctrines of the Pure Sect (the Ismailites), was 
constant in recitations of the noble Kur'an, and 
recited it according to its various readings. His 
name was 'Aly, son of Ibrahim, son of IMajib ad- 
Daulah, and his titles were al-Amlr al-Muntahhab 
(the Chosen Amir), Glory of the Fatimite KhalTfate, 
Fakhr ad-Daulah (Lustre of the State), al-Muwaffak 
fi-^d-dJn (Aided in the Faith), Da'y of the Prince of 
the Faithful. He started from Cairo accompanied 
by twenty mounted men, carefully chosen from 
among the HujarJyaks!'^ On arriving at the Island 
of Dahlak, he was met by an emissary (?) from 
Aden, Muhammad ibn Abi 'l-'Arab the Da'y, one of 
the sons of Sa'id ibn Hamid ad-Din. This man 
instructed him in the secret politics of Yaraan, the 
condition of the chiefs, their names, their personal 
appearance and their surnames, even the dates of 
43 their births and particulars of marks, traces of 
wounds and cauterizations, concealed by their 
clothing. When Ibn Najib ad-Daulah (afterwards 
spoke of those things and) put questions touching 
their occult significations, his hearers became con- 
vinced that he possessed knowledge of the invisible 
world."^ The first thing he did on arrival at Dhu 
Jiblah was to lay hold of a Khaulanite of the name 
of Suleyman ibn 'Obayd, belonging to (the sub- 
tribe or family of) the Banu 'Amru and a kinsman 
of 'Imran ibn az-Zarr. He was a man widely 



58 ^Omai^ah. 

known and held in great respect. Ibn Najib ad- 
Daulali beat him with a stick until it caught in his 
clothes. The Banu Khaulrm withdrew from Dliu 
Jiblah. Suleyman ibn Ahmad (read Ahmad ibn 
Suleyman) the Zawahite, son of the Queen's (half) 
brother and husband of Umm Hamdan daughter of 
al-Mukarram, hurried to the spot and released the 
Khaulanite from the hands of Ibn Naj'ib ad-Daulali 
without seeking the latter's consent. He gave the 
man a dress of honour and sent him back to his 
family. Thenceforward the Khaulanites restrained 
themselves from stretching forth their hands against 
the people. 

Ibn Najib ad-Daulah then proceeded to make war 
upon the inhabitants of Wadi Maytam,^' of (Wadi) 
Zabid and of the plains. Good order, together with 
cheapness and plenty, became prevalent throughout 
the country and evil-doers were repressed. Ho 
himself respected the property of its inhabitants, 
he dealt righteously with them and maintained the 
laws. Through him the Queen's fame was enhanced, 
and the neighbouring nations of Yaman found 
themselves constrained to desist from coveting 
the outlying provinces of her dominions. He took 
into his service three hundred horsemen of the 
Banu Himas and Sinhan, and appointed at-Tauk 
the Hamdanite to comn^and them. When al-Afdal 
(Shahinshah) died in the year 515, al-Ma'mim (al- 
Bata'ihi) confirmed the authority of Ibn JMajib 
ad-Daulah. He strengthened him and sent him 
letters delegating to him the fullest powers over the 
people. Al-Ma'mun sent him four hundred Ar- 
menians and seven hundred black archers. Ibn 
Najib ad-Daulah established his residence at Janad, 
which stands in the centre of the country, and 
whose districts have unceasingly been trampled 
under the hoofs of armed men's horses. 

But the authority he exercised was impatiently 



Ibn Najib ad-Daiilah. 59 

endured by the kings of the time, namely, Suley- 
man and 'Imran, the two sons of az-Zarr, MansQr 
son of al-Mufaddal ibn Abi '1-Barakat, Saba ibn Abi 
Su'ud, and Mufaddal ibn Zuray'. In the year 518 
Ibn Najib ad-Daulah attacked Zabld, which was 
then ruled by the wazir Mann Allah the Fatikite. 
44 Ten of his archers had allied themselves with the 
citizens, and as the two armies entered into action, 
one of the archers shot an arrow which struck the 
muzzle of the horse upon which 'Aly ibn Ibrahim 
Najib ad-Daulah was mounted. He fell to the 
ground and lost his horse. His army was put to 
flight, all his black troops were killed, and only 
fifty out of four hundred Armenians escaped. As 
to the Ha'y (Ibn Najib ad-Daulah), the Hamdanites 
fought strenuously in his defence, until one of them, 
a man of the name of As-Sa'y, took him up and 
seated him upon his horse behind him. The Ham- 
danite horsemen who exerted themselves to save 
him were fifteen in number, and the chief, at-Tauk, 
was one of them. Ibn Najib ad-Daulah' s horse 
disappeared from the battle at the hour of mid -day 
prayer on Friday. Early on the Saturday morning 
he appeared in the city of Janad, situated at a 
distance of four days' journey from Zabid, or of 
three days' at a forced pace. Before evening a 
report was spread at Dhu Jiblah that Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah had been killed at Zabid. He reached 
Janad four days after and rode to Dhu Jiblah, 
where he conferred with the Queen. 

He suffered in health, but recovered, and for four 
months he carried on war in the country of Suley- 
man ibn az-Zarr. A truce was concluded between 
them and he returned to Janad. Next he made 
war upon the family of Zuray' and penetrated to 
al-Juwwah. He was attacked at Hima Bani 
Salmah (?) by al-Mufacldal ibn Zuray'. Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah received a lance-thrust and being a bad 



6o 'Oj?uirah, 

horseman lie fell to the ground. He was attacked 
by a slave belonging to MasTid (al-Mufaddal ?) ibii 
Zuray' named Musafir, but the slave was charged 
and killed by Tank the Hamdiinite, who stood by 
Ibn Najib ad-Daulah until he reuiounted, whereupon 
the Da'y returned to Janad. He lost his breast- 
plate, which fell to the ground during the struggle, 
and Mufaddal ibn Zuray' composed the following 
Hues upon the occasion : — 

He fled forgetting his breast-plate — In terror of the Banu Yam, 

lest their lances should pierce him. 
But flight saveth not from death — a truth held by every steadfast 

and believing seal. ^^ 

In the year 519 his conduct towards the Quceu 
45 assumed an evil aspect. Her mind, he said, had 
become weakened, and he asserted that in his 
opinion it was necessary to place her in seclusion. 
But, meanwhile, she was joined by the four (six ?) 
kings, Suleyman and 'Imran, sons of az-Zarr, Saba 
son of Abu kSu'ud, Abu 'l-Gliarao (son of Mas'udj, 
As'ad ibn Abi 'l-Futuh and Mausur ibn al-Mufaddal. 
They asked her permission to besiege Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah at Janad, which she granted. The city 
was defended by walls, and Ibn Najib ad-Daulah 
had a force, part of the garrison, consisting of four 
hundred picked horsemen belonging to the tribe of 
Hamdan. The kings arrived with an army, con- 
sisting of three thousand horse and three thousand 
foot soldiers, with which they surrounded the city. 
Ibn Najib ad-Daulah had with him certain men, 
each of whom was equal to one hundred horsemen. 
Among them were at-Tauk ibn 'Abd Allah, Mu- 
hammad ibn Ahmad ibn 'Imran ibn al-Fadl ibn 'Aly 
the Yamite, 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd Allah, who exer- 
cised the functions of Da'y after Ibn Najib ad- 
Daulah and who was a member of the family of 
Sulayhi, also 'Aly son of Suleyman az-Zawahi, 
Abu 'l-Gliayth ibn Samir, Muhammad ibn al-A'azz, 



Ibn Najib ad-Daulah. 6i 

who lived until he was treacherously slain by Ibn 
Mahdi, and al-Faridayn (?). The siege was carried 
on with vigour, and Ibn Najib ad-Daulah was 
put to great straits. The Queen, thereupon wrote, 
according to her custom, to 'Amru ibn 'Arkatah 
al-Janbi, who came to her and encamped at Dhu 
Jiblah. She sent also to the chiefs of the tribes 
and distributed among them ten thousand Egyptian 
dinars, desirins; her messeng^ers at the same time to 
spread a report among the soldiers, to the effect 
that Ibn Najib ad-Daulah had distributed a sum of 
ten thousand Egyptian dinars among their leaders. 
The soldiers thereupon demanded that a share of 
the Egyptian gold be granted to them, else they 
would depart. The kings made promises, but when 
night closed in they started each for his own 
country. Next morning the troops found them- 
selves without leaders. They broke up their 
encampment and abandoned the siege.* "Per- 
ceivest thou," it was said to Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, 
*' the artifice accomplished by her of whom thou 
46 hast said that her mind is weakened ? " He rode 
to Dhu Jiblah and strove to justify and to excuse 
himself to the Princess. 

The Queen was the accepted representative of 
the Imam, upon whom be peace. . . . 

The cause of this arrest^* of Ibn Najib ad-Dauiah 
was [as follows according to what was related by] 
the jurist Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn 'Aly al- 
Halaby (al-Bajaly). Al-Ma'mim (al-Bata ihy), when 
wazTr (in Egypt), sent an envoy to Yaman, en- 
trusted with military power, known by the name 
of al-Amk al-Kadbdhab. On his reaching Dhu 
Jiblah, he was present at a crowded assembly held 
by Ibn Najib ad-Daulah. The latter did not wel- 
come him and he neither treated him as a guest, 
nor did he notice him. He sought to humiliate 
* Thif, according to al-Khazraji, occurred in IMuharrani, A.n. 520. 



62 . Omar ah. 

hira and asked him whether he was not superin- 
tendent of the city pohce at Cairo. " Yea, and 
indeed," answered the envoy, " they whom I smite 
with my hand, are amongst the most eminent of 
those who boast of a rabble following of ten thou- 
sand men." Ibn Najib ad-Daulah was himself 
humiliated by the reply he received, and Ins enemies 
thenceforward attached themselves to the envo}-. 
They extolled his merits. Ho, on his part, plied 
them with presents and promised them the destruc- 
tion of *Aly ibn Ibrahim (ibn Najib ad-Daulah) by 
means of two expedients. He recommended them 
in the first place to give him letters for the Khalifah 
al-Amir, stating that Ibn Najib ad-Daulah had in- 
vited and called upon them to recognize Nizar as 
supreme Imam and that they had refused. In the 
second place, they were to strike coins in the name 
of Nizar, which the envoy promised to transmit to 
our lord al-Amir bi-Ahkam Illah. Tliey followed 
his advice, and his return to Cairo occurred simul- 
taneously w4th the arrest and imprisonment of the 
wazir al-Ma'mun. The envoy sent the letters and 
the coins to the Khalifah, who commanded the 
Amir al-Muwaffak ibn al-Khayyat to be sent to 
Yaman, for the arrest of Ibn Najib ad-Daulah. '^^ 
He started from the Imperial Gate, accompanied by 
a hundred men belonging to the military body, \lie 
HnjarJyahSj all men fitted for the most arduous en- 
terprises. Among the companions of Ibn al-Khayyat 
were 'Izz id-din and his own son Sa'd al-Mulk, On 
hearing of the envoy's arrival at Dahlak, Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah set forth for the country of Zabld, not- 
withstanding the objections and repugnance he 
felt to doing so. A Da'y, he said, must not skulk 
away in hiding. Death, he added, was preferable 
to disgrace. His enemies addressed themselves to 
the Queen and warned her to secure his person, 
for, they urged, the Imam* would hold her alone 



Ibn Najib ad-Daidak. 63 

responsible for his safe keeping. The Queen 
feigned to be ill and sent to Ibn NajIb ad-Daulali 
47 the Sharif As'ad ibn 'Abd as-Samad ibn Muhammad 
al-Hawwaly. This man was his most faithful friend. 
He overtook Ibn N"ajib ad-Daulah at the distance of 
a night's journey from Janad and told him that the 
Queen, the chosen representative of the Prince of 
the Faithful, was on the point of death. — " She 
places confidence in thee alone," he added, and 
urged him to return to her. He did so, and she 
ordered him to be arrested, but she treated him 
with lenity and fettered him with silver chains 
weighing fifty ounces. The envoy arrived from 
Aden and demanded the surrender of Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah. The Queen refused. " Thou art the 
bearer of a letter from our lord," she replied. 
*' Take charge of my answer, or if thou preferrest, 
I will write to the Prince of the Faithful, and wait 
thou here until I receive his reply." But the two 
kings Suleyman and 'Imran, the sons of az-Zarr, 
interfered. The Queen confided greatly in the 
judgment of 'Abd Allah ibn al-Mahdi al-Ma'mari. 
They offered him ten thousand dinars, besides two 
castles in her dominions. He alarmed the Queen 
with representations of the evil consequences of 
rumours connecting her with the Nizarites, and 
directed the envoy and his companions to spread 
reports on the subject. The Queen yielded, but 
allayed the fears she entertained of the envoy, on 
Najib ad-Daulah' s account, by exacting many 
solemn oaths from Ibn al-Khayyat. She wrote also 
to our lord al-Amir bi-Ahkam Illah, the Prince of 
the Faithful, interceding with the Khallfah for Ibn 
Najib ad-Daulah, and she sent unto him her secre- 
tary, Muhammad ibn al-Azraki, a man of culture, 
the draftsman of the council, an elegant writer, 
eloquent, and remarkable for his benevolence. 
Among the presents she sent was a suit of 



64 Oniiirah. 

armour, enriclied with jewels of the value of forty 
thousand dinars. Tbn Najib ad-Daulah was carried 
forth from Dhu Jiblah in a wooden cao;'e. The 
people looked on, and he said unto them : " That 
which ye look upon is a lion imprisoned in a cage." 

On reaching the distance of a night's journey 
from Dhu Jiblah, his custodians attached an iron 
weight of one hundred pounds to his feet and they 
reviled him and humiliated him. He was made to 
sleep naked in the vestibule, although it was winter. 
They hurried him away from Aden in a ship belong- 
ing to the port of Sawakin. They detained the 
Queen's messenger, Ibn al-Azraki, for five days. 
48 Then they sent him off and they ordered the captain 
to wreck the ship. The vessel was sunk with all 
she contained, near Bab al-Maudeb, and Ibn al- 
Azraki was drowned. 

The Queen was greatly afflicted, when regrets 
could no longer avail.^'' Suleyman and 'Imran, the 
sons of az-Zarr, went into her presence, exulting 
over the fate of Tbn Najlb ad-Daulah. They came 
forth exclaiming that the Jurist had indeed spoken 
the truth in reporting the words of 'Abd Allah ibn 
'Abbas (cousin of the Prophet) : — " We used," he 
said, " to listen to the traditions preserved by 
'A'ishah (the Prophet's widow), but never left her 
presence without having been reminded that she was 
a woman." This was their last interview with the 
Queen. 



The History of [the Dynasty of] az-Zuray', son 
OF al-'Abbas, son of al-Karam the YImite, 
Prince of Aden. 

The Banu Zuray' were descended from Hamdan, 
and from Jusham, son of Yam, son of Asgha. 



The Zurayites. 65 

Their ancestor, Ibn al-^Abbas* son of al-Karam, 
had gained credit by his conduct in past times, and 
especially by the assistance he gave to the Da'y 
'Aly, son of Muhammad the Sulayhite, when the 
latter was engaged in promoting the Fatimite Kha- 
lifah al-Mustansir's supremacy over Yaman, and 
again by joining the Da'y al-Mukarram, son of * Aly, 
in his attack upon Zabid and in the release of the 
Honourable Lady Asma, daughter of Shihab, from 
the liands of Sa'id al-Aliwal, son of Najah. 

The events that raised the family to the Princi- 
pality of Aden were as follows. When ' Aly son 
of Muhammad the Sulayhite conquered Aden, the 
city was under the rule of the Banu Ma'n [wbo had 
subdued it as well as Lahj, Abyan, Shihr and Had- 
ramaut. He allowed them to remain in possession 
as governors under his authority. When al-Mukar- 
ram married the Honourable Lady Sayyidah, his 
father gave her Aden and its neighbourhood as 
her dowry. The Banu Ma'n accordingly paid her 
tribute so long as the Da'y *Aly son of Muhammad 
the Sulayhite lived ; but when he was killed, in the 
year we have mentioned (a.h. 473), they declared 
themselves independent].^' 

The King al-Mukarram thereupon marched 
against them, conquered the city and put an end to 
the supremacy of the Banu Ma'n. He placed their 
country under the rule of al- 'Abbas and Mas'ud, 
the two sons of al-Karam. He appointed tbe resi- 
dence of the former at Ta'kar-'Aden, which adjoins 
the gate of tbe city, and [gave him authority over] 
tbe trade with the interior. To Mas'ud he gave the 
castle of al-Khadra, with authority over the coast 
and shipping, and command of the city.^^ He made 
49 them take oath to the Honourable Lady the Queen 
Sayyidah, daughter of Ahmad, because as-Sulayhi 
had endowed her with the city of Aden when he 

* Read Tlieir ancestor al-'Ahbus. 

F 



66 'Omar ah. 

married lier to his son al-Mukarram in tlie year 
461. From that year* the revenues of Aden were 
uninterruptedly paid to her until [the death of] al- 
Mukarram. The amount was one hundred thousand 
diuars, occasionally somewhat more, and in other 
years somewhat less. On the death of al-Mukarram, 
al-'Abbas and Mas'ud, the two sons of al-Karara, 
continued faithfully to fulfil their obligations to the 
Queen. But after their death [and that of Zuray' 
son of al-'Abbas, Abu Su'iid son of] Zuray' and 
Abu '1-Gharat son of Mas'ild proclaimed their 
independence at Aden.f Al-Mufaddal ibn Abi M- 
Barakat marched against them and a war took 
place which ended in a treaty, whereby it was 
agreed that half the revenues of Aden should be 
paid to the Queen. Upon the death of al-Mufaddal 
ibn Abi '1-Barakat, the Princes of Aden discon- 
tinued the payment of the Queen's half of the 
revenues. As'ad ibn Abi '1-Futuh, son of al-Malik 
al-Mufaddal's uncle, proceeded to the spot and con- 
cluded an agreement, whereby a fourth of the 
revenues was to belong to the Queen. "Wlien the 
Banu az-Zarr rebelled at Ta'kar, the Princes of 
Aden again discontinued payment, and the Queen 
was thenceforward unable to draw anything from 
Aden, in consequence of the death of all her leading 
men. Ibn Najlb ad-Daulah made no attempt to do 
anything in the matter. 

Such were the circumstances under which the 
Banu '1-Karam ruled over Aden, and I will now 
proceed to relate the divisions that occurred between 
them. 

Al-Mufaddal ibn Abi '1-Barakat, in the course of 
one of his wars, attacked Zabid. He was accom- 

* Eead From the time of the appointment ofal-^Abhds and Mas'ud. 

f Zuray' and his uncle Mas'ud were killed, as will be seen, 
before the walls of Zabid. A table showing the succession of the 
Zuiay'ite Princes is given in l!^ote 113. 



The Zurayites. 67 

panied by Zuray*, son of al-*Abbas, and by tlie 
latter's uncle MasTid, son of al-Karam, who were 
at that time Princes of Aden. Both were killed at 
the gates of Zabid, and they were succeeded at 
Aden by Abu 's-Su'ud son of Zuray', and by Abu 
'1-Gharat son of Mas'ud. They were succeeded 
in the rulership over Aden by the Da'y Saba, son 
of Abu 's-Su'iid, and Muhammad, son of Abu '1- 
Gharat. Next came Saba's son 'Aly al-A'azz al- 
Murtada, together with *Aly, son of Abi 'l-Gharat, 
and then the Da'y Muhammad, son of Saba.^^ *Aly 
ibn Abi '1-Gharat was the last descendant of Mas'ud. 
The Da'y Muhammad ibn Saba was succeeded by 
his son 'Imran. He died, and after him the country 
remained faithful in its allegiance to the family of 
Zuray', until the Zurayites were deposed by Sultan 
al-Mu*azzam Shams ad-Daulah Turan Shah, brother 
of Saladin son of Ayyiib, in the month of Dhu '1- 
Ka'dah [a.h. 569]. The Princes of Aden were at 
that time Muhammad and Abu 's-Su'iid, the two sons 
of 'Imran, son of Muhammad, son of Saba. Ibn 
Hurabali took a part in the events at Aden, neither 
the particulars nor the date of which I am able to 
recollect ; but there have been none in the family 
of al-Karam nobler than 'Imran, son of Hurabali 
(Muhammad?), or than Mufaddal, son of Zuray'. 
Nobility of character, though less than theirs, would 
be beyond power of description. The family of the 
Banu '1-Karam are also known by the name of adli- 
Dliib. They were, next to the Sulayhites, the most 
distinguished of the Arab ruling families in Yamau. 
Upon the death of Muhammad, son of Abu '1- 
Gharat, son of Mas'ud, son of al-Karam, he was 
succeeded by his brother 'Aly son of Abu '1-Gharat. 
He possessed the castle of al-Khadra, commanding 
the sea, the shipping and the city. The Da'y 
Saba, son of Abu Su'ud, son of Zuray', son of al- 
' Abbas, son of al-Karara the Yamite, who bore the 

r 2 



68 ^Oniarah. 

titles of the Unparagoned, the Victorious, Glory of 
the Empire, Honour of the Khallfato, Right Arm of 
the Empire, Sword of the Imam, Crown and Chief 
of the Arabs, Da'y of the Prince of the Faithful, — 
shared the sovereignty over Aden with the Sultan 
*Aly son of Abu '1-Gharat. He held its gates and 
wielded authority over all that entered the city 
from the land side. He owned the fortress of 
DumliJwah,* Ar-Rama (?), Sami*, Matran (?), and 
Dhubhan ; also part of al Ma'afir and of Janad. 
His possessions in the highlands were extensive.^ 
His sons were al-A'azz 'Aly, Muhammad, al-Mu- 
faddal, Ziyad, and Rauh. 



How THE SOVEKETGNTY OF *AlY IBN AbI 'l-GhAKAT 
CAME TO AN END AT AdEN, AND HOW IT PASSED 
INTO THE HANDS OP THE Da'Y SaBA. 

It has been related to me by the Ha'y Muhammad 
son of Saba and by certain Sheykhs of Aden, that 
they knew Ibn al-Khazary Abu '1-Kasim as deputy 
of 'Aly ibn Abi '1-Gharat over one half of Aden, and 
51 Sheykh Ahmad ibn 'Attab al-Hadhaly as deputy of 
Saba son of Abu 's-Su'ud, over the other half. 
Ibn al-Khazary dealt unrighteousl}^ in the division 
of the revenues, with Ahmad ibn 'Attab, and (his 
friends) the dependents of 'Aly son of Abu '1- 
Gharat, stretched forth their hands oppressively 
over the people. They created disorder and dis- 
turbance in the city and they cavilled at the Da'y 
Saba, making use of language calculated to excite 
anger and to offend their adversaries' pride. The 
Da'y was meanwhile assiduously occujDied, through 

* Khazraji says (see extracts in Note 57) that Dumluwah was 
captured by Zuray' iu a.h. 480. 



TJie Zurayites. 69 

good report and through evil report, in the collec- 
tion of money and corn. All who looked to him 
for protection were ill-treated and oppressed, the 
followers of 'Aly being the more powerful party. 
The Da'y bore his injuries in silence, but when his 
patience seemed likely to lead to the extinction of 
his authority, he determined upon an open struggle 
with his enemies. He appointed his deputy, the 
Slieykh as-Sa'id al-MuwafJ'ak Bilal son of Jarir, 
over Aden, and ordered him to stir up the people, 
and to promote war in the city. Bilal, who was a 
man of energy and sagacity, obeyed. Saba mean- 
while collected a force of Arabs from among the 
Banu Hamdan, and from among the tribes of Janb 
ibn As'ad (ibn Hurab ?), 'Anbas ('Ans ?), Khaulan, 
Himyar, Madhhij, and others. He hurried down 
from the mountains, [from Dumliiwah,] and con- 
fronted his enemies in Wadi Lahj. The Da'y Saba 
possessed in that valley a walled village, known by 
the name of Bany Abbah,^^ which he occupied with 
his brethren of the family of Zuray'. The retainers 
of his kinsman Mas'ud possessed in the same valley 
a large walled city called az-Za'azi'. The two 
parties encamped near their respective towns, and 
they fought one another with unexampled determi- 
nation. 

The cruelty of our kindred inflicts a deeper wound — than the 
blows of a sharp-cutting sword.®^ 

I have been told by the Da'y Muhammad ibn 
Saba, that he was out on one occasion with a recon- 
noitring party for Saba. They came in sight of 
'Aly ibn Abi 'l-Grharat and of his uncle Mani' ibn 
Mas'ud. No horse, said the son of Saba, ever 
carried braver or bolder men than these two. " AVe 
took to flight," he continued, " but we were over- 
2 taken by Mani' ibn Mas'ud." " Tell your father, 
youth," he shouted, " to stand firm, for this evening 



70 'Omarah. 

there shall surely be kisses bestowed upon us by 
the Jushamite maidens within his tents. '"^ When 
I informed my father of these words, he rode forth 
in person and addressed the Banu adh-Dhib, who 
were present, and who were his nearest kinsmen : 
'' The mercenary Arab horsemen (their allies) were 
not equal," he said, "to the heat of battle. Fire 
can be mastered only by him that kindles it. Meet 
your kinsmen and bear the fierce heat of battle 
yourselves, otherwise there is nought before you 
but defeat and disgrace." 

The two armies joined in action and one of our 
horsemen, charging Manl' son of Mas'ud, dealt 
him a thrust with his lance, which divided his 
upper lip and the extremity of his nose. The battle 
raged on both sides with lance-thrusts, heavy blows 
of the sword and the destruction of horses. The 
assembled Arabs looked eagerly on, but the Banu 
Hamdan at length charged, and interposed them- 
selves between the two parties. At the same 
moment, the combatants were separated by the 
Lahj, which came rushing in a torrent down its 
bed. The two parties stood still on either bank of 
the stream, conversing with one another. The Da'y 
Saba, or some other person, turned towards Maui' 
ibn Mas'iid. " What sayest thou," he asked, " 
Abu Mudafi', of the Jushamite maidens' kisses this 
evening ? " "I say of them," answered Man!', " as 
has been said by the poet al-Mutanabbi: — 

Lance-thrusts to those that love them are as kisses." " 

Mani'u's answer has ever since been greatly 
praised and admired, by reason of the aptness of his 
quotation to the circumstances. 

The war at az-Za'azi', said to me the Da'y 
Muhammad ibn Saba, endured for two years. 'Aly 
son of Abu '1-Gharat at -first distributed money 
without takino- account thereof, whilst the Da'v 



The Zttrayites. 71 

abstained from similar liberality, and the minds of 
the people were nigh to being turned against him ; 
but when 'Aly's cause gave way, the Da'y expended 
money with a liberality which it would never have 
entered the mind of any man to expect. I recollect, 
he continued, that on a certain day, a member of 
the tribe of Hamdan came into the presence of the 
Da'y Saba, who was then occupying a tent in his 
53 camp. *' Let me be a partaker of thy bounty, 
Abu Himyar," said the Hamdanite. No one was 
with them but myself. " Thou knowest," continued 
the man, " that war is a devouring fire, and that 
men and horses are its fuel. I desire of thee that 
thou pay me the price of my blood, which amounts 
to one thousand dinars." The Da'y consented. 
" Also," continued the man, " the blood money of 
my son So and so, and of his brother." He received 
two thousand dinars on their account. " May God 
preserve thee from evil, Abu Himyar," he there- 
upon said, " but there remains a claim for the 
horses that were destroyed." " Did destruction 
extend to the horses ? " asked the Da'y. " Pay me 
the price of the horses," answered the Hamdanite, 
" as thou hast paid me the blood money." The 
Da'y handed over to him a purse containing five 
hundred dinars. " But there is," said the man, 
*' another thing which I think thy generosity, 
Abu Himyar, will not allow thee to deny me." 
" What is it ? " "I desire to marry So and so, 
daughter of Such a one. Thou knowest how dis- 
tinguished a family they are, and I am not possessed 
of sufiicient wealth, to approach them in a suitable 
manner." The Da'y gave one hundred dinars. 
" Mayest thou prosper and increase in wealth," 
said the Hamdanite. "There remains but one 
thing more. It would ill become me to marry 
whilst my two sons are unable to do so." The 
Da'y gave him two hundred dinars, for each 



72 ^ Omar ah, 

son one liimdred. The Hamdanite arose, but on 
reaching the entrance of the tent, he came back and 
said : " By Allah ! I will not, of a certainty, ask 
thee another thing save this one, for which I have 
returned. I have a daughter who has not a 
husband. An evil thing it were that I and her 
brothers should marry, whilst she remains single." 
" What is to be done ? " asked the Da'y. " Pay me 
a sum w^herewith I may be able to marry her." 
The Da'y gave him one hundred dinars more and 
quoting the poet's saying, in the ra'jaz metre, he 
exclaimed : — 

** Zayd's beard had to be thinned, and it was plucked out by the 
roots," 

I was informed by the Da'y Muhammad ibn Saba 
and by Bilal ibn Jarlr al-Muhammady, that Saba 
expended upon the war with Sultan 'Aly son of 
Abu I'-Gharat, three hundred thousand dinars. His 
means were then exhausted, and he borrowed money 
from the merchants of Aden who supported his 
cause, such as the Sharif Abu '1-Hasan Muhammad 
ibn Abi 'l-'Omari, a descendant of (the second 
Khallfah) 'Omar ibn al-Khattab, Sheykh Abu '1- 
Hasan 'Aly ibn Muhammad ibn A'yan, Zafir ibn 
Farah and others. 
54 The Da'y Saba died at Aden, seven months after 
his conquest of az-Za'azi', still owing on account of 
the money he had borrowed, a debt of thirty 
thousand dinars, which was paid by his son, 
al-A'azz 'Aly ibn Saba. The Sheykh as-Sa'Id 
Bilal, son of Jarlr al-Muhammady, told me that 
when he took the fortress of al-Khadr.l at Aden, 
and captured the Honourable Lady Bah j ah, mother 
of Sultan 'Aly ibn Abi '1-Gharat, he found treasures 
under her keeping which it was not possible for him 
to match, although the whole of Aden had been in his 
possession for a considerable length of time. From 



The Ziirayites. 73 

Aden to Lahj, he also said, is the distance of a 
night's journey, and he remembered writing from 
Aden with the news of the conquest of the city, 
and of his having captured al-Khadra. He sent a 
messenger with the glad tidings to the Da'y Saba 
ibn Abi Su'iid. The same day on which he took 
al-Khadra, the Da'y captured the city of az-Za''azi', 
and Bilal's messeuger met one bringing similar glad 
tidings from the Da'y, a coincidence which, as he 
observed, was one of the most remarkable recorded 
in history. 

'Aly ibn Abi '1-Gharat took refuge in the two 
fortresses of Munif and al-Jabalah (?). They be- 
longed to the people of Saba Suhayb, whose country 
is the higher portion of Lahj.^^ He, Muhammad ibn 
Man? ibn Mas'ud and Ri'yah son of Abu '1-Gharat, 
were slain by Muhammad ibn Saba at Lahj in the 
year 545. 

The Da'y Saba entered Aden, but, as we have 
stated, he lived in it for only seven months. He 
was buried at the foot of at-Ta'kar within the city. 
He bequeathed his crown to his son 'Aly al-A'azz. 
His death occurred in a.h. 533, one year after the 
death of the Honourable Lady, the Queen (Sayyi- 
dah). 

The Amir al-A'azz al-Murtada 'Aly, son of Saba, 
dwelt at Dumluwah. He meditated putting Bilal 
to death at Aden, but died of consumption. He 
bequeathed the crown to his sons Hatim, 'Abbas, 
Mansiir, and Mufaddal, all of whom were in their 
infancy. He appointed Anls al-A'azzi and the 
Governor Yahya ibn 'Aly, who was his wazir and 
secretary, to be guardians of the children. 

Muhammad son of Saba, had fled from his 
brother, seeking refuge at Ta'izz and Sabir with 
the Amir MansQr ibn Mufaddal ibn Abi 'l-Barakat, 
from whom he received protection. When 'Aly 
died at Dumluwah, Bilrd sent certain Hamdanites 



74 'Omar ah ^ 

from Aden. They took Muhammad ibn Saba from 
under the protection of Mansur ibn al-Mufaddal, 
65 and brought him down to Aden. Bilrd placed him 
upon the throne and made the people and officers 
of the government swear obedience unto him. He 
married him to his daughter aud the wedding was 
celebrated with great splendour. He besieged Anis 
and the Governor Yahya ibn 'Aly at Dumluwali. 
The fortress was taken, and the whole country 
submitted to Bilrd. When I reproached Anis for 
having surrendered Dumluwah, a place of great 
strength, he answered that had he not submitted 
the female slaves and women would have beaten 
him to death with their clogs. Whilst tlie siege 
was proceeding he heard them, he said, saying to 
one another: "Curses be upon the slave who covets 
the like of what we require. AVho is he to oppose 
one so much better for us than himself?" meaning 
thereby the brother of their lord, Muhammad ibn 
Saba. 

The Kadi ar-Rashid Ahmad ibn az-Zubayr had 
started from the Holy Gates (of the Imperial Palace 
at Cairo) in a.h. 534, with a charter of investment 
to the noble office of Da'y, in the name of al-A'azz 
al-Murtada 'Aly, son of Saba. On his arrival, he 
found that 'Aly was dead, and he invested Muham- 
mad son of Saba, giving him the titles of the Most 
Great, the Crowned, the Mir/htij. Upon Muhammad's 
wazir Bilrd son of Jarir, he bestowed the titles of 
the Auspicious Chief, the Divinely -assisted, the 
Righteous. 

The Da'y Muhammad was a man of a generous 
disposition, universally praised, fond of eulogy, 
liberal in his rewards to those who eulogized him, 
and himself a skilful improviser. He treated men 
of culture and learning with generosity and often 
introduced one or more verses in his conversation. 
I once saw him on a feast day in the Musalla,*^^ out- 



The Zurayites. 75 

side the city of al- Juwwali (Hinwali ?), seated on a 
spot where he suffered from the hot rays of the sun. 
Poets were present who strove with one another for 
liberty to recite their verses. '' Tell them," he 
said to me, " and raise your voice so that they may 
hear, that they need not crowd around me, for I 
will not leave this place until they have finished." 
The poets were thirty in number and he rewarded 
each one. 

I remember being with him one night in his 
palace at al-Juwwah, whence I intended proceeding 
to Aden. He had with him the two Kadis, Abu 
Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Yafi'y the Janadite and 
Abu M-Fath ibn as-Sahl, besides others of his prin- 
cipal courtiers, such as the two sons of Kasim, Saba 
and Muhammad, both of whom were shining lights, 
and one of the two, Muhammad, was a physician 
and astrologer. Several of the eulogists I have 
spoken of, ten in number, had assembled at his 
gates. The Da'y produced the poems and, turning 
to the persons assembled around him, he asked what 
reward he ought, in their opinion, to bestow upon 
the authors. His companions mentioned various 
sums, not one of which exceeded one hundred 
56 dinars. "Make it," he said, "three hundred 
dinars. It is little enough." Thereupon he arose, 
and we superintended the division of the money. 

We were present with him one day at the palace 
of al-Hajr, at a place kuown as al-Jannat. Several 
poets were in his company, among others Safy ad- 
Daulah Ahmad ibn 'Aly al-Hakly and the chief 
Kadi Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Yafi'y the Janad- 
ite. He was a distinguished poet and author of 
extemporaneous verses, which no studied lines have 
ever excelled. Also the Kadi Yahya ibn Ahmad 
ibn Abi Yahya, Kadi of San'a, who, in the opinion 
of the people of Yaman, occupies a rank among 
poets equal to that of Ibn al-Kumm. The Da'y 



76 ^Oinarah. 

extemporized two lines of verse on a certain metre 
that occurred to him, and he promised to give the 
robes he wore and the money about his person, to 
him among the persons present, who should be the 
first to supplement his verses. The poets were 
slow in the accomplishment of their task and the 
Kadi Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Yafi'y distanced 
his companions in the race. He was close to me. 
I stole the paper out of his hand and I contrived 
to have his words in readiness on my lips. I 
thus appropriated the two lines he had composed. 
Standing up, I recited them to the Da'y, and re- 
ceived the Kadi's prize. His shot hit the mark, but 
I had purloined the arrow, and I carried off the 
money and the robes. The stream of the Da'y's 
liberality flowed in torrents for the benefit of the 
talented men about him. Not one of them but re- 
ceived a dress of honour and was rewarded with 
generous gifts. 

In the year 549 (read 547) the Da'y Muhammad 
ibn Saba purchased, from the Amir IMansur son of 
al-Mufaddal, all the strongholds that had formerly 
belonged to the Sulayhites.* They consisted of 
twenty-eight castles and cities, among which were 
the cities of Dhu Jiblah, Dhu Ashrak, and Ibb. 
He bought them at the price of one hundred thou- 
sand dinars. Mansur adopted his two fortresses of 
Sabir and Ta'izz as his places of residence and he 
divorced his wife.^' Her name was Arwa, daughter 
of 'Aly, son of Abd Allah the Sulayhite. The Da'y 
went up to Mikhlaf (Ja'far). He made Dhu Jib- 
lah his place of residence and married the repudiated 
wife of the Amir Mansur ibn al-Mufaddal. He 
married also the Honourable Wuhazite Lady, 
the dauo^hter of Sultan As'ad ibn Wail ibn 'Isa. 
He removed her place of residence from as-Sarihani 
to the palace of Ibn Siba'. The poets vied more 

• See Note 56. 



The Ztirayites. jj 

than ever with one anotlier in eulogies and con- 
gratulations on the subject of the fortresses he had 
acquired, and of the guarded and hidden jewels, the 
two wives above mentioned. The Da'y was intoxi- 
cated with gladness by his successes and his hands 
were widely opened in distributions of gifts. One 
morning I went up to Dhu Jiblah, accompanied by 
57 the Sheykh Abu '1-Hasan ibn 'Aly ibn Muhammad 
the Sulayhite and by the Sheykh al-Murajja al- 
Harani, and from Dhu Jiblah we proceeded to the 
fortress of Habb. Every paper that was handed to 
the Da'y, he marked with the words, Honour 5e- 
longeth to God alone. On reaching the castle, we 
■ reckoned up the papers in the possession of the poets. 
The Da'y's treasurers were the Sheykhs Ahmad ibn 
Miisa ibn Abi 'z-Zarr the governor and Rayhan 
al-Muhammady. The sum to be paid was found to 
amount to five thousand dinars. Sheykh Ahmad 
ibn Musa objected to it as unreasonably large and 
proposed that we should consult the Da'y on the 
subject. Sheykh Eayhan, however, answered that 
as for him, he was not wearied of his life. " By 
Allah ! " he said, " if you speak to him on the sub- 
ject, you will not leave his presence without uuder- 
goiug the effects of his anger." The entire sum 
was paid, that same day. The Kadi Yahya ibn 
Ahmad ibn Abi Yahya eulogized the Da'y at Dhu 
Jiblah in an ode, for which he was rewarded with a 
donation of five hundred dinars and with a dress of 
honour. 

I arrived from Tihamah at a time when I was 
indebted to the Prince for a sum he had confided to 
me for certain purposes of his own. I received a 
letter at Zabid, sent from Dhu Jiblah, in which he 
invited me to join him, which I did. When I stood 
before him, he asked me what I had brought him. 
I answered enumerating the things I had procured 
for him, to which he replied that he wanted nought 



78 ^Oinarah. 

but verses. " By Allah ! " I said to him, " I have 
not composed a word of poetry, nor can I do so for 
fear of the people of Zabid, who make my verses a 
subject of reproach to me." He, however, desisted 
not from pressing me until he put me to shame and 
I improvized lines on the same metre as that upon 
which the Kadi Yahya ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Yahya 
composed his verses. When I recited them he ex- 
claimed : "1 rewarded the Kadi with five hundred 
dinars and a dress of honour. I reward you with a 
like sum out of the amount in your hands, but in 
bestowing upon you a dress of honour, I will distin- 
guish you over him, by giving you the robes I have 
on at this moment," I received the money and the 
robes, and the circumstance was one of the causes 
of the hatred the Abyssinians entertained against 
me, and of their desire to kill me, a design from 
which I was preserved by God Most High.*^ 

The generous deeds performed by the Da'y Mu- 
hammad ibn Saba are more than it is possible to 
enumerate. He died in the year 548,* and was suc- 
^8 ceeded by his son 'Imran ibn Muhammad ibn Saba. 
The people of Zabid prohibited me from going to him, 
and God decreed my journey to Egypt in a.h. 551, 
as envoy from the prince of the two great and holy 
cities. I obtained, on returning to Yaman, a letter 
from Malik as-Srdih (Talai' ibn Ruzayk) to the Da'y 
'Imran son of Muhammad, asking him for a settle- 
ment of the account of moneys, for which, at the 
time of his father's death, I was still indebted and 
which amounted to three thousand dinars. " What 
is the purport of Malik as-Srdili's letter," inquired 
the Da'y. The Kadi ar-Rashid informed him in 
reply that it asked for a settlement of the account. 
" Let 'Omarah offer us two lines of verse," answered 
the Da'y, " in which he shall strictly observe the 

* See Note 70. 



The Zurayites. yg 

laws of rhyme, and tlie account sball be regulated." 
Then he asked for paper, and wrote as follows : — 

" In the name of God, the Merciful, the Gracious. I hereby 
declare, and I am 'Imran, son of the Mighty Da'y Muhammad, 
son of the Most Noble Da'y Saba, son of Abu Su'ud. son of Zuray', 
son of 'Abbas the Yamite, that the Jurist 'Omarah, son of al- 
Hasan * the Hakamite, is exempt from all liability for the money 
he owed and was unable to pay to our lord the Da'y Muhammad 
son of Saba, amounting to two thousand seven hundred Malikiyah 
dinars." 

I again departed from Arabia in the year 552. 
Travellers arriving in Egypt from Yaman never 
ceased relating, touching the strength of character 
of the Da'y and his generosity, things fit to humble 
Fortune when it shapes the course of events and 
the rain of heaven, when its copious and beneficent 
showers water the thirsty soil. 

He died in the year 560, leaving three sons, 
Muhammad, Abu Su'ud and Mansur, none of whom 
has yet attained the years of manhood at the present 
time, namely the month of Muharram of the year 
564 of the Hijrah, the blessings of God and His 
peace be upon its originator .^^ 

The following is a slight sketch (a supplement to 
the foregoing particulars), poor and inadequate as 
the residue of liquid at the bottom of a cup, of the 
history of the Auspicious, the Divinely-assisted, the 
Righteous Chief, Abu 'n-Nadi Jarir son of Bilal 
(read Bilal son of Jarir) al-Muhammady. 

"We have already mentioned that he governed 

S9 Aden on behalf of his master Saba. 'Alv al-A'azz 

allowed him to remain, and the city continued under 

his rule from the year 534 until 546 or 547, when 

he died. Worldly greatness is surely vanity ! ^" 

I have been told by Sheykh Ma'mar ibn Ahmad 
ibn 'Attab, and by the learned scholar Abu Bakr 
ibn Ahmad al-'Abdi, both of whom possessed 

* Son of Abu 'I-Hasan ^Aly ? 



8o ^ Omar ah. 

special knowledge of all that relates to Bilfil, tlint 
lie left in money alone six hundred and fifty thousand 
Maliki dinars and upwards of three hundred 
thousand dinars in Egyptian coin. He left also 
several huhars weight "^ of silver plate, consisting 
of ornaments, horses' and mules' trappings, swords 
and lances, inkstands, basins and ewers, candle- 
sticks, Ma'ash (?) articles for presents, bath-basins, 
drinking-cups, cloaks (?), silver lace, utensils en- 
crusted with gold, Sulayhi daggers, silver goblets 
and ha^liyat (?), weighing altogether five buhars and 
tw^o hundred pounds. As to clothing and merchan- 
dise, stores and warehouses were filled with them. 
Thus it was also in the matter of perfumes and such 
like. Also accoutrements and arms, rarities from 
India and beautiful objects from China, from North 
Africa and from 'Irak, variegated stuffs (?) from 
Egypt, from 'Oman and from Kirmrui, all in 
quantities which it is impossible to reckon. All 
passed over by his bequest into the possession of 
his master the Da'y IMuhammad, son of Saba. The 
latter in the course of two years spent the whole in 
works of piety and benevolence. 

Bilal died leaving several sons, gi'own up men. 
Among them were the Sheykh Mudafi' son of Bilrd, 
who succeeded him in the oflBce of wazir. He died, 
and the wazir Abu 'l-Faraj Yasir, son of Bilal al- 
Muhammady, assumed the guardianship of the two 
young Amirs, the sons of 'Imran ibn Muhammad, 
as well as that of their brother Mansiir.* Yasir is 
not inferior to his father in resolution and strength 
of character, or in bravery. As for the virtue of 
generosity, he is renowned for it, he is celebrated 
for it, and he is sur named after it. 

* The atove is the nearest sense I can give to the much 
mutilated sentence in our MS. But there is practically no room 
for doubt that a version, which represents Yasir as the guardian 
of 'Imran's children, is substantially incorrect. See Note 69, 



The Banii Najah. 8i 



60 History of the Family op N"ajah, the' Abyssinian 

Kings of Zabid. 

AL-Mu'ayyad Nasir ad-din Najah continued to rule 
over Tihamah, from the dominions of Ibn Tarf to 
Aden, the kings of the highlands showing respect for 
his dynasty, and dreading his power. This endured 
until the Da'y 'Aly son of Muhammad the Sulayhite 
brought about his death, by means of a slave girl, 
whom he sent to Najah as a present, in the year 452. 
The sons of NajTdi retained possession of Tihamah 
for two years after their father's death, and during 
that period affairs were conducted by one of their 
freedmen, of the name of Kahliln. They were men 
of resolute character, but some members of the 
family were still in their youth. 

Ere long the Da'y 'Aly the Sulayhite dispossessed 
them of their kingdom (in a.h. 455), and after their 
arrival in the Island of Dahlak they became dis- 
persed. Mu'arik, the eldest of the family, in an 
access of folly committed suicide. As for adh- 
Dhakhirah, she had barely attained the age of 
puberty. Sa'Id al-Ahwal, who afterwards slew the 
Sulayhite, (and Jayyash) were the two manliest 
characters of their house. Each cultivated litera- 
ture, and enjoyed a prolonged life and great power. 
But their father Najrd; brought up their elder brother 
Mu'arik to succeed him. 

Jayyash disguised himself and entered the city of 
Zabid. Having recovered possession of certain de- 
posits due to him by 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Tahir al- 
Kaybi, he returned to Dahlak, wliere he remained 
for a certain length of time, in the days of as- 
Sulayhi, applying himself with distinguished success 
to the acquisition of learning. Sa'id al-Ahwal and 
he were born of the same mother, but Sa'Id was 

G 



82 *Oinarah. 

tbe elder, and tlie adventures lie met with are the 
strangest that ever were recorded. 

He departed from Dahlak for Zabld in ano^er 
with his brother Jayj'ash, who had prevented him 
from practising treachery against the Prince of 
Dahlak. Sa'id concealed himself at Zabld in the 
house of the Ra'is Mula'ib the Khaulanite. This 
man belonged to the lower orders of the people, 
but he was more than any other person attached 
to the family of Najah. Sa'id dug for himself a 
refuge in the grounds occupied by the dwelling- 
places of Mulii'ib, and he generally abode therein. 
He then wrote to his brother Jayyash at Dahlak, 
ordering him to come to Zabld, and announcing the 
speedy downfall of the Sulayhites and the restora- 
tion of their own family. On Jayyash's arrival, 
Sa'id openly rose against his enemies at the head of 
a band of seventy men. Not one of them possessed 
a horse, nor had thej'" any other weapon than iron 
61 nails mounted on palm-sticks. Ahmad ibn Falah, 
chief of the Office of Control * at Zabid, has told 
me that when Sa'id went forth from the city, he 
and his followers met a mounted soldier. They 
killed him, and Sa'id appropriated the horse he was 
riding. Sa'id started from Zabid, on his Avay to 
attack as-Sulayhi, at the close of the ninth day of 
Dim '1-Ka'dah', of the year 473. 

" We set forth," says Jayyash son of Xajrdi, "by 
the sea-board road, avoiding the royal highway for 
fear of being intercepted by the enemy. By forced 
marches the distance to al-Mahjam could be per- 
formed in three days. The news of our insurrection 
had preceded us and had reached as-Sulayhi. Both 
the highlands and the plains were, at the time, 
filled with rumours. f The time had come, it Avas 

* Diwan at-Tahklk. See Makrizi's Khitaf, vol. ii. p. 401. 
t The conjunction tliumma, which occurs at this point, perhaps 
indicates an omission in the MS. 



The Banii Najah. 8 



said, for the uprising of Sa'id al-Almal son of 
Najah, and there was hardly a mosque or place of 
assembly, a college, or market, or public road, in 
which the matter was not discussed, though we 
endeavoured, from motives of prudence, to act 
secretly. But Sa'Id openly made oath by Grod Most 
High, that he would slay his enemy, that he was 
the destined master of the day, and he spoke in 
that tone to most people. 

•' As-Sulayhi, on hearing of our revolt, despatched 
against us a detachment of his army, consisting of 
five thousand Abyssinian spearmen, most of whom 
were our own servants and kinsmen, and he 
ordered them to bring him the heads of the squint- 
eyed Sa'id, of his brother, and of his other com- 
panions. 

" By adopting the sea-board road, we avoided the 
troops. I remember that when night closed in 
upon us at al-Murawi'ah,* in the province of al- 
Kadra, a man stepped forward from behind the 
hillocks in the valley, and addressing us, said that 
we had doubtless strayed from our way. We 
replied that it was so, whereupon he desired us to 
follow him, and he walked before us until day broke, 
when we lost sight of him. We underwent great 
fatigue and suffering from travelling barefooted by 
day and by night. Sa'id, walking in our midst 
whilst the horse was led, continually exclaimed : 
' morning of prosperity, of triumph, and of 
happiness ! Make ye haste unto the man, lest to- 
morrow he die otherwise than by our hands. By 
Allah ! to-morrow's sun shall not rise and he still in 
this world ! " We continued our march without 
intermission, until we at length entered the borders 
of the camp. 

* Al-Murawi'ah is mentioned in the Taj al-'Arus as the name 
of a village in Yaman, the burial-place of a member of the family 
of al-Ahdal. 

G 2 



84 ^Onnirah. 

"We were mistaken for servants and followers of 
as-Sulayhi, and none heeded us, saving 'Abd Allah 
son of Muhammad the Sulayhite, who, mounting his 
charger, suddenly called to his brother : * To horse, 
my lord ! for this, by Allah, is al-Ahwal son of 
Najali, with his armed following, of whom we have 
received warning by As'ad ibn Shihab's letter from 
Zabid.' As-Sulayhi, in reply to his brother, ex- 
claimed that he was destined to die at no other 
place but ad-Duhaym and BTr (the well of) Umra 
Ma'bad. He believed that the well (referred to in 
the prediction) was that bearing the same name, at 
which the Apostle of God (upon whom be blessings 
and salutations of peace) halted, on the occasion of 
his flight in company with Abu Bekr. But Mash'al 
the 'Akkite exclaimed : ' Defend thyself, for this, 
by Allah, is the well of Duhaym ibn 'Abs, and that 
mosque stands on the site of the tent of Umm (the 
mother of) Ma'bad, son of al-Harith the 'Absite.' 
On hearing these words," says Jayyash, " as-Sulayhi 
was overcome with despair, and he urined into his 
chain-armoured tunic. He never moved from the 
place where he stood, until we struck off his head 
with his own sword. I was the first to strike him, 
but one of Najfih's slaves took part with me in the 
deed. He it was that pierced as-Sulayhi with his 
spear, and I struck off" his head with my own hand 
and mounted it upon the shaft of the royal umbrella. 
I ordered the drums to be beat and the trumpets to 
be sounded, and I mounted Sulayhi's Hadramauti 
horse named adh-Dhabbrd. As for 'Abd Allah son 
of Muhammad the Sulayhite, the bravest of Arab 
horsemen, he charged us and killed several of our 
people. One of our men grappled him, and both fell 
to the ground. ' Kill us both,' cried the man, ' for 
my people will rejoice at my not having perished 
at the hands of the vile.' Sa'id thereupon," says 
Jayyash, " transfixed both with a spear at one blow. 



The BanTi Najah. 85 

He then struck off the head of 'Abd Allah, imao-in- 
ing him to be his brother 'Aly the Sulayhite. 

" Sa'id mounted the horse of *Abcl Allah, and 
with the two heads borne aloft before him he pro- 
ceeded to the door of the mosque, in which the 
Lady Asmii, daughter of Shihab and wife of as- 
Sulayhi, was. ' Come forth,' he said to her, and 
offer thy morning greeting unto the two Sultans ! ' 
' May God never bestow upon thee the greeting of 
his favours, Ahwal ! ' she replied. And, with her 
face uncovered, she recited the line composed by 
Imru '1-Kais the Kindite, — 

3 Verily none so insolently trample upon thee as — the feeble boaster. 
None so arrogant in humbling as he that hath been abased.'" 

*' Sa'Id sent a messenger to the five thousand, 
whom as-Sulayhi had despatched on the previous 
night with orders to slay him. ' As-Sulayhi,' he 
said, ' has suffered death. I am a man of your own 
race, and the honours I gain are acquired by you.' 
He remained at the gate of the mosque, the two 
heads set np before him, and the air filled with the 
sound of the beating of drums, until the men arrived. 
They saluted him, and with their aid he plundered 
and captured and massacred the soldiers of 
as-Sulayhi. Sa'id," continues Jayyash, " became 
intoxicated with pride, and assumed a haughty 
demeanour even towards me his brother, son both 
of his father and of his mother. I advised him to 
show kindness to the Lady Asma, and to grant an 
amnesty to the Princes of the Sulayhite family who 
accompanied her. They were one hundred and 
seventy in number, all mistrusted by Sulayhi, who 
feared lest, in his absence, they should betray him. 
I advised him also to spare the Kahtanite chieftains, 
who were likewise with her, thirty-five in number, 
to send, through the Princess, a letter to her son 
al-Mukarram son of 'Aly, to write that his blood 



86 ^Omarah. 

feud was satisfied, that he had won back his king- 
dom, that in kindness to al-Mukarram he sent him 
his mother, guarded and protected, and that he had 
granted an amnesty to al-Mukarram's kinspeople. 
' By Allah, my lord,' I said to him, * if thou do this, 
the Banu Kahtan will not dispute thy sovereignty 
over Tihamah, and if thou decline my advice, tlieir 
sense of wounded honour will to a certainty stir and 
impel them to invade thy country.' Sa'Id answered 
me in the words of the ancient poet, — 

Beware of sparing the viper, after crushing her tail. — If thou art 
wise, her head shall share the fate of her tail. 

*' He then ordered the Sulayhites to be brought 
forth, and they were slain to the last man. The 
mercy of God be upon them ! I saw an old man 
among them, who sought to protect himself behind 
his son, and the spear passed through the bodies of 
both. May God preserve us from the grievous 
pressure of calamity ! I shall never forget," con- 
tinues Jayyash, " the sight of as-Sulayhi's head 
mounted upon the shaft of the royal umbrella, nor 
the voice of the Kur'an reader : Say^ God, Lord 
of Eminre, Thou givest sovereignty unto ivJiom Thou 
ivillest, and Thou takest it from tvhom Thou wiliest. 
Thou raisest whom Thou wiliest, and Thou ahasest 
whom Thou icillest. In Thy hands is all good, and 
64 Thy boundless iiower is over all things.*' Neither 
can I forget the words of the poet al-'Othmani, part 
of an ode which he improvized on the spot, and in 
which he described the royal canopy : — 

How unsightly was his face under its shade ! — How comely his 
his head upon its stem ! " 

Three days after the battle, Sa'id departed for 
Zabid, carrying the two heads with him. The vain 
possession of a kingdom was one of the spoils of his 

* Kur'an, S. iii. v. 25. 



The Banu Najali. 87 

victory, together witli a large amount of booty. It 
comprised two thousand horses and three thousand 
camels, with their harness and furniture. He en- 
tered Zabid on the sixteenth day of the month of 
Dhu '1-Ka'dah of the year 473, with the heads of 
as-Sulayhi and his brother borne before the litter 
of the Honourable Lady Asma daughter of Shihab. 
He placed her in the house of Shahar, and the two 
heads were set up opposite her casement. 

As'ad ibn Shihab fled from Zabid, and took 
refuge with al-Mukarram at San'a. The death of 
as-Sulayhi filled the hearts of all men with dread of 
Sa'id ibn Najah. The governors of the (mountain) 
fortresses seized possession of the places confided 
to their rule, and the authority of al-Mukarram was 
all but destroyed. That of Sa'id in Tihamah, on 
the contrary, acquired great strength, and he sent 
persons to Abyssinia to purchase for him twenty 
(thousand) spearmen. Al-Mukarram continued 
deprived of all knowledge of his mother, the 
Honourable Lady Asma daughter of Shihab, until 
he attacked Zabid, and rescued her in the manner 
we have already related. Sa'id subsequently re- 
turned,* recaptured the city, and expelled the 
governors appointed by al-Mukarram. He continued 
to rule over it until he was killed in a.h. 481, in the 
battle of the castle of Sha'ir, the result of a strata- 
gem contrived by Queen Sayyidah, daughter of 
Ahmad, and wife of the King al-Mukarram, as has 
likewise been mentioned. 

* From Dahlak, in a.h. 479 {liliL). 



88 ^Ouiarah. 



How Jayyash son of Na.taii went to India, accom- 
panied BY THE WAZIK KasIm AL-MdLK AbU 

Sa'Id Khalf son of Abu Tahir the Omayyad, 
descendant op suleyman ibx hlsham son of 
'Abd al-Malik. 

Jayyash proceeds with bis relation as follows : — 
*' After these events I disguised m^'self, and I went 
to Aden, accompanied by the wazir Khalf, son of 
65 Abu Tahir. We proceeded to India in the year 
481, and after remaining in that country for six 
months, we returned the same year to Yaman. 
One of the most wonderful things I experienced in 
India was on the occasion of our meeting a man 
who came from Sarandib. Everyone rejoiced at 
his presence, and it was believed that he possessed 
knowledge of the future. Upon our questioning 
him respectiugour affairs, he gladdened us with pre- 
dictions, not one word of which failed to be accom- 
plished. I bought an Indian slave girl, and she 
arrived with me iu Yaman, being at that time in 
her fifth month of pregnancy. On landing at Aden, 
I sent the wazIr Khalf in advance of me to Zabid, 
by the sea-board road, and I ordered him to spread 
reports of my having died in India, to apply for a 
personal amnesty, to acquaint me with the actual 
situation of our affairs, and to inform me who of 
our people remained with the Abyssinians. I my- 
self went to Dhu Jiblali, where I fully acquainted 
myself with the condition of al-]\Iukarram ibn 'Aly, 
how he had given himself over to the pursuit of 
pleasure, how he had become physically weakened, 
and how he had abandoned the direction of affairs 
to his wife. Queen Sayyidah daughter of Ahmad, 
From the hi^-hlands I descended to Zabld, where I 
joined the wazIr Ibn Khalf, and received from him 



The Banu Najuh. 89 

intelligence respecting our friends, our kinsmen 
and our servants, which filled me with satisfaction. 
He told me that they were in great numbers in the 
country, but that they wanted a leader. I assumed 
the guise of an Indian, allowed my beard to spread 
over my face, my hair and nails to grow long, and 
I covered one of my eyes with a black cloth. I 
dwelt close to the royal palace, and when people 
went forth in the morning, I used to proceed to the 
mastabah (bench at the outer gate) of 'Aly ibn al- 
Kumm, who was wazir to the governor appointed 
by the King al-Mukarram ibn 'Aly. I heard him 
say one day (as he went past?), 'By Allah, if I could 
find a dog of the family of Najah, of a certainty I 
would make him King of Zabld.' This was said in 
consequence of some cause of offence that had arisen 
between him and the governor As'ad ibn Shihab. 
Husayn, son of 'Aly the Kummite, the poet came 
forth on a certain day. He was at that time the 
most skilful chess-player of all the inhabitants of 
Zabid. ' Indian,' he asked me, ' art thou a good 
chess-player? ' I answered that I was. We played, 
and I beat bim at the game, whereupon he barely 
restrained himself from violence ao^ainst me. He 
went in to his father and told him that he had been 
66 beaten at chess. His father replied that there had 
never been a person at Zabid who could overcome 
him, excepting only Jayyash the son of Najah, and 
he, he continued, has died in India. 'Aly, the father 
of Husayn, then came forth to me. He was an ex- 
ceedingly skilful player and we played together. I 
was unwilling to defeat him, and the match ended 
in a drawn game. He was greatly pleased with me, 
and admitted me to his intimacy. Every day and 
every evening he used to say: ' God speed you unto 
us, family of Najah ! ' At night I used to join 
the wazir Kbalf, and we were parted during the 
day. I occupied myself, meanwhile, in writing to 



90 ^OmaraJi. 

the Abyssinians who were scattered in the pro- 
vinces, bidding them to be in readiness. When five 
thousand spearmen had assembled, dispersed in the 
outskirts of the city and within its walls, I told 
the wazir Khalf that a certain sum was due 
to me by 'Omar ibn Suhaym. I desired him to 
receive ten thousand dinars and to distribute the 
money among the men who had assembled, which 
he did. I (again) saw the wazir at night, and 
informed him that my Lord the Kii'id Husayn ibn 
Salamah had appeared to me in my sleep. He had 
promised me that the kingdom we desired to 
resfain would return nnto us, and that the event 
would occur on the night of the delivery of the 
Indian slave girl. Husayn, I moreover told him, 
after speaking these words, had turned to a man on 
his right hand and had asked : 'Is it not so, 
Prince of the Faithful ? ' and the man so addressed 
replied : ' Yea verily, and sovereignty will belong 
to the descendants of the child for a long period of 
time.' " 

" I remember that on a certain day," continues 
Jayyash, " 'Aly ibn al-Kumm returned from the 
palace to his own house, in a state of extreme anger. 
On becoming calmer he said to me : ' Come up, 
Indian, that I may play chess with thee.' Whilst 
we were playing, his son Husayn entered and beat 
one of his slaves with a whip. I was struck by 
the end of the whip, and I heedlessly uttered an 
exclamation such as habitually escaped me whenever 
anything startled me. The words I used were : 
* I am Abu 't-Tami ! ' ' Indian,' asked the old 
man, ' what is thy name ? ' I answered, ' Bahr.' 
' Bahr ! ' he said, ' by Allah ! the epithet Abu 't- 
Tami is well suited to that name.' '^^ I repented," 
continues Jayyash, " of what I had said, and I began 
to mistrust my companions. 

" When the time had come for the recovery of our 



The Banu Najah. 91 

possessions, in accordance with God's decree, it 
happened that I played chess with Husayn, the 
poet, son of al-Kumm. No person was present but 
67 his father 'Aly, who sat on a raised seat, giving 
directions to his son. He promised Hnsayn that 
if he defeated me, he would send him to al-Mukar- 
ram and to Queen Sayyidah, in charge of the 
revenues of that year, and that he would give him 
the present that would, as customary, be offered 
to the Governor of Tihamah, a sum amounting to 
several thousand dinars. I purposely played a care- 
less game with Husayn, desiring to conciliate his 
father, and I allowed him to win. Husayn became 
intoxicated with joy and gave vent to his feelings 
in foolish words, with which he exulted over me. I 
bore with him for his father's sake, but he stretched 
forth his hand and snatched away the black cloth 
that covered one of my eyes. His father stood up 
reprobating the act, whilst I arose in extreme anger. 
An involuntary exclamation escaped me according 
to the habit I had contracted, and I uttered the 
words : ' I am Jayyash ! ' It was not possible 
for me to remain, but 'Aly ibn al-Kumm sprang 
after me, bare-footed and trailing his cloak. He 
overtook and stopped me, and then bringing forth 
a copy of the Holy Volume, he swore an oath upon 
it, which completely tranquillized me. No person 
was present, and 1 also took oath unto him. He 
ordered the palace of as-Sulayhi, the Dar al-'Izz, 
to be vacated. It was carpeted and hung with 
curtains and the Indian slave girl was removed 
thither, together with male and female servants, 
provisions and furniture. He retained me in his 
house until night had set in, when he allowed me 
to depart. I entered the palace and found that the 
slave girl had given birth to my son al-Fatik, between 
sunset and the hour of evening prayer. 'Aly ibn 
al-Kumm came to me that night. He warned 



92 ^Omcirah, 

me that what had occurred could uot long remain 
concealed from As'ad ibn Shihab, and in reply I 
informed him that I had five thousand spearmen 
in the city. ' Victory is in thy hands,' replied 
*Aly ; * declare thyself publicly.' I told 'Aly 1 was 
unwilling that harm should befall As'ad ibn 8hihab, 
who had done all he could for our family and chil- 
dren, and through whose influence they had been 
spared and treated with kindness. Ibn al-Kumm 
desired me, in reply, to act therein as I thought 
proper." 

Jayyash ordered the drums and trumpets to be 
sounded. The people of the city and five thousand 
Abyssinians rose in arms along with him. Ibn 
Shihab was taken prisoner. *' Naught can defend 
us against you, family of Najah," he said to 
Jayyash, " for man's fortunes are as the buckets of 
a well (which rise full of water for the benefit now 
of one, then of another). But such as I ask not 
for mercy." " And such as thou, Abu Hassfm," 
C8 answered Jayyash, '* shall not suffer harm." Jayyash 
treated As'ad and his children with kindness, and 
sent him forth with all the property he possessed, 
and with all his family. 

"I took possession," sa^^s Jayyash, '* of the Govern- 
ment House and of its contents, in the morning that 
followed the night on which my son Fatik was 
born, and the promises made to me by Husayn ibn 
Salamah were exactly fulfilled. 

" Ere a month had elapsed, I was at the head of 
twenty thousand spearmen, men who were our 
servants and kinsmen and who were hitherto dis- 
persed in the provinces.* Praised be He who 
exalteth them that were abased, and giveth abun- 
dance unto them that were in want ! " 

* I have suggested in a note to the Arabic text, the substitu- 
tion — though not altogether satisfactory — of jj-sLi;— * for ^i>-.\-..,^_ 
The word ^^.ia.(Lu> has since then occurred to me as a more pro- 
bable reading. 



The Ban a Najah. 93 

Thenceforward Jayyasli suffered no material 

harm at the hands of al-Mukarram, none greater 

than incursions into the territories of Zabid. It 

was in this condition of affairs that Hasayn ibn al- 

Kumm composed the following line, addressed to 

Jayyash upon his slaying the chief Kadi al-Hasan 

(Husayn?) ibn Abi 'Akamah : — - 

Dost thou flee when al-Mukarram poiseth his lance ? — And dost 
thou display thy bravery against one who neither sought 
favour nor excited hostility % '" 

He alluded also to the same subject in an ode 
which will be mentioned hereafter. 

Thou hast dealt nnrigliteously, Jayyash, in slaying al-Hasau. — 
By his wicked slaughter, thou hast destroyed (lit. trans-pierced) 
the glory (the eye) of his age. 

Jayyash continued ruler of Tihamah from 482 
until the year 498, when he died, in the month of 
Dhu '1-Hijjah (the last month of the year). The 
children he left were al-Fatik son of the Indian 
concubine, Mansur, Ibrahim, 'Abd al- Wahid, adh- 
Dhakhlrah and Mu'arik. It is also said that Jayyash 
died in the month of Ramadan of the year 500, but 
the first-mentioned date is the more probable one. 

He was succeeded by his son al-Fatik, who how- 
ever was opposed by his brothers Ibrahim and 'Abd 
al-AYahid. The former was a perfect horseman as 
well as benevolent, cultured and generous, whilst 
*Abd al-AVahid was beloved and trusted by the army. 
They fought with one another, their father's slaves 
taking part in their divisions, but eventually al- 
Fatik son of Jayyash triumphed over his brother 
'Abd al-Wrdnd. He pardoned him, treated him 
39 with kindness, enriched him and conciliated him. 
As for Ibrahhn, he took refuge with As'ad ibn 
Wa'il ibn 'Isa the Wuhazite, who received him with 
such hospitality as has never been surpassed. The 
slaves of Filtik had meanwhile increased in number 
and had waxed in power. 



94 ^ Omar ah. 

Fatik died in the year 503, leaving a son Mansur, 
below the age of maturity. His father's slaves 
placed him upon the throne, but Ibrahim son of 
Jayyash, upon the death of his brother Fatik, col- 
lected troops and invaded Tihamah. He was con- 
fronted by the slaves of Jayyash, and the two parties 
halted opposite one another near a village named 
[Huwayb, in "Wadi Zabid]. The city having been 
vacated by the officials of Fatik, who held the power 
of Ibrahim son of Jayyash in small estimation, 'Abd 
al- Wahid, Ibrahim's brother, arose in arms, took 
possession of Zabid and seized the Government 
House. The eunuchs and servants came forth by 
nicrht with their master Mansiir, and fearinor 'Abd 
al- Wahid on his account, they enabled him to escape 
by letting him down by means of a rope, from the 
walls of the city. Mansur took refuge with the 
retainers of his father Fatik, but the people turned 
away from him and from his supporters, and 
attached themselves to 'Abd al-Wahid on his be- 
coming master of Zabid, he being beloved by the 
troops. 

When Ibrahim son of Jayyash beheld that his 
brother had forestalled him in the attainment of 
supreme power at Zabid and in the possession of 
the country's strongholds, he joined Husayn ibn 
Abi '1-Hafat al-Hajury, who was at tliat time at 
al-Jurayb. The Banu Abi '1-Hafat belong to the 
family of the Banu Jurayb son of Sharahbll, and they 
are reorarded as descendants of Hamdan.^^ As for 
al-Mansiir son of Fatik and his father's slaves, they 
souofht refu2:e with the Kino; al-Mufaddal son of 
Abu 'l-Barakat the Himyarite Prince of Ta'kar, 
and at Dhu Jiblah, with the Honourable Lady the 
Queen Sayyidah, daughter of Ahmad the Sulayhite, 
at whose hands they met with a hospitable recep- 
tion. After a time the slaves of Fatik bound them- 
selves by an agreement with al-Mufaddal to relin- 



The Banu Najah. 95 

quish in his favour one fourth of their country, iu 
return for his alliance and for his aid against 'Abd 
al-Wahid son of Jayyash. Al-Mufaddal accord- 
ingly drove 'Abd al-Wahid out of Zabid and placed 
the supporters of Mansiir in possession of the city. 
[This was in the year 504.] He then, however, 
formed a design to act treacherously towards the 
family of Fatik and to take possession of the coun- 
try. But he received intelhgence that the fortress 
of Ta'kar had been seized by certain Jurists and 
that they had possessed themselves of an amount 
of wealth such as no person had ever known. Al- 
Mufaddal hastily left Zabld, turning himself unto no 
one, and there happened that which we have already 
related, how he inflicted death upon himself by 
poison, on beholding his concubines in the midst of 
men, and clad in bright coloured apparel, singing 
with tabours in their hands. 

Thenceforward supreme power was held by 
Mansiir, son of Fatik and by his father's retainers. 
The descendants of Fatik occupied the throne as 
Princes of the country, and the wazirs were selected 
from among the descendants of his slaves. Of 
these princes there was Mansur son of Fatik. Next 
was Fatik son of Mansur, whose mother was the 
Honourable and virtuous Lady, the distinguished 
Pilgrim ['Alam]. When Fatik son of Mansur 
died without issue, the succession passed on to the 
son of his paternal uncle, who bore likewise the 
name of Fatik, and who was son of Muhammad son 
of Mansur, son of Fatik son of Jayyash (read son 
of Muhammad son of Fatik son of Jayyash). His 
accession took place in the year 553 (read in 531, 
and he perished in 553). With him the dynasty 
came to an end, and in the year 554 its power 
passed into the hands of 'Aly ibn Mahdy, who had 
rebelled in Yam an. 

The descendants of Fatik son of Jayyash pos- 



96 ''Omarah. 

sessed none but the outward attributes of royalty. 
The Khutbah was recited in their names next after 
that of the Abbasside Khalifah, the coinage bore 
their titles, they rode forth under the royal um- 
brella on festival days, and they ratified the deci- 
sions of the Council. But all actual power, that of 
commanding and forbidding, the conduct of affairs, 
the defence of the frontiers and the accreditins: of 
envoj^s, belonged to their slaves the wazirs, the 
slaves of Fatik son of Jayyash and of IMansur his son. 
Although these wazirs "were Abyssinians, no Arab 
king surpassed them in personal merit or in aught 
but in nobility of lineap^e. They were noted for 
generosity, for their brilliant estate, and for com- 
bining renown in war with celebrated achievements 
in times of peace. 

The first to hold the ofiice of wazir was Anis al- 
Fatiki, who was member of an Abyssinian tribe 
named the Jazalis, to which the kings of the dynasty 
of Najah themselves belonged. Anls was stern and 
harsh, greatly feared, but brave, celebrated among 
the people, and just. He fought against the Arabs 
71 with the result that they were effectually deterred 
from making attacks upon Tihamah. After a time 
he became arrogant and tyrannical, and raised for 
himself a vast and strongly-built palace, the halls 
of which measured thirty cubits in width, and which 
contained saloons of the width of forty cubits. He 
adopted also the use of the royal umbrella, and 
struck coins in his own name. He formed at 
length treasonable designs against his master al- 
Mansur; but knowledge of his intentions was 
divulged, through his favourites, to the slaves of 
Fatik, who contrived a plan for his overthrow. 
Their master Mansiir son of Fatik [who had at- 
tained the 3^ears of discretion], prepared a feast in 
the Government House, to which he invited Anis, 
and on the arrival of the wazir he struck off his 



The Banu Naja/i. 97 

liead. He made a selection from the g;oods and 
harim of the wazir. Among that which Mansiir 
acquired by purchase out of the heritage of Anis, 
was a slave girl, an accomplished singer, named 
'Alam, who bore him a son of the name of Fatik. 
She was the Honourable and pious Lady, the assi- 
duous performer of the pilgrimage by land and by 
sea, attended by natives of Yaman, w^hom she pro- 
tected from the dano-ers of the journey and against 
unjust taxation and exactions. 

Among other wazirs, after AnTs, was the Sheykli 
Mann Allah al-Filtiki, the next after Husayn ibn 
Salamah to build walls around Zabld. In his life 
are combined things that were creditable to him 
and others that were discreditable. Of the former 
were his splendid generosity, his bravery and his 
gravity of character. He it was who defeated Ibn 
Is^ajlb ad-Daulah near the gate of Zabid, and killed 
of his followers one hundred Arabs, three hundred 
Armenian archers and five hundred Blacks. [This 
was at the end of the year 518.] He fought 
another battle witli As'ad ibn Abi '1-Futuh, in 
which upwards of one thousand Arabs were killed. 
He also granted endowments to the Hanafite and 
Shafi'ite Jurists' Colleges, which enriched them 
beyond all other similar establishments, with lands, 
articles of utility and convenience, and houses. He 
liberally rewarded his eulogists. I was told by the 
Jurist Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn 'Aly as- 
Sahhiimi (the mercy of God be upon him !), who was 
tutor to the wazir Mann Allah's sons, that he could 
remember having bound eulogistic verses in praise 
2 of the wazir, and that they formed ten large volumes, 
the compositions of excellent, celebrated and well- 
known poets. It was Mann Allah who expelled 
Ahmad ibn Mas'ud al-Jazali and Muflih al-Fiitiki. 
They were the two leaders of the Abyssmian cavalry, 
and possessed the power of binding and loosing at 

H 



98 ^Omurah. 

Zabld. The fears they entertained of Mann Allah 
compelled them to fly, and they sought refuge in 
the highlands. He thereby acquired absohite 
power, and his voice became supreme. 

Other circumstances in the life of Mann Allah, 
such as here follow, must be remembered to his 
discredit. His first act, on being appointed wazir 
after the slayiug of Anis, by Mansur son of Fatik 
son of Jayyash in the year -517, was to bring about 
the death of his master Mansur by poison, and to 
set upon the throne the Prince's son Fatik ibn 
Mansur,. at that time a young child.'^ 

Mansur, his father Fatik and others of the family 
of Jayyash left at their death more than a thousand 
concubines. Every one of these fell into the hands 
of the wazlr Mann Allah, with the exception of ten 
women, favourites of Mansur son of Filtik. Among 
these was the Honourable Lady, the Queen, mother 
of Fatik son of Mansur. She forsook the palace 
and built unto herself a house outside the city, 
w^herein the wazh' could not penetrate by night, 
either under a false pretence or with valid reason. 
Such was her position, notwithstanding that her son 
was King ; but she guarded herself from danger 
by abandoning her son's palace, and she confided 
the care of the Prince to the eunuchs, his father's 
slaves. Another of these women was Umm Abi 
'1-Jaysh (mother of Abu '1-Jaysh), a native by 
birthplace and breeding. She had a daugliter 
by Mansur, and received the name of Umm Abi '1- 
Jaysh on account of the disorders we are relating.'^ 
She was of surpassing beauty and an accomplished 
singer. Her life was prolonged down to my time. 
I was in the habit of entering into her presence and 
of sitting before her, being trusted with the care 
of letters that passed between her and Sultan 'Abd 
Allah ibn As'ad ibn Wa il the Wuhazite, who had 
married the daughter she had borne to Mausiir son 



The Danu Najah. 99 

of Fatik. Another was the HoDOurable Lady Riyad. 
Also the Ladies Umm Abiha, Jinan al-Kubra and 
Tamanni. The mother of Fatik had no fellow- 
3 wife but the last-mentioned. 

God having decreed the destruction of Mann 
Allah al-Fatiki, the wazir fixed his desires upon the 
daughter of Mu'arik son of Jayjash, who was cele- 
brated for her beauty, and he asked her to surrender 
herself to him. She offered to ransom herself with 
forty virgins chosen from among her slaves, but he 
refused. She made complaint to the adherents of 
her uncle Fatik and of her cousin Mansiir son of 
Fatik, but they dreaded the wazir and could not 
help her. Thereupon the Honourable Lady Umm 
Abi '1-Jaysh said : " I will protect you against 
him." She brought the daughter of Mu'arik son 
of Jayyash from the royal Palace to her own dwell- 
ing, and she then sent a message to Maim Allah : — 
*' You have given rise to reports by your manner of 
acting," she said to him, " injurious both to your- 
self and to us. If you had addressed yourself to me, 
I would have served you effectually and no person 
would have known." The wazir was overjoyed and 
letters passed between him and the Lady, until at 
length he sent to tell the Princess that he would 
visit her at her house, in disguise, on the ensuing 
night. " God," she answered to the messenger, 
" hath raised the wazir to an exalted rank, which 
forbids his doing as he proposes. I myself will 
visit him at his house." AVhen it was night she 
accordingly came. She sang to him and he drank, 
and he was intoxicated with delight. She yielded 
herself to him, but she then brought about his 
death by means of a cloth impregnated with a deadly 
poison. His flesh mouldered away and he died 
that same night. The son of Mansur buried the 
body in his stables. The earth was levelled and 
smoothed over the grave, and its site continues 

H 2 



lOO 



'Omar ah. 



unknown unto tliis day. Mann Allah's death 
occurred on the night of Saturday, the fifteentli 
of Jamadi '1-Awwal of the year 524."^ 

He was succeeded in the office of wazir to Fatik 
son of Mansiir, by Ruzayk al-Fatiki, a brave and 



generous man. 



As to his bravery, it has been related to me by 
Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah the Yafi'ite and Hira- 
yarite, who was secretary to the wazlr, that he saw 
Ruzayk al-Fatiki one Friday, a memorable day of 
rivalry between him and Muflih. Seven spears 
were pointed against him, he wearing a double suit 
of mail. He cut through the greater number of 
the spears with liis sword, and although two struck 
him, he retained a firm seat in his saddle. Muflih 
74 called out : " Out down the liorse, or the rider 
will not fall to the gi'ound ! " Ruzayk thereupon 
charged Muflih, and wnth one blow aimed at the 
horse's back behind the saddle, he divided the 
animal into two separate parts. Muflih fell to the 
ground, and the Banu Mash'al, who are an Arab 
tribe,* interposed for his protection. As to his 
generosity, it was chiefly shown to poets. 

No man could eat so much as he, and his power 
to devour large quantities of food was such, that it 
became proverbial. He had thirty children, male 
and female. [After his death], the claims of the 
heirs to his estate and of those among his children 
and his children's children who died before the 
division, passed from one to another. The rights to 
the succession became subdivided and the problem 
of the division so complicated, that not one among 
the Doctors of the law was able to undertake its 
solution. The wazh' Muflih, and the K^ ids Ikbal 
and Mas'ud, retainers of Fatik, were each desirous 
of making purchases of land and houses from the 
estate, but were unable to do so in consequence of 

* See Note 90. 



The Banu Najah. loi 

the impossibility of determining the portion belong- 
ing to each heir. 

in the year 539 I found at Aden an old man, a 
native of Hadramaut, of the name of Ahmad ibn 
Muhammad al-Basib (the Reckoner). He was an 
accountant, skilled in the laws of inheritance, up- 
wards of eighty years of age, and he was on his 
way to perform the pilgrimage. He was extremely 
poor and had never, since God created him, pos- 
sessed so much as two diDars. He disbelieved the 
statement of any person who asserted he had seen 
a sum of one thousand dinars, for he had been 
brought up in a part of the country of Kindah 
adjoining ar-Raml. A ship was wrecked on the 
neighbouring sea-shore, and one of the persons on 
board, a learned and pious man, was cast on shore 
ou the sands of ar-Raml, in the country of Kindah. 
This was the Sheykh Ahmad al-Farady the Jurist.* 

I took him to my dwehing-place at Aden, I 
clothed him and gave orders that he should be 
hospitably treated and fed, that he be cleansed and 
that his beard and his hands and feet be stained 
with henna. Having thus provided for his com- 
fort, we travelled together on the same camel from 
Aden to Zabid, balancing one another's weight in 
the litter on eitlier side. I promised that he should 
accompany me on the pilgrimage and that I would 
■5 supply him with all his requirements. He rejoiced 
thereat, and relying upon my promises, his mind 
was set at ease. 

I spoke to him one night, as ^e were riding, on 
the subject of the succession of the family of Ru- 
zayk, in which there were fifty-one separateinterests. 
He rehearsed the particulars as if he were learning 
them by rote, and continued thus until dawn. Sleep 

* The above and tlie foregoing passages are printed as thoy 
stand in the MS. They have suflered greatly at the hands of the 
copyists, but the general sense is sufficiently plain. 



I02 'Omar ah. 

did not take possession of me, owing to my exceed- 
ing rejoicing over his learning. He then said to 
me that if I would consent to halt at the well we 
had reached, foregoing our journey for that day, he 
would undertake not to recite his midday prayers 
without having first solved the problems of the 
division and acquainted me with the share of each 
heir, one by one. I. agreed to his proposal, and at 
the hour of the midday meal he handed over to me 
a complete statement of the division, written by his 
hand. And, by Allah ! a long period of time had 
been spent, in combined efforts to solve the problem, 
by 'Othman iba es-Saffar, by Muhammad ibn 'Aly 
as-Sahhami, and by other experts in the laws of 
succession, each one of whom affected to regard 
Ibn al-Labban ^ as a mere learner and follower of 
his own, in all matters relating to the laws of in- 
heritance, to wills and bequests, to astronomical 
calculations (?), and to the science of integration 
and compensation {nl-Jahar wa 'l-MukUhilah, i.e. 
Algebra). For a long period of time, the wazirs 
had been in the habit of inviting these men to 
banquets and of rewarding them with presents, 
which were fruitlessly divided amongst them. 

On our arrival at Zabid 1 lodged the Jurist in 
the inner part of the house, so that none but myself 
should see him. At night I studied under him the 
laws of inheritance, and by day the reading of the 
noble Kuran, accordino: to the teachino^ of Abu 
'Amru ibn al-'Ala,^^ the seven readiness beings one of 
the subjects upon which the Jurist gave instruction. 
I next devoted myself to the problem relating to the 
heirs of Ruzayk, until I was able to repeat all the 
particiUars to myself by rote. I then presented 
myself to the Kaid Surur al-Fatiki, and asserted 
my ability to solve the problem. He was one of 
the persons most keenly desirous of making pur- 
chases from the estate, and he promised that if my 



The Banii Najuh, 103 

assertions proved correct, he would give me a certain 
sum of money, the amount of which I have for- 
gotten. Upon the statement being prepared, he 
brought forth the money and handed it over to the 
Jurist Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah ibn al-Kasim 
al-Abbar. Ibn al-Kasim was at that time chief of 
the Shafi'ites at Zabid, and it was under him that 
I studied the Shafi'ite doctrines. Surur then 
assembled the Jurists in rooms, the floors of which 
were spread with fine sand, and each one sat down 
apart from the other, tracing his calculations in 
76 the sand. Whenever the amount of a share was 
substantiated, it was transferred from the sand to 
paper, until the division of the entire estate was 
completed and proved to be correct. Surur never 
moved from the spot until he had divided the 
money among the Jurists, and he gave me a large 
share. I returned to my house and placed the gold 
before the Hadramauti Jurist. '* I ask forgiveness 
of God, my son," he said, " for whosoever told 
me that he had beheld one hundred dinars, I used 
to treat as a liar." He then gave me the money, 
sa}ang he had no use for it, since I provided him 
with all that he required. I took him with me, and 
he died (may God have mercy upon him), after 
having completed the pilgrimage. When the Abys- 
sinians of Zabid sought to kill me in the year 550, 
the Kaid Surur said unto them, " Is he not the 
person who solved the problem of the estate of 
Ruzayk? By Allah ! he shall not be slain ! " 

Ruzayk was not skilled in military administra- 
tion, neither was he possessed of experience in tlie 
management of public business. Ere long he 
resigned the office of wazir, and Abu Mansiir Muflih 
al-Fatiki, who was then absent in the highlands, 
was called upon to fill his place. 



I04 ^Ofuurah. 

WazIrate of Muflth al-Fatiki. 

MuFLiii belouged to an Abyssinian tribe known 
by the name of Sahraf. He bore the surname of 
Abu Mansiir (father of Mansur), the latter beiu^ 
the name of one of his sons. (Abu) Mansur was 
noted among the most distinguished of his con- 
temporaries for his righteousness, and was remark- 
able also for his knowledge of affairs, for his skill 
as a Jurist, for his literary culture, for his handsome 
appearance, his bravery, his clemency, and for the 
perfection of his talents as a leader. People were 
in the habit of saying that, had his lineage been 
that of Knraysh, every condition required to fit him 
for the office of Khalifah would have been combined 
in his person. The retainers of Fatik nicknamed 
him al-BagJil, the mule. He w^as called Muflih 
al-Baghl, and he showed no displeasure nor ancrcr 
thereat. I was told by his secretary, Himyar ibu 
As'ad, that he was so named on account of a ph}^- 
sical conformation, in which he resembled a muele. 

He was distinguished for continence, and was 
never known to have been the prey of passion, either 
in his youth or in his mature age. Flimyar related in 
illustration of his master's self-control, that Mutlih, 
when holding the office of wazir, sent for him one 
day, and complained that life had become a weari- 
77 ness unto him through the reports he continually 
heard respecting the singing of Wardah, the slave 
girl of the Amir 'Othman al-Ghuzzi, and the de- 
scriptions he received of her beauty. He was bent, 
lie said, upon contriving means whereby she might 
be brought to him. *' I answered," said Himyar, 
" that if the wazir sought her society for the satis- 
faction to his desires, my best faculties would be 
used in his service. ' By Allah ! ' he replied, ' I 
have never yet, since the day of my creation, allowed 
my passions to make me sin against God.' ' At 



The Banu Najali. j 05 

what price,' I asked, * will then the wazTr purchase 
her ? ' * At whatever price her master demands,' 
he answered." 

Her master w^as a distinguished leader, a man of 
high rank in tlie service of the state, greatly 
respected and considered. He was commander of 
the Ghuzz (Turkish or Northern soldiery), whom 
Jayyash had brought to the country to fight against 
8aba ibn Ahmad the Sula^'hite. 'Othmiin was their 
leader and chief. They numbered four hundred 
mounted archers, and with their assistance the 
Abyssinian dynasty defended itself against the 
Arabs. The body of troops, as originally enlisted 
by Jayyash, numbered three thousand bows, but 
when two thousand marched from Mecca for Zabid, 
Jayyash repented of his design, perceiving that they 
would drive him out of the country and seek to take 
possession of it. In anticipation of their arrival, 
he sent orders to the officers he had placed in com- 
mand of the Ghuzz at Mecca, to cast poison into 
their food, into their drink, and into their raiment. 
A great number died, and only one thousand horse- 
men, or less, reached Zabid. Jayyash sent five 
hundred to the highlands, and they conquered the 
districts trodden by the hoofs of their horses. 
When they reached the province of San 'a, Jayyash 
employed a person to spread death among them by 
poison. They were finally exterminated through 
the effects of war and of other calamities, and there 
remained with Jayyash in Tihamah only four hundred 
and fifty horsemen. He made them a grant of a 
wide tract of land, extending to a valley (or river) 
known by the name of Dhu'al, a district inhabited 
by the 'Akkites and Ash'arites. These lands occu- 
pied a width of one day's journey, and in length, 
from the mountains to the sea, a space of two days 
or less. They were distant one day's journey from 
Zabid .^^ The Ghuzz continued to collect the 



io6 ^Oniarak. 

78 revenues of the valley from the year 486 to 524. 
They were respected and increased in wealth, and 
ruled over the country. The chieftainship was lastly 
held by Shat (Suli?), by Taytas, and by 'Othinan 
the above mentioned. The former two died, and 
*Othman remained alone ; but the number of the 
Ghuzz was now reduced to one liundred horsemen, 
all aged men. As to their children, born in Zabld, 
they did not prosper. They had neither the strength 
of character that inspires fear, nor the benevolence 
that gives rise to hope. 

The wazir's secretary Sheykh Himyar ibn As*ad, 
continuing his narrative, said that he reflected over 
the means whereby he might succeed in gratifying 
the wishes of the wazlr, and he found that of which 
he was in quest. Addressing Muflih, he indicated 
the means whereby the old distribution of the lands 
could be annulled. The men, he said, whose ser- 
vices were formerly prized by the state, were now 
dead, and valuable grants of land had passed into 
the possession of their children, who were use- 
less. He advised the wazir to act in the matter 
with firmness, to order all holders of fiefs to leave 
their estates and assemble at Zabid, and to transfer 
the owners to other districts. Upon that policy 
being carried into execution by the wazir, it occa- 
sioned, said Himyar, great hardship to the great 
officials of the government, but to none so great as 
to 'Othman, for the property of those of his com- 
panions who had died, had passed into his posses- 
sion. 

*' When he was about to depart from Zabid with 
his people, and the matter on the point of being 
irretrievable settled, I went," said Himyar, "to his 
house. We drank together, and Wardah, as well 
as other slave girls, sang to him." 

None of the people of Tihamah were in the habit 
of secluding either their singers or the freed women. 



The Danii Najah. 107 

mothers of their children,^^ from Ibn Him^^ar's 
presence, for most of their concubines and singers 
were supplied by him and educated in his house. 
He had served several of the highland kings, then 
he had come down to Tihamah and occupied a con- 
fidential position under Ahmad ibn Mas'ud ibn 
Faraj al-Mu'taman (the Trusted), governor of Hays. 
After that he became secretary to Mann Allah al- 
Fatiki, and then to the Sheykh Abu Mansur Muflih 
al-Fatiki. It was from this same Hirayar that the 
kings purchased the poison they used for destroying 
their enemies. He had brothers and uncles in the 
79 country of Bakii and Hashid, and the tree that pro- 
duces the poison is grown exclusively on a farm 
attached to a building, one of their strongholds. 
The owners carefully preserve the plant, precisely 
as, in Egypt, that which produces balsam is tended, 
and they do so with even greater care. All the 
members of the dynasty of Najah and all those of 
their wazirs, who died (by poison), were victims to 
the drug supplied by Himyar ibn As'ad.* People 
of rank, when in his society, used to say to him, " We 
eat and we drink, Abu Saba, and we are in your 
power," whereupon he would laugh and say, ''Just 
so." He was quick with pleasant repartees, pos- 
sessed a well-stored memory ; he was witty, and more- 
over liberal in bestowing his substance in the service 
of God and in works of charity. He frequently 
acted as envoy between the Abyssinian Princes, he 
repaired breaches of friendship, and grave disputes 
became, in his hands, matter of easy settlement. 
He subsequently dwelt at al-Kadra with the Kaid 
Ishak ibn Marziik as-Sahrati (the Sahratite), from 
whom he received a liberal welcome, and who took 

* Yakut copies this ] assage in liis account of the country of 

Bakil (vol. i. p. 706-7). Instead of ci»-J lie writes ci* 1 

probably the correct reading, and one which requires the subse- 

(juent word Vl to be retained. 



io8 ^Oniarah. 

Lim into his confidence. He died at al-Kadru in 
the year 553, at the age of upwards of seventy 
years. When he visited Zabld, where he had no 
kinsfolk, he used to take up his abode with me and 
with other friends, and he was in consequence on 
terms of familiarity and unreserve with me. 

HiniTar, proceeding with his narrative, said, 
" When the wine began to produce its effects upon 
'Othman, he spoke to me as follows : * I have 
longed,' he began, * to meet you, being desirous of 
settling matters with that tyrannical slave Muflili, 
and of finding means to be left in peaceful posses- 
sion of our fiefs and of our property, which we did 
not acquire in his days and for the possesion of which 
we are not indebted to his liberalit}^' I answered 
that notwithstanding the wnzh^'s self-sufficiency and 
l)ride, he was in reality of a kind disposition and 
quick to turn back from harsh measures. I pro- 
mised that on the following da}^ when Muflili 
returned from his morning visit to the King, I 
would, God willing, strive to prevail upon the wazir 
to act indulgently. ' 1 know,' I continued, ' that 
if he eat at your table and drink of your wine, and 
if your slave girls sing to him, he will feel shame 
and will renounce his design.' 'Otliman was 
almost beside himself with joy, though he could not 
believe that the wazTr would visit him. I advised 
80 him to come on the following night, uninvited, to 
the house of the wazIr, and to announce himself as 
a guest who desired to be honoured by being al- 
lowed to share in the pleasures of music and wine. 
On the following night, when 'Othman came to us, 
I advised the wazir to bring forth the singing girls 
and female cup-bearers. He did so, and he pro- 
mised 'Othman that he would, on the next day, 
be his guest. A large sum of money was that 
night by 'Othman's orders brought to his house. 
On the following day, after the usual morning 



The Banu Najuh. 109 

attendance at tlie Prince's palace, we rode to 
'Otliman's place of abode. We found sumptuous 
banquets spread out (for tbe several classes of 
guests). Por one party alone I counted tliirty 
roasted sheep and thirty vessels of sweetmeats. 
The banquet at which the wazir was seated, oc- 
cupied the front of 'Othman's garden, from one end 
to the other, a length of fifty cubits. Tlie wazir on 
beholding the sight was filled with envious anger 
against 'Othman, for the arrogance he attributed to 
him and for the promptitude with which he was 
able to provide so splendid a feast, composed of 
four separate banquets. 'Othman next distributed 
among the members of the wazh^'s suite three 
huhdrs of sweetmeats, a quantity equal to nine 
kantars (nine hundred pounds).* We then with- 
drew to the wine-room, seven in number, [besides 
myself, the eighth. I acted as cup-bearer and con- 
trived to produce intoxication in five members of 
our company, who soon withdrew].^* Thereupon, 
addressing 'Othman, I said : ' Truly thou art as 
one of a herd of cattle, deprived of sense. Think- 
est thou that the wazir hath visited thee for the sake 
of meat or drink ? What hath happened to abridge 
thine understanding and to blind thine eyesight?' 
* Instruct me then how to act,' he replied. I de- 
sired him to enumerate his possessions. He spoke 
of horses and accoutrements, camels and articles of 
curiosity and of value. I objected to all these 
things, and I affected to depreciate them. He 
begged me to advise him. I desired him, in reply, 
to think of a present such as would not be hidden 
away in a treasury, and which would never be out 
of the recipient's sight. ' What is wanted,' I 
added, ' is that the present should, whenever he 
sees it, remind him of you.' After consideration he 
Bi said : * I have nought else but Wardah, and she is 

* SeeXote 71. 



'no ^Omai'ah. 

dear to me as my soul. But if she be suitable, I 
will part with her, even though. I die.' ' If the 
wazir consent to accept of her,' I replied, * she is 
such as will be a suitable present.' ' Speak tlien of 
her to the wazIr,' he answered, * and if he accept 
her, I will reward thee with one thousand dinars.' 

" We then ordered Wardali to be brought into 
our presence, together with nine other slave girls. 
They kissed the wazir's hand and commenced sing- 
ing before him, with uncovered faces. I advised 
the wazir to pay no heed to Wardah and to pretend 
admiration of the others. He did so, with the effect 
of stimulating her master's desire that he should 
accept of her. After a time 'Othmfin became intoxi- 
cated and slept. The women likewise were overcome 
with wine, all but Wardah, who, I desired, should 
retain her faculties. I made use of a pretext to 
leave the room, and sending for Wardah, I informed 
her of the facts of the case. 'I have no desire,' 
she replied, 'but to my lord.' I then requested 
the wazir to enter a sitting-room, in which I joined 
him along with Wardah. He fluttered her with 
promises and coaxed her. I wanted to leave, but 
he stopped me, saying: * By ^llah, this shall not 
be.' AVe returned to the public room, and I swear 
that the wazir did not even satiate his eyesight, nor 
did he allow the girl to kiss his hand when bidding 
farewell. When her master recovered, Ave took 
leave of him. It was near the latest hour for 
evening prayer, and before it had lapsed, Wardah 
stood before us. In the morning I went back to 
*Othman. I restored the thousand dinars he had 
given me, and I questioned him touching a farm 
in the valley of Dhual.*^^ The wazir sent for me in 
the evening and gave me a dress of honour. ' Your 
daughter Wardah,' he said, 'has sworn that I 
shall not approach her until I have satisfied you. 
What, therefore, will content you ? ' 'The lands 



The Dana Najah. 1 1 1 

of 'Abada,' I replied, ' with all the contents of the 
farm, its gTowing crops and its cattle.' The wazir 
ordered the lands to be conveyed to me ; and they 
are a possession," added Himyar, ''which has the 
property of never occasioning loss to its pro- 
prietor." * 

To return to the stories told of the wazIr Mnflih. 
Among them is that related by the Sheykh Abu 't- 
Tami Jayyash, son of Isma'Il, son of Albuka. At 
2 an early period of the wazirate of the Sheykh and 
Ka'id Muflih, Abu '1-Ma'ali ibn al tJabbab arrived at 
Zabid from Egypt. He purchased an Abyssinian 
slave to attend upon him. The Abyssinian escaped 
from his master [and attached himself to certain 
of the wazlr's dependants. Abu '1-Ma'ali there- 
upon wrote to the wazir] two lines of verse as 
follows : — ^^ 

Thou art the cloud whose beneficent floods fertilize the outspread 
earth. — Its bounty, a fortuitous obstacle has withheld from 
nie. 

But if its ample and generous showers do not refresh me — Even 
so its consuming thunderbolts will not come near me. 

Muflih, on reading the lines, perceived their 
veiled meaning, and he awoke to the merits of 
Abu '1-Ma'ali. He sent for the youth and returned 
him to his master accompanied by a gift of four 
other slaves of the same nation. He invited Abu '1- 
Ma'ali to his court and commanded him to compose 
a eulogistic ode. Abu '1-Ma'ali obeyed, and recited 
it in the presence of the wazIr, who rewarded him 
with five hundred dinars. MansQr son of Muflih 
gave him likewise three hundred dinars for another 
ode written in his own praise, and he took him to 
Mecca, may God guard it. 

I will now relate what occurred to Muflih with 
the soldiery. Certain men among the slaves of the 

* T need perhaps hardly say that the combination of jingle and 
pun, which I have here endeavoured to imitate, is a thing much 
ap[)rcciated by Arab readers. 



112 'Oinarah. 

Honourable Lady the Queen, ('Alam) the mother 
of Fatik, were brought up in the paL\ce of al-Ffitik 
son of ManSLir. Their names were Sawab, Raylian, 
Yumn, ['Anbar ? ] and Raylian the elder. They were 
the leading personao^es, and holders of the higliest 
rank in the state. Besides these thei'e were cer- 
tain powerful men, likewise educated in the palace, 
namely Ikbal, Masrur (or Burhan ?), Barih (?) and 
Surur. The last mentioned was the chief of both 
parties, the foremost in influence and in ability. 
These men spoke in the name of the Sultan. The 
wazir, in all the affairs of the kingdom, became as 
a stranger among them, and by their aid, the 
authority of the Queen was greatly increased. They 
contrived also to attach to themselves a large por- 
tion of the troops, both horsemen and foot soldiers, 
and they began to concert measures for the expul- 
sion of jMuflih from Zabld. Surur advised them to 
address themselves to the wazIr on the subject of a 
pilgrimage, to be performed by the Queen to Mecca, 
and to ask him to provide her with a sum of thirty 
thousand dinars for her expenses. On application 
83 being made to the wazir, he refused, saying that the 
mone}^ could be spent more worthily on the defence 
of the state against its enemies than in the in- 
dulgence of such foolish whims. " Our Lady," he 
added, " has ample occupation with her spindle and 
distaff and in the privacy of her own house." They 
continued to press the matter upon him until he 
exclaimed : "Our Lady wants a totally different 
thing ! See that ye find it for her and it will satisfy 
her." "What then does she want?" they asked. 
Muflih's reply and the gesture by which it was 
accompanied, caused such deep offence, that he 
could repair the evil only by consenting to the 
Lady's pilgrimage, by supplying her with the thirty 
thousand dinars and by sending his son Mansur 
to accompany her to Mecca. 



The BanTi NajZih. w" 



o 



In pursuance of his purpose for the expulsion of 
Muflih, Suriir then sent the wazlr to Aden, to make 
war upon Saba son of Abu Su'ud and upon 'Aly son 
of Abu '1-Gharat, the Zuray'ites. When he had 
reached the distance of a night's journey from 
Zabid, Muhammad son of Fatik son of Jayyash 
suddenly rose in rebellion against the Queen and 
her son, and thereby obliged Muflih to return. 

Sunir then sought to bring about the departure 
of Muflih by writing to the Arab tribes of Zi'l and 
*Imran to join in the invasion of the district of al- 
Mahjam, then occupied by the Kaid Mas'iid the 
Zaydite.* Muflih was thereby compelled to start 
for al-Mahjam, a distance from ZabId of three days' 
journey. He had not accomplished more than one 
night's journey, when his troops secretly deserted 
him and returned to the city. He was left with 
only his personal dependants and marched with 
them to the mountains of Bura'. He took posses- 
sion of the fortress of al-Mukarrishah (al-Karish ?)^ 
and he attacked Tihamah, harassing it with raids, 
in the early morning and late at eve, whilst the 
retainers of Fatik attacked him in his encampments. 
Then leaving his women in the fortress, he joined 
the Arabs of al-Mahjam, members of the tribes of 
84Mash'al, 'Imran and Zi'l, accomplished and valiant 
horsemen. They gave him, as place of residence, 
a fortress which belonged to them, situated at a 
distance from al-Mahjam of half a day's journey or 
less, known by the name of Dabsan. Muflih des- 
patched depredating parties into the territories of 
al-Mahjam, and he entered into correspondence 
with the Amir and Sharif Ghanim son of Yahya the 
Suleymanite and Hasanite, who then ruled over the 
province of Ibn Tarf.^^ Muflih entered into a 
pledge with the Sharif and his kinsmen to abolish 
the tribute they rendered to the Prince of Zabld, 
* Or, according to Ivliazraji, Surur al-Kurandi. 



114 ^Ojuarak. 

for which Ghilnim was yearly liable and which 
amounted to sixty thousand dinars. He also en- 
gaged to add to their territories the wide district of 
al-Wadiyani. The Sharif marched with one thou- 
sand horsemen and ten thousand infantry, to the 
aid of Muflih against the people of Zabld. The 
allies were encountered by the Ka'id Surfir, who de- 
feated Muflih, the Sharif s and the Arabs, near al- 
Mahjam. Whilst Surur was at that place, he received 
from Zabld a deed of investiture, granting him the 
territories and dependencies of al-Mah jam, consisting 
of Maur and al-Wadiyani. Suriir established his 
residence in the province, and Muflih returned to 
the fortress of al-Karish, where he died in the vear 
529.* 

His son Mansur succeeded him and continued the 
war with his father's enemies, making them taste of 
its calamities in many forms. But after a time his 
followers beo;an to desert him, and their numbers 
gradually diminished. They were wearied with the 
sufl'erings of war and with separation from their 
homes. 

Mansur surrendered [himself to the Ka'id Surur, 
claiming his protection, and accompanied him to 
Zabld, where Ikbal was then wazir. The young 
Amir received a dress of honour] and his father's 
house was given him as a place of residence. On 
the following morning he was seized, and at night 
he was slain in the house of the wazlr Ikbfd. The 
King Fatik [and the Ka'id Surur] denounced the 
act, and the King meditated putting Ikbal to death, 
but he resolved to spare his life for a time. I was 
told by Himyar ibn As'ad, that a messenger from 
the wazlr Ikbal bought poison of him. For whom 
it was destined, Himyar swore he knew not. Ikbal, 
by ingratiating himself with the Prince, succeeded 
in administering the poison to his master Fatik son 

* In AM. 527, according to al-Janadi. 



The Baiiu Najah. 115 



of the Lady 'Alam, and the Prince died in the month 
of Sha'ban [a.u. 531]."' 

Wardah, the slave girl of the wazir Muflih, relates 
85 that when her master died in the highlands, at the 
castle named al-Karish, or al-Mukarrishah, she was 
asked in marriage by the wazir Tkbal, by the Ka id 
Sunir, by the Ka'id. Ishak ibn Marzuk and by the 
Ka id 'Aly ibn Mas'ud, Prince of Hays. " I made 
flattering promises to the messenger of each," she 
said, " but I consulted on the subject my lord 
Mansiir son of Muflih. He indicated his preference 
for Suriir, but recommended me to seek advice of 
Himyar ibn As'ad. I accordingly sent for him to 
Tihamah. 'As for 'Aly ibn Mas'ud,' said Him- 
yar, ' he has ninety concubines and four wives. As 
for Ikbal, he has twenty singing girls ; he has 
moreover Najiyah, who has been carefully educated 
by the slave dealers, and the love he bears her son 
Mansur is carried to an extreme. As for the Ka'id 
Ishak ibn Marziik, he has the daughter of 'Uwayd, 
mother of his son Earaj, and also Uhdula, the 
daughter of his uncle. By Allah, none equal to 
her treads the ground of Tihamah. 1 recommend 
to you the Ka'id Abu Muhammad Suriir al-Fatiki. 
He is a man of a prudent disposition, and he was 
reared by the King Fatik son of Mansur (by Man- 
sur?) and by our Lady the mother of Fatik.' I 
was married," continued Wardah, " to the Ka'id 
Abu Muhammad Suriir al-Fatiki. I found him 
to be one whose thoughts were diverted from 
the world, from the society of women and from 
pleasure, by his absorption in affairs of supreme 
importance. But ere long I made him feel his 
dependence upon me. I contrived to make myself 
his intimate companion, and 1 finally obtained com- 
plete ascendency over him. With all his roughness 
and severity of character, and the shrinking fear 
with which his female slaves regarded him, he never 

I 2 



li6 ^ Omar ah. 

opposed my wishes, and if I happened to be dis- 
pleased with him, he seemed as if about to part 
with his Hfe." 

An illustration of the above is to be found in an 
anecdote related by Sheykh Muslim ibn Yashjub, 
wazir of the Prince and Sharif Ghiinim son of Yahya 
the Hasanite. " I came," he said, " from my coun- 
try as an envoy to Surur al-Fatiki, to negotiate a 
truce between ourselves and him. His wazlr 
'Obayd ibn Bahr said to me : ' Would that thine 
arrival had happened either sooner or later ! Thou 
hast come to the Ka'id at a moment when his mind 
is greatly disturbed.' I waited two or three days 
without being able to see the Prince, but then Him- 
86 yar ibn As'ad arrived. * Now,' said 'Obayd ibn 
Bahr, ' Himyar having come, the knot that caused 
thy trouble is unloosed ! ' ' How is that ? ' I 
inquired. ' AYardah, mother of 'Amru,' he an- 
swered, * is angry with the Ka'id, and has sworn 
that she will not speak to him nor allow him to 
approach her, until her father shall come to her ' — 
meaning thereby Sheykh Himyar ibn As'ad. 
That same night," contmued Muslim, "we were 
invited to an assembly", for which were prepared 
wine and music and perfumes. We had hardly sat 
down, when the Ka'id approached and we saluted 
him. We then heard behind a curtain a confused 
sound of voices and a jingling of gold ornaments, 
such as never was before. And behold it was 
Wardah, who, a reconciliation having been effected 
by Himyar between her and her master, now came 
to sing to him. An unfavourable impression was 
produced upon me by the sight of the helplessness 
and weakness of Surur. He seemed to guess what 
was passing in my mind, and he recited the words of 
the poet : — 

"VVe are a people whom a woman's large and lustrous eyes will 
melt — And we are men to whom iron must yield." 



The Banu N^jaah. 1 1 7 

Among the slaves of Fatik was he with the men- 
tion of whom I conchide this account of the 
Abyssinian dynasty, and whose mention I have 
postponed to the last, although in order of merit 
he unquestionably ranks first. He of whom I 
speak was the noble Kaid Abu Muhammad Surur 
Amharah al-Fatiki. He belonged to the Abyssinian 
tribe of Amharah, and all I can relate of him is but 
as a drop in the sea of his great merits. 

Of his early history it may be recorded that 
Mansur ibn Fatik, having slain the wazir Anls, pur- 
chased from his estate the Honourable and pious 
Lady, the Pilgrim and Lady of Zabid, by whom he 
had a son, whom he named Fatik ibn Mansur. She 
bought for her son certain young Abyssinian slaves, 
of whom Surur was one. He was brought up 
under her immediate care, and ere long, as he ad- 
vanced in years, he became distinguished for his 
superior merits and great qualities. She placed him 
in charge of the Mamluks, and appointed him chief 
over all who abode in the palace. He became 
ruler and director, with the power of showing- 
indulgence and of exercising severity. He was 
next appointed to the command of a division of the 
army, and he won popularity among the troops by his 
kindness and indulgence. He continued to advance 
in dignity, and became the intermediary between the 
87 principal wazirs and the Sultan, who thenceforward 
dispensed with the services of the stewards of the 
palace. The Chief Steward at that time was the 
Sheykh Sawab, a religious man, who devoted him- 
self exclusively to the worship of God. Whenever 
he was reproached for his disregard of what had 
occurred, he would answer that the Kaid Abu 
Muhammad Surur was the authorized holder of the 
right to command and to forbid, over himself, over 
his censors, and over the Queen herself, and that in 
no wise should Surur's authoritv be curtailed, ho 



ii8 ''Omar ah. 

bein^ the most worthy to direct the affairs of the 
people, to reward and to punish, to bind and to 
loose. Surur continued to advance in power and 
dignity. He eventually succeeded in driving Muflili 
out of Zabid, and he made war upon him until his 
adversary died in the highlands, after prolonged 
fighting, in which large numbers of men perished 
on both sides. The final result was the triumph 
of Surur, and he became possessed of supreme 
authority. 

It has been related to me by Sheykh 'Abd al- 
Muhsin ibn Isma'il, secretary of the Ka'id Surur, 
that he remembered the occasion when the Amir 
and Sharif Ghanim, son of Yahya the Hasanite, 
marched to the assistance of Mutlih. " Ghanim," 
he said, "had a thousand horsemen and ten thou- 
sand infantry, all of whom combined with the troops 
of Muflih. They were joined also by certain Arabs, 
in great numbers, by the Banu IMash'al, men who 
spent their lives in the saddle and who were the 
champions of their age, by the Banu 'Imran, the 
Banu ZiM, the Banu Haram and the Hakaraites.''" 
All gathered together into one body and advanced 
against us. Our troops were few in number, and 
the Ka'id Surur had written to the people of Zabid 
for re-iuforcements. The battle was fought at 
al-Mahjam, which is three days' journey from 
Zabid." 'Abd al-Muhsin said he pointed out to 
Surur, that to attack these people would surely be 
rashness, his forces being in comparison to theirs as 
a drop in the sea, or as a morsel between the jaws 
of a ravenous animal. " Be silent," answered Surur, 
"for, by Allah, death will be lighter unto me than 
88 defeat." The two armies engaged, and the fortunes 
of the day went against Muflih and Ghanim and their 
allies. Thenceforward conviction of the high destinies 
reserved for Surur acquired double strength in the 
minds both of his friends and of his opponents. 



A 



The Banii Najah. i ig 

It was previous to these events that Muflih 
started from Zabld for Aden, and that when he had 
reached the distance of half a day's journey, Muham- 
mad son of Fatik son of Jayyash, seeing the town 
denuded of troops, rose in insurrection, and gained 
possession of the Government House. The Kur'an 
readers came into his presence and the people of the 
city flocked unto him, offering their congratulations. 
His wazir was Mansur son of Mann Allah al-Fatiki. 
The Queen took refuge, along with her son, in the 
upper apartments of the palace. The news was 
brought to the Ka id SurCir, who commanded the 
rearguard of the army. He turned back, and having 
scaled the walls, he entered the town. He pro- 
ceeded to the back of the Grovernment House, and 
calling to his mistress, he made himself known unto 
her, and desired her servants to let down a rope for 
him. The eunuchs and women pulled him up with 
ropes, and entering into the presence of his mistress, 
he saluted her and quieted her fears. His troops, he 
told her, were following him. Having selected one 
hundred slave girls and fifty eunuchs, he habited them 
in the garb of men and supplied them with armour 
and weapons. The casements were then thrown 
open, and the women and eunuchs cried aloud with 
one voice : Faiik son of Mansui- ! Muhammad son 
of Fatik was at that moment occupying a raised 
seat below the windows of the palace. The Ka'id 
cast a stone which unerringly hit the mark, and 
striking Muhammad ibn Fatik, bruised his face at 
the same instant of time when the cry was uttered. 
He, the wazlrs and their followers instantly fled, and 
in the evening they left the city by one of its gates. 
The soldiers did not reach Zabld until noon of the 
following day. These were some of the circum- 
stances which necessarily operated to bring about 
Surur's ad\rancement over all other members of the 
government. 



I20 ^ Omar ah. 

He next acquired rule over al-Malijam, a royal 
seat of government. The Arabs, the Banu *Imran, 
89 the Banu Zi'l and the Hakamites, dispersed them- 
selves, and the Amir Ghanim ibn Yahya theHasanite, 
whose dynasty has acquired great renown, separated 
himself from his allies. 

The Ka id SurCir used to inhabit Zabid from the 
beginning of Dhu '1-Ka'dah (the eleventh month) 
until the end of Sha'ban (the eicrhth). Then he 
would leave Zabid and spend Ramadan at al-Mahjam, 
occupying himself with the affairs of his province. 
His expenditure and charities in the month of 
Eamadan, amounted to a large sum. Sheykh 
'Obayd ibn Bahr, his w^azir, informed me that the 
allowances for his kitchen expenses, in the month of 
Ramadan, amounted to one thousand dinars a day. 
I witnessed for several years the ceremonial attend- 
ing his entrance into Zabid. The people, on his 
arrival from al-Mahjam, used to go forth from the 
city in crowds to meet him. They divided them- 
selves into classes and stood on a lofty hill awaiting 
his arrival. The first to salute him were the Jurists 
of the Malikite, the Hanafite and the Shi'ifi'ite 
schools. The Prince used to dismount in token of 
respect, a thing he did for no other class. They 
were followed by the merchants, after whose de- 
parture the soldiery came forth in crowds. On 
entering the city, after saluting and paying due 
honour to the Sultan, he proceeded to the palace of 
the Honourable Lady his mistress. On his enter- 
ing, all who were present, young and old, withdrew, 
with the exception only of the Lady's slave girl 
Ghazal, w^ho was his wife's sister, and of two slave 
girls formerly belonging to her Lord Mansiir ibn 
Fatik. These women conducted themselves accord- 
ing to her pious example and imitated her in her 
good works. On his approach, the Princess would 
rise from her seat in token of welcome and of 



The BanTi Najuh. 1 2 i 

respect for liis exalted rank, and she would say unto 
liim : " Thou, Abu Muhammad, art not simply our 
wazir, but our master and the manly ruler of the 
kingdom, one whose authority it is not in aught 
lawful unto us to disregard." ^^ He would weep 
aloud in her presence and bend down his face to 
the dust, until she would raise him from the ground 
with her own hands. The women would then with- 
draw to a short distance at the end of the saloon, 
whilst he reported to her the measures he desired 
to be put into execution that year, appointments, 
supersessions, rewards and sentences of death. He 
would remain seated before the Princess,®^ with the 
90 three women standing near him, until he arose for 
midday prayer. He used to repair for the purpose 
to his mosque, which stood close to the gates of his 
palace. It was then impossible to follow him on 
account of the crowds that surrounded him, com- 
posed of people who had been unable to go forth 
from the city to meet him on his arrival. 

A PaEAGRAPH describing what I HAVE SEEN IN THE 

Handwriting of his Secretaries. 

I have seen a list of the gratifications which 
Surur was in the habit of conferring, on his arrival 
at Zabid, upon the Jurists, Kadis, and upon the 
most distinguished scholars, learned in the tradi- 
tions, in grammar, glossology, theology, and juris- 
prudence. The whole amounted each year to twelve 
thousand dinars, besides gratuities to the military 
classes, notwithstanding their great numbers. 

I have been told by 'Obayd ibn Bahr and others, 
that the presents he made each year to the Sultan's 
officials, to the King's nobles, stewards and per- 
sonal retainers, amounted to twenty thousand 
dinars, in addition to the fixed emoluments of each 
person's office. Others have told me that the sums 
transferred from his province to the public treasury 



122 'Omar ah. 

of the King, amounted each year to sixty thousand 
dinars, and that he used to pay over to the house- 
hold of his mistress the Princess, to her retainers 
and companions and to the persons under her pro- 
tection, in the form of presents, fifteen thousand 
dinars. 

Another Paragraph. — The Ka'id Abu Muhammad 
Surur al-Fiitiki — May God have mercy upon him ! — 
was in the habit of going forth unto his mosque, 
after the expiration of half or one third of the night. 
He was better acquainted than any other person 
with the places of abode and habitations of the 
principal people. He used to say that he went 
forth at that hour, lest any persons spending their 
nights in anxiety or grief, or others devoted to reU- 
gious practices, were unable to come into his pre- 
sence by day, either on account of the crowd or by 
reason of their bashfulness. After morning prayer 
he used to go either on a visit to a Jurist, to the 
bedside of some sick person, to a house where there 
was mourning for the dead, to a feast or to a wed- 
91 ding. He did not confine his visits to the great 
military chiefs, to the learned and to merchants, 
and neglect those of a humbler rank. AYho- 
soever, on the contrary, appealed to him was 
attended to. People who believed themselves to 
be oppressed came into his presence, and stated 
their case in bold and even in unseemly language. 
Such a person was safe from all danger of awaken- 
ing his sense of dignity and pride, or of provoking 
his anger. If sent for by the Judges, he attended 
in person, not deputing another to take his place 
[as is done by men puffed up with pride, even 
though of inferior rank J. He would seat himself 
opposite the Judge in token of respect, and in testi- 
mony of his willing obedience to the ordinances of 
divine law. [On returning to the palace, after accom- 
panying the SnUan's procession, he would enter, 



The Barm Najah. 123 



J 



and after rendering obeisance, lie would stop at tlie 
royal gate, where he dispensed justice to the people 
with perfect judgment. (Next he would occupy 
himself in the transaction of military) business, and 
at the hour of the midday meal, he returned to his 
house. There he would rest until the sun began to 
decline, when he would proceed to the mosque. ]^^ 
From that time until the hour of afternoon prayer, 
he occupied himself exclusively in hearing the 
authentic traditions of the Apostle of Grod, whom 
God bless and hail with salutations of peace ! He 
would then withdraw to his palace, but before sun- 
set he would come forth to the mosque, and after 
sunset prayer, the Jurists would engage in debates 
before him until the end of the latest hour for even- 
ing prayer, sometimes, however, prolonging their 
discussions to a later hour. He used then, riding 
an ass and with only one servant before him, to 
proceed to the palace of the Queen, to take counsel 
with her upon public affairs. 

Such was his mode of life from the year 529 
until he was slain in his mosque at Zabid (May 
God be merciful unto him !), whilst performing the 
third prostrations of afternoon prayer, on Friday 
the 12th of Eajab [a.h. 551]. He was killed by a 
man of the name of Mujrim, one of the followers of 
*Aly ibn Mahdy. The murderer was put to death 
that same evening, after killing several persons.'*^ 
The Abyssinian dj/nasty did not long endure after 
the death of Surur. It was subverted by 'Aly ibn 
Mahdy, who conquered Zabid and its dependencies, 
in the year 554. 
92 I will now proceed witli an account of 'Aly ibn 
Mahdy in Yaman. In that chapter I will set forth 
a summary comprising the outset and the close of 
his career. 



124 ^OniaraJi. 

The Ixsurreotion of 'Alt ibn Mahdy in Yaman. 

As to liis lineage, he was a descendant of Himyar, 
and his name was *Aly ibn Mahdy, native of a 
village named al-'Anbarah, situated on the coast 
near Zabid. His father was a virtuous and pure- 
hearted man, whose son 'Aly was brought up in 
his religious tenets and followed his examples, in 
his devotion to religious exercises and to the prac- 
tice of good works. After a time 'Aly went on the 
pilgrimage and visited the holy places. He met the 
pilgrims, the doctors and preachers of 'Irak, and 
he became filled with the knowledge they imparted 
to him. On his return to Yaman he led a life of 
retirement, but he exhorted the people, warning 
them against association with the soldiery.* He 
was an eloquent man, of prepossessing appear- 
ance, dark complexioned, with sunken cheeks, 
bearded, tall, of a spare figure, and marked be- 
tween his eyes with the traces of his prostra- 
tions.^^ He had an agreeable voice, which he skil- 
fully modulated in chanting, and a winning manner 
of imparting instruction. He possessed a well- 
stored memory, was constant in exhorting, and in 
expounding the Kur'an and the teaching of the 
Siifis. He used to speak of things that were re- 
served to him in the future, and the accurate fulfil- 
ment of his predictions became one of the most 
powerful means by which he won the hearts of the 
people. 

His career commenced on the coast of ZabId, in 
the village of al-'Anbarah, in that of Wasit, that 
of Kudayb, at al-Ahwab, al-Mu'tafi (?) and the 
shores of al-Farah (al-'Arah ?). He used to journey 
thence, and the respect in which he was held ever 
increased with the lapse of time. I had at that 

* Janadi and Khazraji here add that Ibn Mahdy 's public career 
commenced in a.h. 531. 



The Banu Mahdy. 125 

period devoted myself to him, and for tlie space of 
a year I was in almost constant attendance upon 
him. But my father heard that I had abandoned the 
study of Jurisprudence and that I had given myself 
up to a religious life. He came from his home, 
took me from the society of *Aly Mahdy and 
replaced me at the college of Zabid. I used to 
visit 'Aly Mahdy once every month, but when his 
93 power waxed great throughout the country, I 
detached myself from him, out of fear of the people 
of Zabld. From the year 531 until 536, he con- 
tinued to preach to the people in the open plains, 
and on the approach of the pilgrimage season 
he used to go forth to Mecca, mounted on a 
dromedary. The Lady, the mother of Fatik son of 
Mansfir, then relieved him, his brethren, his kin- 
dred and those under his protection, from payment 
of the assessment (kharaj) on their lands. In a 
brief period of time they became prosperous and 
rich, they rode horses and were such as are de- 
scribed by the poet al-Mutanabby : — 

It seemed as though their horses were foaled heneath them — ■ 
Aaid as though the riders were born mounted upon their 
horses' hacks.^® 

Certain persons, inhabitants of the highlands, 
were brought to 'Aly ibn Mahdy and an alliance 
sworn between them. He went to these people in 
the year 538 and assembled an army, which attained 
the number of forty thousand men, wherewith he 
marched to attack the city of al-Kadra. He was 
met by the Kaid Ishak ibn Marziik as-Sahrati at 
the head of his people. Ibn Mahdy's army was 
defeated. Many of his people were killed, but the 
greater number were spared. He returned to the 
highlands, where he remained until the year 541. 
He then wrote to the Queen at Zabid and asked 
protection for himself and for his followers, and 
permission to return to his country. Not with- 



126 ''OnmraJi. 

standing tlie disapproval of the officials of her 
government and of the Jurists of lier time, she 
granted his request, iliai God should {thereby) ac- 
comvlish the things that icere ordained* *Aly ibn 
Mahdy applied himself for several years to the cul- 
tivation of his property, which he held free of all 
assessment, and he thus amassed considerable 
wealth. When preaching he used to say : " ye 
people, the time approacheth. The event draweth 
nio-h ! Almost ye may behold with your own eyes 
the things 1 have foretold unto you." 

The Queen died in the year 545, and hardly had 
that event occurred, when 'Aly Malidy appeared in 
the highlands, at a place named ad-Dashir, subject 
to the Khaulanites [where he remained for a 
timej.®" Thence he ascended to a fortress named 
ash-Sharaf, which belonged to a tribe of the sept 
of Khaulan known by the name of Banu Hay wan 
(Haydan?), a word which is pronounced with a 
94 quiescent y. These people he surnamed (in 
imitation of the Prophet) al-Ausur (the Auxilaries), 
and those who had accompanied him from the low 
country, he distinguished by the title al-Muhujirun, 
(the Emigrants). But he then began to mistrust all 
his companions and to fear for his own safety. He 
appointed over the Ansar a Khaulanite of the name 
of Saba ibn Yiisuf, to whom he gave the title of 
Sheykh al-Islam, and over the Muhaiirun a man 
[of the tribe of 'Imran], named an-Nuby, who 
received the same title. He appointed them to be 
chiefs over the two parties, and none but these two 
persons was allowed to speak to him, or even to 
approach him. At times he secluded himself even 
from them, and they would organize military expe- 
ditions into the neighbouring country, on their 
own authority. This they continued to do, and to 
harass the people of Tihamah with raids, both 

* Kur. viii. v. 43, 46. 



The Banu Malidy. 127 

in tlie early mornings and late at eve, until 
the country bordering upon the highlands was 
utterly ruined. The Abyssinians at that time sent 
liberal supplies to their military stations, but their 
troops were unable to cope with their enemy for 
several reasons. Among others, because ash- 
Sharaf, besides being defended by large numbers 
of Khaulanites, was in itself an exceedingly strong 
fortress. Also, because a person desiring to reach 
the stronghold had to perform a day's journey, or 
part of a day's journey, through a narrow valley 
enclosed between two mountains. On reachinsf 
the foot of that upon which the fortress stood, the 
traveller had to ascend a torrent for half a day, 
ere he could attain the summit. Another reason 
was, that the torrent which occupied the valley 
flowed past great gorges, commencing near the 
low country, in which armies, with large quanti- 
ties of stores and baggage, might lie hidden for a 
montb before their presence could be suspected. 
Ibn Mahdy's raiders, when they entered a district 
in the low country, plundered and burnt, and on 
daylight appearing, they withdrew to the valley 
in which were these gorges. There they remained, 
where none could reach them or venture to attack 
them. 

Thus he continued to act with the people of 
95 Zabid, until the country was forsaken by its inhabit- 
ants. The land ceased to be ploughed, and the 
roads were deserted. His orders to his people were, 
to drive away the cattle and slaves, and to kill the 
prisoners and animals incapable of marching. They 
obeyed his commands, which stimulated their own 
greed, struck terror into their enemies, and accom- 
plished the ruin of the country. 

I met 'Aly ibn Mahdy in a.h. 549, at the Court of 
the Da'y Muhammad ibn Saba Prince of Aden, in 
the city of Dhu Jiblah. He was seeking aid against 



128 ^Onidrah. 

the people of Zabid, wliicli the Dii'y, however, wouhi 
not consent to give. Ibn Mahdy tendered me his 
friendship and offered to place me at the head of all 
his followers. 

On his return that same year from Dhu Jiblali to 
ash-Sharaf, he occupied himself in contriving the 
death of the Kaid Surur al-Fatiki. The Kaid was 
slain in Rajab of the year 551. Among the 
causes that contributed to the success of Ibn IMahdy 
against the people of Zabld, was the circumstance 
that their chiefs were filled with jealousy and envy, 
at the sight of the eminence attained by the Ka'id 
Surur. After his death, the closed gates of evil 
■were thrown open against the Abyssinian dynasty, 
and the bonds of its stability were unloosed. Ibn 
Mahdy left the fortress of ash-Sharaf and came 
down to ad-Dashir, distant less than half a day's 
journey from Zabid. The people and Arabs of the 
district, subjects of the Abyssinians, strove to con- 
ciliate him. And whenever one of IbnMahdy's people 
came in contact with a brother or a kinsman, living 
among the Abyssinians, a tiller of the soil, or a 
camel driver or cattle-herd in their service, he 
perverted him. 

Thus matters continued until Ibn Mahdy pene- 
trated, with an innumerable host, to the gates of 
Zabid. I have been assured by several natives of 
Yaman, w^ho witnessed the siege of the town, that 
no people ever withstood their enemies with so much 
firmness, or fought so bravely as the citizens of 
Zabld. They fought Ibn Mahdy in seventy-two 
96 engagements, heedless of the slaughter by which 
their numbers were reduced. They suffered from 
hunger until their misery constrained them to the 
necessity of eating carrion. They at length im- 
plored assistance of the Zaydite and Rassite Sharif 
Ahmad ibn Suleyman, Prince of Sa'dah. He gave 
them aid, impelled thereto by his eagerness to 



I 



T/ie Banu Mahdy. 129 

acquire sovereign power over the city and people. 
They pledged themselves to appoint him their 
King, and the Sharif promised that if they slew 
their Lord Fatik, he would bind himself unto them 
by oath. The slaves thereupon rose against their 
master. 

(They were the slaves of Fatik) son of Jayyash 
son of Najah. This Najah was the freedman of 
Marjan, who was the freedman of Abu 'Abd Allah 
al-Husayn ibn Salamah, and Husayn ibn Salamah 
was the freedman of Rushd the steward, who was 
the freedman of Ziyad son of Ibrahim son of Abu '1- 
Jaysh Ishak son of Muhammad son of Ibrahim son 
of'Abdallah (son of Muhammad) ibn Ziyad.^^ 

The slaves above mentioned slew Fatik in the 
year 653. But the Sharif found himself unable to 
defend the people of Zabid against 'Aly ibn Mahdy. 
The war continued between them and Ibn Mahdy. 
Several battles were fought and the citizens 
sheltered themselves behind their w^alls, but he at 
length succeeded in capturing the town. The 
Abyssinian dynasty came to an end and Ibn Mahdy 
established himself in the Grovernment House, on 
Friday the 14th of Hajab of the year 554. 

*Aly ibn Mahdy survived the event through the 
remainder of that month and throughout Sha'ban 
and Ramadan. He died in the following- month of 
Shawwal. He held possession of the city for two 
months and twenty-one days. He was succeeded 
by his son al-Mahdy and next by his son 'Abd an- 
Naby. The latter was deposed, and was replaced 
by 'Aly ibn Mahdy 's son 'Abd Allah, but he was 
afterwards re-instated, and at the present day he is 
ruler of the whole of Yaman, with the exception 
only of Aden, whose people have entered into a 
treaty with him, under the conditions of which they 
pay him an annual tribute. 

'Abd an-Naby is sovereign both of the Highlands 

K 



I ^o ^0)11 avail. 



o 



and Lowlands, and all the kingdoms and treasures 
of the Kings of Yaman have passed into his hands. 
Muhammad ibn 'Aly, a citizen of Dhu Jiblah, has 
97 informed me that the riches of twenty-five Yamanite 
dynasties have been absorbed into the treasury of 
Ibn Mahdy. Therein is included the wealth of the 
nobles of Zabid. None of the slaves of Fatik, the 
Princesses of his family or the nobles of his dynasty- 
died, but left a large amount of wealth including 
great sums of money. [All was acquired by Ibn 
Mahdy] ; for he became possessed of their chil- 
dren and women, who revealed to him wOiere their 
masters' treasures were to be found, their gold and 
silver ware and ornaments, their pearls, jewels, 
precious stones and splendid apparel of all kinds. 
These nobles were as' they of whom God Most High 
hath said : Jiow miich they have left ! Gardens and 
sjyrings of icater, corn-lands and splendid jilaces of 
abode- and wealth, wherein they spent a life of enjoy- 
ment ! Thus have ive dealt with them, and ive have 
made these things to be an heritage unto another 
people.* 

The dynasty of Ibn Mahdy acquired the 
kingdom of the Suleymanite Sharlfs, that of 
the Banu Wa'il Sultans of Wuhazah, a ruling 
family of ancient and noble race, likewise the 
fortresses of the surviving members of the 
Sulayhite family, unto each of whose strong- 
holds a wide extent of territory and large re- 
venues were attached. As to the possessious of 
the King Mansur son of al-Mufaddal son of Abu 
'1-Barakat son of al-AYalid, the Himyarite, he lost 
all his strongholds, which it is unnecessary to 
enumerate, also all his treasures, in which were 
comprised those of the r)a'y 'Aly son of Muhammad 
the Sulayhite, those of al-Mukarram Ahmad son 
of 'Aly, husband of the Honourable Lady the 

* Kur. s. xliv. V. 25-27; • 



The Banu Mahdy. 131 

Queen Sayyidali, and those of the Queen herself. 
The whole of her predecessors' wealth became the 
property of the Lady Sayyidah. She deposited it 
in the fortress of Ta'kar, and al-Mufaddal ibn Abi '1- 
Barakat gained possession of the castle and of its 
contents. They were inherited by his son Mausiir 
ibn al-Mufaddal. For it is believed that Mansur 
reigned for thirty years and that he died in the 
decade of his hundredth or of his ninetieth year.^^ 

Among other places that passed into the posses- 
sion of Ibn Mahdy, were the fortresses of al-Maj- 
ma'ah and of Ta'kar, including, it is said, the wealth 
they contained ; also the city of Dim Jiblah, the 
chief centre for the propagation of the Fatimite 
supremacy and capital of the Sulayhites, likewise 
the city of al-Janad and its dependencies, and in 
8 like manner Thalithah .and Sharyak, and Dhakhir 
together with its dependencies. And the possessions 
of that chieftain, 'Alv ibn Muhammad Prince of 
Dhakhir, were not inferior to those of Mansur ibn 
al-Mufaddal. Ibn Mahdy next acquired the kingdom 
of the Banu'z-Zarr and the cities of Dhu Jiblah, of 
Dhu Ashrak and of Tbb, the fortresses and country 
of the Banu Kbaulan, the fortresses of the Banu 
E-abi'ah, namely 'Azzan, Habb and ash-Shamakhi. 
He captured Sultan Abu 'n-Nurayn Abu '1 Fath, 
and the fortress of as-Sawa remained in the pos- 
session of Ibn as-Saba'i (the Khaulanite). Ibn 
Mahdy next conquered the strongholds of the Da'y 
'Imran ibn Muhammad, that is to say, the fortresses 
of Sami' and Matran [and ISTumayr] situated in the 
district of al-Ma'afir. He became possessed also of 
the chief strong^hold of Yaman, that which has no 
equals other than Ta'kar and Habb, that is to say, 
the fortress of Samadan, the strength of which has 
become proverbial. No created being can prevail 
against that stronghold, unless aided by the executors 
of the Creator's decrees. This enumeration is that 

I.' o 



1^2 'Omcwah. 



o 



which I have styled a drop from the ocean of Ihn 
Mahdi/s conquests. And in tlie foregoino; I have not 
mentioned the country of the Banu Miizaffar, Saba 
son ot" Ahmad the Sulayhite, nor the districts of 
Haran (Haraz ?), nor Bura*, nor the country of Bakil, 
nor that of tJashid, nor Jublah (Jublan Raymah ?) 
with its fortresses and provinces, nor Wadi 'Unnah 
nor Wadi Zabid, nor other places, such as the vallej^s 
of Eim'a and of Raymat al-Asha'ir, their castles and 
their villages, Mudhaykhirah and its dependencies, 
which are several days' journey in extent, Damt and 
AYadi Tahlah (Nakblah ?).^"^ 

Kow, as to the sect to which Ibn Mahdy belonged 
and the doctrines he held ; he followed the rules of 
the Hanafite school in the interpretation of religious 
law, but he added to its fundamental articles of 
faith, the doctrine that regards sin as infidelity and 
punishable with death. He held in like manner that 
the penalty of death was to be inflicted upon all pro- 
99 fessiug Muslims who opposed his teaching, that it 
was lawful to reduce their captured women to the 
condition of concubines, their children to slavery, 
and to treat their country as a land of infidels (Dar 
al-Harb). I have been told, but the responsibility for 
truth rests upon the original narrator, that Ibn 
Mahdy did not implicitly trust the faith of a Muhajir, 
excepting he proved his sincerity by slaying his own 
son or his father or his brother. He used to recite 
the following passage: — TJiou shall not find people 
iijho believe in God and in the Day of Judgment, bear- 
ing love unto them that oppose God and His apostle, 
even though such be their fathers, their sons, their 
brethren or their Idnsfolk. He hath inscribed faith 
in the hearts {of the true believers), and He aicleth 
them with a Spirit proceeding from Himself* I 
knew (added the narrator ?) a youth among them, 
who was my neighbour and a student of Juris- 

* Kur'fin, s. Iviii. v, 22. 



The Banii Mahay. 133 

prudence. His motlier went on a visit to liim and 
he slew her. 

As to the faith which his followers placed in him, 
it was beyond what is commonly held in respect of 
the Prophets, the blessings of God and His peace 
be upon them. One of the family of Tbn Mahdy 
might think fit to kill several of his soldiers, and 
even though (the latter' s comrades were ?) able to 
prevail against the slayer, they abstained, through 
submission and religious conviction, from killing 
him. If Ibn Mahdy were moved to anger against 
one of their greatest chiefs or leaders, the person 
who had incurred his displeasure would confine 
himself to a spot exposed to the rays of the sun. 
He would neither be fed nor given to drink, neither 
his son nor his wife could approach him, nor durst 
any person intercede for him, until Ibn Mahdy 
pardoned him of his own free will. Their perfect 
submission was such that every man carried to the 
public Treasury the woollen yarn which his wife 
or daughters had spun. Tbn Mahdy supplied him 
and his family with clothing. Not one of the sol- 
diers possessed a horse his own property, or could 
keep one in a stable attached to his dwelling, neither 
did he possess accoutrements, or weapons, or aught 
else. Horses were kept in Ibn Mahdy's stables, 
and arms were stored in his arsenals. If necessitv 
arose, he distributed among his men \hQ horses and 
weapons they required. A soldier who fled from 
the enemy w^as beheaded. By no means could his 
life be spared. Whoso drank intoxicating liquors 
suffered death, and death was the penalty for listen- 
ing to songs, for adultery, and for absence from the 
Fridays' prayers or from the two assemblies at 
which he preached to the people, on Thursdays and 
Mondays. Anyone who neglected to visit his 
)0 father's grave on these two days suffered death. 
To these laws the soldiery alone were subject. 



134 ^ Omar ah. 

Those applicable to the people were of a more leni- 
ent character, and I am informed at the present 
time, that is to say, in the year 553 (read 563 or 
564), that the severity with which these laws were 
carried into effect has been relaxed/^^ 



Chapter in which are enumerated the Persons who 

HAVE HELD IN YaMAN THE OfFICE OF Da'Y' FOlt 
THE FaTI MITES. 

Of their number was the Da'y 'Aty son of Muham- 
mad the Sulayhite, who combined the office of Da'y 
with supreme power as temporal sovereign. Next 
was his son al-Mukarram Ahmad the Sulayhite, 
who likewise combined both offices. After him 
Sultan Suleyman az-Zawrdii exercised the functions 
of Da'y, but did not hold sovereign rule. Then 
the Kadi * ibn Malik the Sulayhite com- 
bined the office of Da'y with that of Judge, but 
did not exercise sovereign rule. Next 'Aly son 
of Ibrahim al- Muwaffak fi 'd-din, son of Najib 
ad-Daulah, held the office of Da'y and exercised 
sovereign rule, under the authority of the Honour- 
able Lady Queen Sayyidah, over part of her 
dominions. ^''^ 

Then, when the official notification was received 
from our Lord the Imam al-Amir bi-Ahkam Illah, 
Prince of the faithful — upon whom be peace — bring- 
ing to the Queen, his accepted Representative in 
the country of Yaman, the glad tidings of the birth 
of his son, our Lord the Imam at-Tayyib Abu 
'1-Kasim, and of the new-born Prince's designation 

* Lacuna in the MS. 



The Da'ys of Yaman. 135 

as successor to the Iraamate, (it was) conceived in 
the following terms : — 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Gracious. 

Fromthe servant of God and His beloved, al-Mansur Abu 
'Aly al-Amir bi-Ahkam Illah, Prince of the Faithful,' 

Unto the Honourable Lady, the Queen, the highly esteemed,, 
the pure, the stainless, the unparagoued of her age, Sove- 
reign Lady of the Kings of Yaman, the Pillar of Islam, the 
Special friend of the Imam, Treasure of the Faith, Support 
of the true believers, Refuge unto them that seek aid. Pro- 
tectress of the truly directed, Favourite of the Prince of the 
Faithful, Guardian of his favoured servants. May God per- 
petuate her power and prosperity, and grant her increasing 
support and assistance. Peace be with thee ! 

The Prince of the Faithful praiseth God, than whom there 
is none other God but He, and prayeth Him to bless his 
LOl ancestor Muhammad, the seal of the Prophets and Lord of 
the Apostles. May God bless him and his pure family the 
truly directed Imams, and hail them with salutations of 
peace. 

And after. Verily the favours of God unto the Prince of 
the Faithful cannot be reckoned. Their magnitude is beyond 
all power of measurement and their limit cannot be detined. 
The mind of man cannot encompass them. For they are 
even as the clouds in the heavens, of which one departeth 
and another ever eometh, as the flashing rays of tlie sun that 
perpetually issue forth and envelop the earth, and as the 
lion whose visits are unceasing, who eometh in the morning 
and returneth in the shadows of evening. 

But God's noblest gift to the Prince of the Faithful, the 
greatest and the most widely renowned, the most brilliant in 
honour and distinction, is that recently conferred upon him 
by the birth of a child, pure and highly prized, virtuous and 
pious, on the night that ushered in the dawn of Sunday the 
fourth of the month of Rabi'u '1-Akhir of the vear 524. The 
pulpits of the world have exhaled fragrance on the procla- 
mation (therefrom) of his name, and the hopes of all men, of 
the people of the plains and of the dwellers in cities, are 
directed to the wealth-imparting clouds of his beneficence. 
The darkness of night hath been illumined by the light of 
his noble presence and by the shining beauty of his counten- 
ance, and through him the necklace of disjointed precious 
jewels are strung, to add increased lustre to the brilliant 



136 ^ Omar all. 

dyuutty of the Fatimites. God hath brou<:?ht him forth from 
the lineage of the Prophet, like as liji-ht is brought forth from 
lig-ht, and the Prince of the Faithful hath obtained, through 
his birth, showers of brilliant sparks proceeding from the flint 
and steel of felicity. He hath named him at-Tayyib, for tiie 
sweetness of his nature, and he hath surnamed him Abu '1- 
Kiisim, the surname of his ancestor the Prophet of true 
guidance, from whose substance his substance hath sprung. 

The Prince of the Faithful praiseth God Most High for 
the grace he hath bestowed upon him by raising a shining star 
in the firmament of the Imperial dynasty and a light-giving 
oib in the empyrean of its glory, and for filling him with the 
thankfulness that tendeth to the continuance of God's mercies, 
and to an abundant downflow from the beneficent clouds of 
His indulgence and goodness. 

He prayeth that God may grant unto him, through the 
birth of this child, the accomplishment of his furthest hopes, 
that he may through him be linked with the Imamate as 
long as day continues to be joined unto night; that God 
may make this child a refuge for the truly directed, a living- 
proof against them that deny, a help unto them that are 
under constraint, a succourer unto them that seek assistance, 
an asylum to them that are in fear, and a source of happiness 
J 02 to the patient; that the world through him may attain its 
most abundant happiness and prosperity, and that each day, 
as it ariseth, may disclose its pearly teeth in smiles. 

By reason of the lofty rank bestowed upon thee by the 
Prince of the Faithful and of thy position unequalled and 
unmatched, I make known unto thee these auspicious tidings, 
glorious and important and widely celebrated, that thou 
mayest abundantly rejoice thereat, and that thou mayest 
spread them among thy servants and divinely favoured people, 
that they may be equally known to them that are distant 
and to them that are near, that by knowledge of these tidings 
the necklace of happiness be strung, and that their sweet 
fragrance be exhaled as that of fresh aloes-wood fromMandal 
and of camphor.* Be this known unto thee and make it 
known, with the permission of God Most High. 

Written on the day above mentioned. May God bless his 
Apostle our Lord Muhammad and his family the pure Imams, 
hail them with salutations of peace, exalt them and honour 
them unto the last day ! '"^ 

* Mandal is said to be the name of a place in India (the 
Indian Archipelago ?), celebrated for its aloes- wood. 



The Da^ys of Yanian. 137 

Soon aftei' the sceptre departed from the hands 
of our Lord al-Amir, and al-Hafiz succeeded. The 
first edict that reached the Queen from him pur- 
ported to proceed from the appointed heir to the 
Empire of the Muslims. 

In the second 3^ear of the Prince of the Faithful, 
the Queen appointed the noble Da'y Ibrahim ibn 
al-Husavn al-Hiimidi. 

She next transferred the office of Da'y on behalf 
of the Khalifah al-Hafiz to the family of Zuray'. 
" Sufficient," said the Queen, " for the Banu as- 
Sulayhi, is that which they know respecting (the 
fate of ?) our Lord at-Tayyib." * 

Then the office was held by his son Hatim ibn 
Ibrahim ibn al-Husayn al-Hamidi, until that time. 

It was transferred under the reig-u of al-Hafiz to 
the family of Zuray'. One of them (or, the first) 
was the unparagoned Amir Saba son of Abu Su'ud, 
son of Zuray' son of al-'Abbas the Yamite, who 
combined the office of Da'y with sovereign rule. 
He was succeeded by his son, the great, the crowned, 
the powerful Da'y, Da'y of the Prince of the Faith- 
ful, Muhammad son of Saba, in whose hands like- 
wise the functions of Da'y and the royal office were 
combined. 

We have now, in this abridgment, supplied an 
abstract of the history of the kings of the country 
of Yaman and of the Da'j^s. 

End of the auspicious history. Praise be to God, 
by whose grace all good works are brought to com- 
pletion. 

* See Note 102. It will be noticed that in Janadi we find the 
verb J.«c io do instead of Jlc to know. 



103 THE HISTOEY OF YAMAN 



EXTRACTED FROM THE GENERAL HISTORY OF 



'ABD AR-RAHMAN iBN KHALDtTN. 



The History of Yaman and of the Islamitic 
States that have existed therein subject to 
the 'Abbasides and 'Obaydites, and of all its 
Arab Kings, a general Account of their 
Rise and Vicissitudes, followed by separate 
Historical Notices, under the heading of 
EACH City and Kingdom of the Country, one 
by one. 

We have related, in the latter part of the Pro- 
phetical History, how Yaman became part of the 
Islamitic Empire, through the submission of Ba- 
dhan, its governor under Kisra (Chosroes), to 
Islam. The people were converted along with him, 
and the Prophet appointed him Amir over all its 
provinces. His residence was at San'a, the seat 
of government of the ancient kings, the Tubbas. 
When the Prince died, after the Farewell Pilgrim- 
age, the Prophet (may God bless him and hail him 
with salutations of peace) divided Yaman among 
provincial governors, subject to himself, and 
appointed Shahr son of Badhan over San'a. 

We have likewise related the story of al-Aswad 



Early Governors under Islcujt. 139 

al-'Ansi (the 'Ansite), how he drove the governors 
of the Prophet out of Yamau, how he marched 
upon San'a, possessed himself of the city, how he 
slew Shahr son of Badhan, took his wife in mar- 
riage, made himself master of the greater part of 
Yaman, and how most of its people apostatized. 
The Prophet wrote to his followers and deputies, as 
also to all who had steadfastly adhered to the faith. 
Through the medium of Fayriiz son of her uncle, 
they entered into communication with the wife of 
Shahr, whom al-Aswad had married. The leading 
part, in these occurrences, was taken by Kays ibn 
'Abd Yaghuth,* the Muriidite. He, Fayriiz and 
Dadhwayh came to al-Aswad by night, with the 
concurrence of his wife, and slew him. The 
governors of the Prophet returned to their pro- 
vinces, and this occurred shortly before the Pro- 
phet's death. 

Kays became sole ruler at San'a and he collected 
together the scattered soldiery of al-Aswad. Abu 
Bakr appointed Fayruz and the Abnas who owned 
his authority, over Yaman, and commanded the 
, people to obey him. Fayruz attacked Kays ibn 
Makshuh and put him to flight.^"* 

Abu Bakr then appointed al-Muhajir ibn Abi 
Umayyah to be commander in the war against the 
apostates of Yaman, and likewise 'Ukrimah ibn Abi 
Jahl, who w^as .ordered to commence by operating 
against the apostates of 'Oman, and then to join al- 
Muhajir. At a later date, Yaman was placed under 
the government of Ya'la ibn Munyah. He after- 
wards joined 'A'ishah at Mecca, whence he accom- 
panied her and took part in the battle of the 
Camel.^°5 

'Aly appointed over Yaman 'Obayd Allah ibn 
*Abbas, and then 'Obayd Allah's brother 'Abd 
Allah. Afterwards Mu'awiyah appointed over 
* Also knoAvn as Ibn Makshuh. 



140 



Ibn Khaldnu. 



San'a Fajruz the Daylamite, who died A.n. 53. In 
A.H. 72, when 'Abd al-Mahk sent al-Hajjaj against 
Ibn Zubayr, he named him governor of Yaman. 
When the dynasty of the 'Abbasides was estabHslied 
(the Khallfah Abu 'l-'Abbas 'Abd AUah) as-Saff:1h 
appointed over tlie province his uncle Da-iid il)n 
*Aly, and upon Da-ud's death, in a.h. 1 33, he re- 
placed him by Muhammad, son of his maternal 
uncle Yazid (read Ziyad), son of 'Obayd Allah son 
(descendant) of 'Abd al-Madan. 

Thenceforward the governorship passed succes- 
sively from one ruler to another, all of whom estab- 
lislied their residence at 8an'a, until the accession of 
al-Ma'infin to the Khalifate. The missionaries of 
the Trdibites appeared in the provinces, and Abu 's- 
Saraya, of the Banu Shayban, proclaimed in 'Irak 
the supremacy of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Tabataba, 
son of Isma*il, son of Ibrahim, the latter, brother 
(read uncle) of tlie j\Iahdi, an-Nafs az-ZaJi'ii/ah (the 
pure in spirit), Muhammad, son of 'Abd Alhih son of 
-Hasan (son of Hasan son of 'Aly sou of Abu Trdib). 
Disturbances increased in violence and Muhammad 
ibn Tabataba appointed rulers over the various pro- 
vinces. He was eventually killed, and Muhammad 
son of Ja'far as-Sadik was proclaimed in the Hijaz, 
whilst in Yaman, Ibrahim son of Musa al-Kazim 
rebelled in a.h. 200.'* He did not succeed in his 
designs, and he was surnamed al-Jazmr (the 
Butcher), by reason of his blood-shedding disposi- 
tion. Al-Ma'mun sent troops to Yaman, who sub- 
dued the country. They removed large numbers 
of the leading men, and Yaman acquired a settled 
condition, in the manner we will proceed to relate. 

* See Genealogical Table of Imfiins, Note 107. 



The Ziyadites. 141 

The Dynasty of Ziyad under the supremacy op 

THE AbBASIDES. 

Among tlie leading men of Yanian sent up to al- 
Ma'miin there was one, Muhammad son of Ziyad, 
a descendant of 'Obayd Allah son of Ziyad son of 
Abu Sufyan. He propitiated the Khallfah, and 
35 having engaged to protect Yaman against the 
Alides, he won bis favour and was appointed to the 
government of the province, where he arrived in 
A.H. 203. He conquered the Tihamah of Yaman, 
that is to say, the western country adjoining the 
sea-coast, and founded there the city of Zabid, which 
became his place of residence and the capital of his 
kingdom. He appointed over the highlands his 
freedman Ja'far. Tihamah was conquered after a 
struggle with the Arab tribes, and they were sub- 
jected to a stipulation that they should not make 
use of riding horses. Ibn Ziyad became sovereign 
of the whole of Yaman. His authority was 
recognized in the provinces of Hadramaut, ash- 
Shihr and Diyar (the country of the) Banu 
Kindah, and he acquired the power and dignity 
formerly enjoyed by the Tubbas (the ancient Kings 
of Yaman). 

There existed at San'a, the chief city of Yaman, 
the Banu Ya'fur, descendants of Himyar, one of the 
noblest families that had survived the rule of the 
Tubbas. They exercised supreme authority over 
the city and owned allegiance to the Abbasides. 
Besides San'a they possessed Bayhan, Najran,* 
and Jurash. The last of the family were As'ad ibn 
Ya'fur and, next after him, his brother Muhammad. 
The Banu Ya'fur recognized the supremacy of Ibn 
Ziyad. 

'Aththar, likewise one of the kingdoms of Yaman, 

* See infra, p. 172, and 'Omarah, vti^ra,, p. 6. TIic Paris MS. 
writes Tajrai. 



142 Ibn Khaldfin. 

was under the rule of Suleyinan ibu Tarf, wLo also 
submitted. 

Muhammad ibn Ziyad perished, and he was 
succeeded by his son Ibrahim. Then followed 
Ziyad son of Ibrahim, then the brother of Ziyad, 
Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak son of Ibrahim. His reign 
endured for a long period, until he attained 
the age of eighty years. - 'Omarah says that he 
reigned eighty years over Yaman, Hadramaut and 
the maritime islands. When Abu '1-Jaysh heard of 
the assassination of the Khalifah al-Mutawakkil 
and afterwards of the abdication of al-Musta'in 
(A.n. 252) and of the subjection of the Khallfate to 
the Turkish freedmen, he discontinued the payment 
of tribute, and when riding forth, he caused a 
canopy to be borne over his head, according to the 
usnge of the independent Persian kings. ^'^^ 

Under his reign Yahya son of al-Husayn son of 
al-Kasim ar-Rassy son of Ibrahim Tabataba arose 
in Yaman proclaiming the supremacy of the Zayd- 
ites.^"^ He came from Sind, whither his grand- 
father al-Kasim had fled, upon the suppression of 
the insurrection led by his brother Muhammad and 
by Abu 's-Saraya, of which we have related the 

history. 

Al-Kasim sought refuge in Sind and there his son 
Husayn and his grandson Yahya were born. Yahya 
appeared in Yaman in a.h. 288 and proceeded to 
IO6 Sa'dah, w^iere he made open profession of the doc- 
trines of the Zaydites. He then marched upon 
San'a and wrested it from the hands of As'ad ibn 
Ya*fur, but the Banu Ya'fur recaptured the city 
and Yahya returned to Sa'dah. His followers gave 
him the title of Imam and his descendants occupy 
the country at the present day. We have herein 
before related their history.* 

It was likewise in the days of Abu '1-Jaysh, that 
the claims of the 'Obaydites were proclaimed in 

* Infra, p. 184. 



The Ziyadites. 143 

Yaman. Muhammad (read 'Aly) ibn al-Fadl estab- 
lished his authority in their name, in a.h. 340, over 
Aden La'ah and over the highlands of Yaman, as 
far as Mount Mudhaykhirah. 

The country that remained subject to Abu '1- Jaysh 
extended from ash-Sharjah to Aden, twenty days* 
journey, and from his own province to San'a, five 
days' journey. When Muhammad ('Aly) ibn al- 
Fadl overcame him by spreading recognition of 
the *Obaydite supremacy in Yaman, the rulers 
of the outlying provinces cast oft: their allegiance 
to Abu '1-Javsh. Amono^ them were the Banu 
As'ad ibn Ya'fur at San'a, Suleyman ibn Tarf at 
'Aththar and the Imam ar-Rassy at Sa'dah. Abu 
'1-Jaysh adopted a conciliatory policy with them. 

He perished in a.h. 371. He had extended his 
kingdom and had increased its revenues. Ibn Sa'Id 
says that he had examined a statement according 
to which the revenues of Abu '1-Jaysh amounted to 
1,306,000 'Ashariyah dinars,* besides duties levied 
upon the snipping from Sind, upon ambergris 
arriving at Bab al-Mandeb and at Aden-Abyan, on 
the pearl fisheries, and besides the taxes collected 
in the Island of Dahlak, which included one thou- 
sand slaves. The Kings of Abyssinia, on the 
opposite shores, were in the habit of offering him 
presents, and sought his friendship. 

At his death he left a young child of the name of 
*Abd Allah or Ibrahim or, as is also said, of the 
name of Ziyad. His sister and his freedman Rashid 
tbe Abyssinian became the guardians of the child. 
Rashid appointed over the highlands his mamluk 
Hasan (Husayn) ibn Salamah the JSTubian. Thence- 
forth the office of wazir passed from one Abyssinian 

* Read : Amounted in a.h. 366 to one million 'Aththariyah 
dinars. It will be observed that Ibn Sa'Id's statement is simply 
appropriated from 'Omarah, who, as we have seen, borrowed liis 
information from Ibn Haukal. (Note 12.) 



144 ^^^^ Khaldun. 

or Nubian freedman to another. They acquired 
absolute control over the state, and the Zivadite 
dynasty at length carae to an end in a.h. 407 (read 
409). 

The child died and was succeeded by another, 
also of the family of the Banu Ziyad, younger 
than his predecessor. Ibn Sa'Id remarks that 
107 'Omarah knew not his name, in consequence of the 
absolute control exercised over the Prince b}'- the 
chamberlains. He means ' Omarah, the historian of 
Yaman. It is, however, said that this second child 
bore the name of Ibrahim. He was placed under 
the guardianship of his aunt and of Marjan one of 
the freedmen of Hasan (Husayn) ibn Salamali. 
Marjan became possessed of supreme power. He 
had two freedmen, Kays * and Najclh. He placed 
the infant Prince, the nominal King, under the care 
of Kays (Nafis), who was appointed to reside at 
Zabid along with the child. Najrdi he appointed 
over all the provinces other than Zabid, including 
the cities of al-Kadra and al-Mahjam. Marjan 
preferred Kays (Nafis) to Najah, between whom 
jealousy consequently arose. It was stated to 
Kays (ISTafls) that the child's aunt favoured Najah, 
and was in secret correspondence with him. He 
seized her (and the child), with the concurrence of 
his master Marjan, and buried them alive. He 
assumed exclusive and supreme power, adopted the 
use of the royal umbrella, and put his own name on 
the coinage. 

in extreme anger at what had occurred, Najah 
placed himself at the head of an army, and marched 
against Kays (Nafis), who came forth to meet him. 
Several engagements and battles took place and 
Kays (Nafis) was eventually defeated and killed, 
along with five thousand men of his army. Najah 
gained possession of Zabid in a.h. 412, and buried 

* See Note 13, last par. 



The Siday kites. 145 

Kays (Nafis) and his master Mar j an in the place 
of the child and its aunt. He assumed paramount 
authority and the coinage was struck in his 
name. He wrote to the supreme council of the 
Khalifah at Baghdad, and was formally appointed 
to rule over Yaman. He continued to exercise 
absolute sway over Tihamah and the highlands, 
and he abolished in the mountain districts, the 
authority of the rulers appointed by Hasan (Hu- 
saynj ibu Salamah. The neighbouring kings 
dreaded his power, and he coutinued in the en- 
joyment of that high estate until his assassina- 
tion by 'Aly as-Sulayhi, the representative of the 
'Obaydites, who encompassed his death, in a. h. 452, 
by means of poison administered by a female slave 
he sent to the Kino*. 

o 

!N"ajah was succeeded at Zabid by his freedman 
'KaWan. Afterwards as-Sulayhi possessed himself 
of the city and ruled over it, as will be related. 



The History of the Ba>^u 's-Sulayht,who ruled 

UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE 'OeAYDITES, AND 
PROPAGATED THEIR SDPREMACY IN YaMAN. 

The Kadi Muhammad ibn *Aly the Hamdanite, 
surnamed as-Sulaylii, was the chief of Haraz in the 
country of the Hamdanites. He was descended 
from the tribe of the Banu Yam, and there grew 
up unto him a son named 'Aly. The office of Da'y 
for the 'Obaydites was at that time held by 'Amir 
son of 'Abd Allah az-Zawahi (the Zawahite), so 
named after a villas^e in Haraz. It was said that 
he possessed the book al-Jafi\ one of the treasures, 
it was represented, of the 'Obaydite Imams, and it 
was pretended that the name of 'Aly, sou of the 
Kiidi Muhammad, was mentioned in the book. 

L 



146 2bn Khaldnn. 

'Aly studied under the directions of the Da^y and 
received his teaching. When the youth's merits 
and talent became manifest, the Da'y showed him 
his name and particulars describing him, set forth 
in the book. " Take care of your son," he said to 
the Kadi, " for he will be ruler over the whole of 
Yaman." 

'Aly grew up a Jurist noted for piety. For fif- 
teen years he was leader of the pilgrimage byway of 
Ta if and the Sarawat. He attained a great repu- 
tation, his name became widely known, and people 
commonly spoke of him as Sultan of Yaman. The 
Da'y 'Amir az-Zawahi died bequeathing to him his 
writings and appointing him his successor. 'Aly 
led the caravan of pilgrims in a.h. 428, according to 
his previous custom, and during the celebration of 
the ceremonies of the Mausim,^ he assembled certain 
men belonging to his tribe, that of Hamdan, w4io 
had accompanied him, and called upon them for 
their assistance and support. They consented and 
swore allegiance to him. They were sixty in 
number, ranking among the most manly members 
of the tribe. 

On his return, he established himself at Masar, a 
fortress on the summit of one of the mountains of 
Haraz, which he strengthened. His power waxed 
great, and he wrote to al-Mustansir, then ruling in 
Egypt, requesting to be allowed to make open 
proclamation of the 'Obaydite doctrines. He re- 
ceived the desired permission and carried his design 
into effect. He made himself master of the whole 
of Yaman, and took up his residence at San'a, 
where he built palaces and made the Yamanite 
Kings, whom he had conquered, take up their abode 
beside him. He drove forth the Banu Tarf, KinofS 
of 'Aththar and Tihamah, and in a.h. 452, as we 

* Between the 8th and 13th of the month of Dhu '1-Hijjah. 



The Sulayhiies. 147 

have mentioned, lie brought about the death of 
Najah, freedman of the Ziyadites and King of 
Zabid, by means of a slave girl, he sent as a 
present to the Prince. 

He then proceeded to Mecca by command of al- 
Mustansir the ruler of Egypt, for the purpose of 
putting an end to the *Abbaside supremacy and to 
the rulership of the Hasanites. He appointed his 
son, al-Mukarram Ahmad, his deputy at San'a, and 
he took with him his wife Asma daughter of Shihab, 
as also the kings who had their abode with him, 
such as Ibn al-Kurandi, Ibn Ya'fur at-Tubba'y, 
Wail ibn 'Isa al-Wuhazy, and others. Sa'Id ibn 
Najah made a night attack npon him at al-Mahjam 
and killed him. This happened in a.h. 463 (read 
473). 

He was succeeded by his son al-Mukarram 
Ahmad, who possessed himself of supreme power 
and established himself at San'a. His mother, 
Asma daughter of Shihab, had been captured by 
Sa'Id ibn Najah, on the night of the attack. She 
sent a letter to her son al-Mukarram. " I am with 
child," she wrote, " by the squint-eyed slave Sa'Id, 
al-Almal. Come to me before my delivery, or dis- 
grace will ensue, such as time will never efface." 
Al-Mukarram started from San'a in the year 475, 
at the head of three thousand men. The Abyssin- 
ians numbered twenty thousand, but he routed 
them. Sa'Id ibn Najah fled to the Island of Dah- 
lak. Al-Mukarram presented himself to his mother, 
who was seated in the archway (or casement) near 
which the heads of as-Sulayhi and of his brother 
were displayed. He took them down and buried 
them, and unsheathed the sword in vengeance 
against the city. He re-instated his maternal uncle 
As'ad ibn Shihab over Tihamah as before, giving 
him ZabId for his place of residence, and he then 
departed with his mother for San'a. 

L 2 



148 Ibu KJialdun. 

Sbe conducted the affairs of his kingdom. After 
a time, As'ad ihn Shihab having collected the 
tribute of Tihamah, transmitted it under the charge 
of his wazir Ahmad ibn Salim, and Asma dis- 
tributed the money among the envoys from the 
Arab tribes. She died in a.h. 477,* and in 479, 
al-Mukarram lost possession of Zabid, which was 
recovered by Sa'ld ibn Najah. Al-Mukarram re- 
moved to Dhu Jiblah in 480 and appohited over 
San'a 'Imran ibn al-Fadl the Hamdanite. 

'Imran became independent and transmitted the 
sovereignty to his descendants. His son Ahmad 
assumed the title of Sultan, under which he 
acquired great celebrity. He was succeeded by his 
son Hatim son of Ahmad, but after him there was 
at San'a no Prince of any renown, until the city was 
conquered by the Suleymanites, upon that family 
being overcome at Mecca by the Hashimites, as is 
mentioned in their history. f Dhu Jiblah is a city 
founded by 'Abd Allah son of Muhammad as-Sulayhi 
in the year 458. Al-Mukarram removed thither by 
the advice of his wife Sayyidah daughter of Ahmad, 
who acquired the direction of the affairs of his king- 
dom, after the death of his mother Asma. He made 
Dhu Jiblah his place of residence and built in that 
city the Bar al-^Izz (the abode of Majesty). He 
applied himself to contrive the death of Sa'id ibn 
Najah and succeeded in his design, as we will relate 
in the history of Ibn Najah. 
- Al-Mukarram became absorbed in the pursuit of 

* Read 479. See supra, p. 37. 

t See infra, p. 187 and Note 130. It is hardly necessary to add 
that the Suleymanites never conquered San'ii. Ibn Khaldun, 
misled, it would appear by Ibn Sa'id, has hopelessly confused the 
Suleymanites and Rassites. But it will indeed be seen that the 
Rassite Imams themselves did not at the period referred to, nor for 
long after it, become permanently possessed of San'a. And Ibn 
Khaldun's statement touching 'Imriin ibn al-Fadl and his de- 
scendants, is likewise incorrect. See Note 8, the latter part. 



The Sulay kites. 149 

pleasure, living in a state of seclusion with Lis wife. 
When on the point of death in 484, he bequeathed 
his dignities to the son of his paternal uncle, al- 
MansLir Saba son of Ahmad son of al-Muzaflfar 
son of 'Aly as-Sulayhi, Lord of the fortress of 
Ashyah.^°^ He was invested by al-Mustansir the 
'Obaydite and made that fortress his place of 
(residence, whilst Sayyidah daughter of Ahmad re- 
mained at Dhu Jiblah. He sought her in marriage, 
but she refused, whereupon he laid siege to the 
castle she inhabited. Her uterine brother Suley- 
man ibn 'Amir az-Zawahi assured him that she would 
not consent, unless commanded by al-Mustansir the 
Egyptian Khalifah. Al-Mansur accordingly made 
application to al-Mustansir, who complied with his 
request. A eunuch arrived from the Court of the 
Khalifah, and acquainted the Princess with the 
purpose of his mission. He recited to her the 
verse : JJnto no believer, male nor female, helongeth 
liberty of choice when the decree of God and of His 
Apostle hath gone forth.* " The Prince of the 
Faithful," he continued, " marries thee to the Da'y 
Mansur Abu Himyar Saba son of Ahmad son of al- 
•Muzaffar, and appoints unto thee a dowry of one 
hundred thousand dinars in money and fifty thou- 
sand dinars in articles of rarity and value." The 
contract of marriaa^e was entered into and Saba 
proceeded from the fortress of Ashyah to Dhu Jib- 
lah, and joined his wife in the Dar al-'Izz. It is 
said that she sent him a slave girl who bore an 
exceeding resemblance to herself, that the girl 
stood at the head of his couch, and that he never 
raised his eyes unto her until morning, when he 
returned to Ashyah, whilst the Princess remained 
at Dhu Jiblah. 

The person possessed of paramount iofluence 
over the Queen was al-Mufaddal ibn Abi '1-Barakat 

* Kur'an. S. xxxiii. v. 3G 



150 Ib)i KJialdiui. 

of the Banu Yam, the tribe to which the Sulayhites 
belonged.* He invited his aUies of the tribe of 
Janb to join him. He appointed an abode for 
them at Dhu Jiblah, close to his own place of resi- 
dence, and they supported him in warlike enter- 
prises. 

Sayyidah was in the habit of spending the sum- 
mer at Ta'kar, where she kept her treasury and 
valuables. On the approach of winter she returned 
to Dhu Jiblah. After a time al-Mufaddal remained 
alone in possession at Ta'kar, without interruption 
to their friendly intercourse. He departed to make 
war upon the family of Najah. A Jurist, who bore 
the surname of al-Jamal, seized the opportunity to 
raise an insurrection in the castle of Ta'kar, assisted 
by several (or seven) other men of his profession, 
one of whom was Ibrahim ibn Zeydan, paternal 
uncle of 'Omarah the poet. They swore allegiance 
to al-Jamal, on the condition that he should put an 
end to the supremacy of the Imaraites. Al-Mufad- 
dal hastening back besieged them, and the Banu 
Khaulan came to the assistance of the rebels. Al- 
Mufaddal adopted a conciliator}'- and temporizing 
policy towards the Khaulanites, but perished in the 
course of the siege, in a.h. 504. 

The Lady Sayyidah thereupon came to the spot 
and prevailed upon the Khaulanites to enter into 
an alliance, the terms of w^iich she faithfully 
] 1 1 observed. She constituted herself guardian of the 
family and son of al-Mufaddal. The castle of 
Ta'kar passed into the hands of 'Imran ibn az-Zarr 
the Khaulanite and of his brother Suleyman, and 
'Imran acquired the influence formerly exercised by 
al-Mufaddal over the Lady Sayyidah. At her death, 
he and his brother remained sole masters of the 
castle of Ta*kar. 

* 'Omarah speaks of Abu 'l-Barakat as a Himyarite. 



The Sulayhites. 151 

Mansur, the son of al-Mufaddal son of Abu'l- 
Barakat, became possessed of Dbu Jiblah, and held 
the fortress until he sold it to the Zuray'ite Da'y, 
the ruler of Aden, as will hereafter be related. He 
established his residence in the stronghold of 
Ashyah, which had formerly belonged to the Da'y 
al-Mansfir Saba son of Ahmad. 

Al-Mansur Saba had died in a.h. 486 (read 492), 
after which discord arose among his children. His 
son 'Aly succeeded in gaining possession of the 
castle of Ashyah. He gave annoyance to al- 
Mufaddal ibn Abi '1-Barakat and to the Lady Say- 
yidah, and they felt themselves helpless against him, 
until al-Mufaddal at length contrived, by means of 
poison concealed in a quince, to bring about the 
death of his enemy. 

The family of Abu '1-Barakat possessed itself of 
the fortresses of the Banu Muzaffar, and al-Mu- 
faddal died soon afterwards, as has been related. 
Sayyidah undertook the guardianship of his son 
Mansur, who did not hold independent authority. 
But upon his advancing in years, he became 
possessed of the dominion held by his father over 
the fortress of Ta'kar and its castles, over Dhu 
Jiblah and its fortresses, and of that formerly exer- 
cised by the Banu Muzatfar over Ashyah and its 
fortresses. After a time he sold the castle of Dhu 
Jiblah to the Zuray'ite Da'y, the Prince of Aden, 
for 100,000 dinars, and he continued to sell his for- 
tresses, one after the other, until none remained 
unto him but that of Ta'izz, of which he was de- 
prived by *Aly son of Mahdy, after he had reigned 
for eighty years and had attained the age of one 
hundred.* And God, be He magnified and exalted, 
possesseth supreme knowledge of the truth. 

* See Note 66, the latter part, and Note 99. 



15^ 



Ibn Khalduji. 



The History of the DOMI^^ION, at Zabid, of the 

BaNU NaJAH, FliEEDMEN OF THE BaNU ZiYAD, 
their early career and THE VICISSITUDES THEY 
UNDERWENT. 

'Aly as-Sulayhi, as lias been related, orained posses- 
sion of Zabid from the hands of Kahlan, after havnig 
destroyed him (read Najah) by poison in a.h. 452 
with the assistance of the slave girl he had sent 
him. 
1 ] 2 Najilh had three sons, Mu'arik, Sa'id and. Jayyash. 
Mu'arik committed suicide, and the two remaining 
brother stock refuge in the Island- of Dahlak, where 
they abode, occupying themselves in the study of 
the Kur'an and of literature. After a time Sa'id 
departed, in anger with his brother Jayyash, and 
returned to Zabid, where he concealed himself in a 
cave, which he dug for himself in the ground. He 
then sent for his brother Jayyash, who joined him 
and they remained together in concealment. 

It next happened that the Hashimite Amir of 
Mecca, Muhammad ibn Ja'far, having renounced the 
supremacy of the 'Obaydite Khalifah of Egypt al- 
Mustansir, the latter wrote to as-Sulayhi, command- 
ing him to make war upon the Amir and to compel 
him to maintain the Alide supremacy at Mecca. 
'Aly as-Sulayhi accordingly marched from San'a,and 
thereupon Sa'id and his brother issued forth from 
their hiding-place. As-Sulayhi obtaining intelli- 
gence thereof, despatched against them a force of 
about five thousand horsemen,* with orders to put 
the two brothers to death. But Sa'id and Jayyash 
avoided the troops and went in pursuit of as-Sulayhi 
and his army. They made a night attack upon him 
at al-Mahjam, which he had reached on his way to 
Mecca. He had with him five thousand Abyssiniansf 

'*' Read Abyssinians. See supra, p. 83. 
t See supra, p. 30. 



i 



The BanzL Najuh. 153 

who, however, made no attempt to defend him. 
His troops were scattered and as-Sulayhi was killed, 
falling, it is said, at the hands of Jayyash. This 
occurred in the year 473. 'Abd Allah as-Sulayhi 
brother of 'Aly, was likewise killed, as well as one 
hundred and seventy men of the family of Sulayhi, 
and 'Aly's wife Asma, daughter of his nncle Shihab, 
was captured together wiih thirty -five Kahtanite 
kings, who had been deprived of their dominion in 
Yaman. Sa'id sent to the troops that had been des- 
patched against himself and against his brother, 
granted them an amnesty and took them into his 
own service. He then marched upon Zabid, which 
was ruled by As'ad ibn Shihab the brother of Asma, 
wife of as-Sulayhi. As'ad fled to San'a, and Sa'id 
made his entrance into Zabid with Asma, the wife 
of as-Sulajdii, borne in front of him in a litter, close 
to which were carried the heads of 'Aly and of his 
brother. He placed Asma in the palace of Zabid, 
and set np the two heads opposite the casement of 
her apartment. The hearts of the people were filled 
with dread, and Sa'id assumed the title of Nafir ad- 
Daulah (Defender of the State). 

The commanders of the fortresses made them- 
selves masters of the places that had been en- 
trusted to them. At San'a, al-Mukarram son of 
as-Sulayhi, was thrown into a state of stupor and 
all but utter helplessness. 

His mother Asma wrote to him from Zabid, 
stimulating and inciting him : " I am great with 
child," she wrote, " by Sa'id. Come therefore unto 
me, before disgrace light npon thee and upon the 
whole Arab nation." Al-Mukarram thereupon con- 
trived to instigate Sa'id son of jVajah into an attack 
upon San'a, employing as his medium one of the 
commanders on the frontier, and flattering Sa'id with 
promises of victory.^"^ 

Sa'id consequently advanced at the head of 



154 -^^'^ KJialdun, 

twenty thousand Abyssinians. Al-Mukarram issued 
forth from San'a, and put the enemy to flight. Ele 
turned their position so as to intercept the road 
to Zabid, and Sa'id fled to the Ishind of Dahlak. 

Al-Mukarram entered Zabld and proceeded to his 
mother, whom he found seated at the casement near 
which were exposed the heads of as-SuUiyhi and of 
his brother. He took them down and buried them. 
And he appointed over Zabid his maternal uncle 
As'ad in the year 497 (read 475). He then departed 
for San'a, but Sa'id subsequently returned to Zabid 
in A.H. 479. 

Al-Mukarrara wrote to Abu 'Abd Allah ibn 
Ya'fur (read Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn), Lord of 
the fortress of Sha'ir, desiring him to incite Sa'id 
against himself, to urge upon him the capture of 
Dhu Jiblah and to represent, as the motive of his 
action, that al-Mukarram was absorbed in the pur- 
suit of pleasure, that he lived in a state of subjec- 
tion to his wife Sayyidah daughter of Ahmad, and 
that he was afflicted with paralysis. The artifice 
was crowned with success. Sa'id came forth at the 
head of thirty thousand Abyssinians, and al-Mukar- 
ram prepared an ambush for him below the castle 
of Sha'ir. Sa'id fell a victim to treachery. His 
troops were routed and he himself killed. His 
head was put up at Zabid on the spot, close to 
the casement, where the head of as-Sulayhi was 
formerly exposed. Al-Mukarram became master 
of the city of Zabid, and its subjection to the Abys- 
sinians ceased. Jayyash fled accompanied by his 
brother's wazir Klialf son of Abu lahir the Marwan- 
ite. They entered Aden in disguise and thence 
they proceeded to India, where they remained for 
six months. They met in that country a diviner, 
who came from (the island of) Sarandib and who 
cheered them with happy predictions concerning 
their future fortunes. They returned to Yaman 



The Banii Najali. 15c 

and the wazir Khalf proceeded in advance to Zabid, 
where he spread a report of the death of Jayyash, 
and obtained an amnesty for himself. Jayyash also 
came to Zabld, but remained in concealment. 

The Governor of Zabld at that time was As'ad 
ibn Shihab, the maternal uncle of al-Mukarram, 
14 and along with him 'Aly ibn al-Kumm, wazir 
of al-Mukarram. This man entertained feelings 
of intense hatred against al-Mukarram and his 
dynasty. The wazir Khalf contrived to win his 
confidence and played chess with Husayn the son of 
'Aly. After a time he played with the father. He 
won his favour and then revealed to him the plans 
he had conceived touching the government, inform- 
ing him that he was an adherent of the family of 
Najah. Whilst playing, Khalf was one day speak- 
ing in a manner calculated to stimulate the dislike 
of his hosts to the Sulayhites,* when 'Aly ibn al- 
Kumm overheard him. 'Aly questioned him and 
Khalf revealed his purpose, swearing him to 
secrecy. During that time Jayyash was collecting 
his Abyssinian followers and spending money upon 
them, until they gathered to the number of five 
thousand men. He then suddenly, in the year 482, 
rose in insurrection at Zabld. He seized the Govern- 
ment House, but treated As'ad ibn Shihab with 
kindness, in consideration of the infirmities with 
which he was afflicted, and set him at liberty. 
Jayyash became King of Zabid and of Tihamah and 
instituted the Khutbah in the name of the 'Abbas- 
ides, whilst the Sulayhites recited it in the name 
of the 'Obaydites. Al-Mukarram unceasingly sent 
the Arabs on predatory expeditions against Zabid, 
until Jayyash died at the commencement (read at 
the end) of the fifth century. He bore the surname 

* I have read "JiX instead of ^•il, hut Ibn Khaldun's story, it 
will be observed, is not perfectly clear, nor is it consistent with 
'Omiirah's narrative. 



I 56 Ibn Kkaldiui. 

of Abu 't-Tclmi (tlie Exalted), aud was celebrated for 
liis justice. 

He was succeeded by liis son al-Fatik, wlio, 
however, was opposed by his two brothers, Ibrahim 
and 'Abd al- Wahid. A struggle took place between 
him and his two brothers, in which he eventually 
triumphed. He perished in the year 503. 

His slaves raised to the throne his son Mans fir 
ibn Fatik, a boy below the age of puberty, and they 
conducted the affairs of his kingdom ; but the 
Prince's uncle Ibrahim came forth to attack him, 
and the slaves prepared troops to defend their own 
and the young Prince's authority. His other uncle 
'Abd al- Wahid thereupon rose in the city. Mansur 
sent to al-Mufaddal son of Abu '1-Barakat Prince of 
Ta'kar, who came professedly to his assistance, but 
concealing treacherous designs. He heard that the 
people of Ta'kar had revolted against him, and 
turned back. 

Mansur remained kinoc of Zabid until one of his 
slaves, Abu Mansur Mann Allah, was appointed his 
wazlr and poisoned him, in the year 517. 

Mann Allah raised to the throne the Prince's son 
Fatik, a young child, in whose name he governed 
the kingdom. The wazir was accused of attempt- 
ing the honour of the women of the family of Najah, 
so that even the mother of the infant king Fatik fled 
from him, and took up her residence outside the city. 
Mann Allah was enterprising and brave, and he is 
celebrated for his wars with the enemv. He was 
115 attacked by Ibn Najib (ad-Daulah), the Da'y of the 
Alides, against whom he successfully defended him- 
self. It is he who erected statelv colWes at Zabid 
for the study of Jurisprudence. He also applied 
himself to the protection of the pilgrims and it was 
he that built the walls of the city. But after a time 
he addressed solicitations to the daughter of Mu'arik 
son of Jayyash. Perceiving no means of escape 



The Banu Najak. i^y 

from Tiim, she consented, but having suiTenclered 
herself to him, she bi'oiight about his death by means 
of a cloth saturated with poison, which caused his 
flesh to waste away. This occurred in the year 524. 
He was succeeded in the guardianship of tlie young 
Prince, by Zurayk (or Euzayk),a freedman of the 
family of Najah. 

'Omarah says of Zurayk that he was a sagacious 
man, remarkable for his bravery and fitness to com- 
mand, and father of many children. After a time 
he became enfeebled, but no one succeeded to a firm 
hold of his ofiice until the appointment, as wazir, of 
Suriir the Abyssinian, who was surnamed al-Fatiki, 
and who was one of the freedmen in the personal 
service of the mother of Fatik. 

According to 'Omarah, Fatik son of Mansur died 
in A.H. 531. He was succeeded by the son of his 
paternal uncle, Fatik son of Muhammad son of 
Fatik, with Surur as his wazir, the conductor of the 
affairs of the realm and of the wars with his enemies. 
Surur was a constant attendant at the Mosque, 
where he was at length slain by an assassin, whom 
'Aly ibn Mahdy the Kharijite employed for the 
purpose, and who killed him whilst he was engaged 
in the afternoon prayer on Friday, 12th Safar, 551. 
The people rose to attack the impious murderer. 
He killed several attendants of the mosque, but 
was overpowered and slain. The freedmen of the 
family of Najah were thrown into a state of con- 
sternation. They were attacked by 'Aly ibn Mahdy 
the Kharijite, who fought many battles with them 
and besieged them for a long period of time. They 
besought assistance of the Sharif al-Mansur Ahmad 
ibn Hamzah the Suleymanite, who ruled over 
Sa'dah.* He consented to help them, on condition 
of their raising him to the throne after killing their 
master Fatik ibn Muhammad. They agreed to his 

* See Note 130. 



158 



Ibn Khaldun. 



conditions. The Prince was slain in a.h. 553 
and the Sharif Ahmad was proclaimed King. 
Bat he was unable to withstand ibn Mahdy and 
fled under cover of night. 'Aly ibn ]\Iahdy pos- 
sessed himself of the city in 554, and the dynasty of 
Najah came to an end. Perpetuity belongeth unto 
God!' 
Ijg Abu I'-Jaysli ibn Ziyad. 

Rasliid the Abyssinian, his freedman. 

J 
Hasan (read Husayn) ibn Salamah the Nubian, his freedman. 

Marjan, his freedman. 

I 
I. Najah, his freedman. 



I 

II. Sa'id. 



I . 
III. Jayyash. 



'Abd al- Wahid. 



Ibrahim. 



IV. Fatik. 



Mu'arik. 



Muhammad. 

■ I 
VII. Fatik. 



V. Mansiir. 

r 

VI. Fatik. 



The History of the Dynasty of the Banu Zuray' 
AT Aden, Da'ys of the 'Obaydites in Yaman, 
OF ITS Rise and Progress. 

Aden is one of the strongest cities of Yaman. Tt is 
situated on the shores of the Indian Ocean, and has 
ever been a city of trade since the days of the 
Tubbas. Most of its inhabitants' houses are con- 
structed of reeds, and in consequence thereof fires 
frequently break out at night. 

In the early years of Islam it was the seat of 
government of the Banu Ma'n, who according to 



The Ziirayites. 159 

al-Bayliaki claim to be descended from Ma*n ibn 
Za idah, and who possessed themselves of the city in 
the days of al-Ma'mun/^'' They refused submission 
to the Banu Ziyad, who were obliged to content 
themselves with having the Khutbah and coinage 
in their names. 

When the Da'y *Aly ibn Muhammad as-Sulayhi 
conquered Yaman, he maintained in favour of the 
Banu Ma'n the protection due to them as Arabs, 
and imposed upon them the payment of a fixed 
tribute. But his son Ahmad al-Mukarram expelled 
the Banu Ma'n from the city and appointed over it 
7 the Banu '1-Karam, a family belonging to his tribe, 
that of Jusham ibn Yam, a subdivision of the Banu 
Hamdan. That family was the most nearly re- 
lated to him in the tribe. The province remained 
under their rule for a time, but discord arose among 
them and they became divided into two parties, the 
family of Mas'iid son of al-Karam, and the descen- 
dants of Zuray' son of al-* Abbas son of al-Karam. 
The latter after severe fighting prevailed over their 
opponents. 

Ibn Sa'id says that the member of the dynasty 
who first attained celebrity, was the Da'y Saba 
son of Abu Sa'iid son of az-ZurayS He was the 
first to exercise undivided power over the State, 
after the disappearance of the Sulayhite supremacy, 
and his children inherited the throne. Saba was 
attacked by the son of his uncle, 'Aly son of Abu '1 
Gharat son of Mas*iid son of al-Karam, lord of 
Za'azi*. He (Saba) wrested Aden from his ('Aly's) 
hands, after the infliction of much suffering and at 
the cost of a heavy expenditure of money on the 
desert Arabs. He died in a.h. 533, seven months 
after the capture of the city. He was succeeded by 
his son al-A'azz, whose place of abode was the castle 
of ad-Dumluwah, the fortress, which (by reason of 
its great strength) no enemy ever desires to 



i6o Ibn K ha Id fin. 

attack.^" Bilrd ibn Jarlr, a freedman of the Banu 
Zura}^', opposed al-A'azz at Aden and desired to 
transfer the authority exercised over the city by the 
retainers of the Prince, to Muhammad son of Saba 
son of Abu Sii'ud son of Zuray'. Muhammad ibn 
Saba, in fear for his own safety, fled to Dhu JibUdi 
and placed liimself under the protection of Mansur 
ibn al-Mufaddal, the Sulayhite King of the High- 
lands of Yaman. 

Al-A'azz died shortly after, and Bilal sent for 
Muhammad ibn Saba, who thereupon came to Aden. 
A deed of investure had come from Egypt in the 
name of al-A'azz. The name of Muhammad ibn 
Saba was substituted for that of his predecessor. 
Anions: the titles of honour which the charter con- 
ferred were those of the Greats the Crowned, the 
Mighty Da'i/, the Sword of the Prince of the Faith- 
ful, all which were assumed by Muhammad. Bilrd 
gave him his daughter in marriage and placed at 
his disposal the wealth he had accumulated in his 
treasury. After a time Bilrd died leaving immense 
riches, which were inherited by Muhammad ibn 
Saba and which he devoted to great and benevolent 
objects. He purchased the fortress of Dhu Jiblah, 
the residence of the Sulayhite kings, from Mansur 
ibn al-Mufaddal ibn Abi '1-Baraka.t, as we have 
already mentioned, and he married Sayyidah (read 
Arwaj the daughter of (' Aly son of ?) 'Aljd Allah the 
Sulayhite. ]\Iuhammad died in a.h. 548 and was 
succeeded by his son 'Imran son of Muhammad son 
of Saba. The affairs of his government were con- 
ducted by Yasir son of Bilal, and 'Imran died in 
118 A.H. 560, leaving two infant sons, Muhammad and 
Abu Su'iid. Yasir confined them to the palace, and 
exercised supreme power over the State. 

He was greatly eulogized and was liberal in his 
rewards to the poets. Among those who came to 
his court and wrote in his praise, was Ibn Kalakis 



The Bami MaJidy. 1 6 r 

the poet of Alexandria. The following line is from 
an ode he wrote in praise of Yasir : — 

Abandon thy home if thou Jesirest greatness — The crescent, 
having travelled, becomes a full moon."- 

Yasir was the last sovereign of the Zuray'ite 
dynasty. AVhen Shams ad-Danlah Sayf al-Islam 
(read Turan Shah), brother of Saladin, invaded and 
conquered Yaman in a.h. ^^'o (read 569) he came to 
Aden, took possession of the city and laid hands 
upon Yasir ibn Bilal. The dynasty of the Zuray'ites 
came to an end, and Yaman became subject to the 
Ghuzz (Turks, Kurds, Circassians, etc.), and to 
their chiefs, of the dynasty of Ayyfib, as we vrill 
relate in their history. The city of al-Juwwah, 
near Aden, was founded by the Zuray'ite kings. 
The Ayyubite princes, when they became supreme, 
forsook that city and established their residence at 
Ta'izz in the mountains, as will hereafter be set 
forth.i^^ 



The History of Ten Mahdy the Kharijite and 

OF HIS SONS, their RuLE IN YaMAN, ITS RiSE 

AND ITS Fall. 
This man was a native of al-'Anbarah on the 
borders of the sea near Zabid. His name was 'Aly 
ibn Mahdy, the Himyarite. His father Mahdy was 
noted for his virtue and piety, 'Aly was brought 
up in the religious opinions of his father, and he 
lived in retirement, devoting himself to a religious 
life. After a time he went on the pilgrimage. He 
met and became acquainted with certain doctors of 
*Irak, and he learnt from their preachers the art of 
warning and exhorting the people. He returned to 
Yamnn, where he withdrew himself from society 



1 62 Ibn Klialdun. 

and occupied himself in preaching. He was an 
eloquent expounder of the Kur'au, and he foretold 
events about to occur in his career. His predic- 
tions were followed by their fulfilment. The people 
listened to him with favour and he acquired popu- 
larity. 

From the year 561 he travelled to and fro on the 
pilgrimage, preaching to the people in the deserts. 
At the season of the iH(n<^i/;i he attended it mounted 
on a dromedary he possessed. When the mother of 
Eatik gained paramount influence over the Banu 
Jayyash, in the days of her son Fatik son of Mansiir, 
she became a firm believer in him, and she released 
him, his kindred and the families with which he was 
allied by marriage, from payment of the imposts 
on their lands. They prospered and were held in 
honour, they made use of riding horses, and the 
119 party they formed became powerful. It became 
'Aly's habit to say in the course of his sermons, that 
the time was near, meaning thereby the time of his 
manifestation, a thing that was widely spoken of 
throughout the country. The mother of Fatik, until 
she died in a.h. 545, restrained the state officials 
from molesting him. 

The people of the highlands had induced Ibn 
Mahdy to bind himself by oath to support them, and 
in 538 he came forth from (into ?) Tihamah and 
reached al-Kadra ; but he was defeated and returned 
to the mountains, where he remained until 541. 
After that, the Lady the mother of Fatik restored 
him to his home, and she died in 545. Thereupon 
he departed and joined the Banu Khaulan, taking up 
his abode with one of their tribes known by the name 
of Haywan (Haydan ?), the owners of a fortress 
named ash-Sharaf. The ascent to the castle is of 
exceeding difficulty and extends a distance of a 
day's journey from the foot of the mountain, over a 
painfully laborious road, and through a narrow and 



The Banu Mahdy. 163 

steep pass. 'Aly Mahdy gave these people tlie 
designation of Ansar^ and upon liis companions, 
who had accompanied him from Tihamah, he be- 
stowed the name al-Muliajirun. He appointed a 
chief over the Ansdr, of the name of Saba, and 
another over the Muhajirim to whom he gave 
the title of Sheykh al-Islam, and whose name 
was an-Nubah. With the exception of these two 
men, 'Aly Mahdy allowed no one to penetrate into 
his presence. 

He now despatclied depredating parties into the 
province of Tihamah, and his success was pro- 
moted by the deserted condition of the country ad- 
joining Zabid. He stopped the traffic on the public 
roads, spread ruin throughout the district, and he 
penetrated to the castle of ad-Dathir (read Dashir), 
half a stage from Zabld. He plotted the assassi- 
nation of the Begent Surur and succeeded in his 
design, as has already been related. He now began 
to harass the city with repeated attacks. 'Omarah 
says that he attacked it on seventy occasions and 
besieged it for a long period of time. At length 
the citizens besought assistance of the Sharif Ahmad 
ibn Hamzah, the Suleymanite Prince of Sa'dah. 
He gave them aid, but stipulated that they should 
slay their master Fatik son of Muhammad, and 
they accordingly killed hira in the year 553. The 
Sharif was proclaimed sovereign, but was unable 
to withstand his enemies and took to flight. There- 
upon 'Aly Mahdy seized the city in Eajab 554, but 
he died three months after his conquest. 

He had assumed in the Khutbah the titles of tJte 
Imam, tlte Mahdij, Prince of tlie Fcdtliful, Subjugator 
of infidels and of the luicked. He followed the 
doctrines of the Kharijites, denying the authority 
) both of 'Aly and of 'Othman, and treated sin as 
infidelity. He estabHshed rules and laws for his 
sect, which it would be tedious to describe. He 

M 2 



164 Ibu KJialduu. 

punislied the use of wine with death. According 
to 'Omarah, the penalty of death was likewise in- 
flicted upon any Muslim, of whatever sect, who 
opposed hira, and the Avives and children of the 
condemned were reduced to slavery. His people 
believed him to be under Divine protection. Their 
property was in his hands. He supplied their wants 
and they possessed nothing, neither money, nor 
horses, nor weapons. He slew any one of hi.s 
followers who fled from the field of battle. The 
fornicator, the drinker of wine, the listener to 
songs, were put to death, and death also was the 
punishment of any person who absented himself 
from the Friday prayers, or from the sermon he 
delivered on Mondays and Thursdays. In matters 
of Jurisprudence he was a Hanafite. 

*Aly ibn Mahdy was succeeded by his son *Abd 
an-Naby. The latter's brother 'Abd Allah rebelled 
against him and obtained possession of Zabld, wdiere 
the Khutbah, in which he received the title of 
Imam, was recited in his name. But 'Abd an-Naby 
succeeded after a time in overcomins: him. He ex- 
pelled him from the city, and made himself master 
of the whole of Yaman. There were at that time 
twenty-five separate governments in the country, all 
of which he conquered. Aden alone remained un- 
conquered, and 'Abd an-JNTaby subjected it solely to 
the payment of tribute. 

When Shams ad-Daulah Turan Shah ibn Ay3a"ib, 
brother of Saladin, invaded the country in a.h. 566 
(read 569) and overthrew the government of 
Yaman, he seized 'Abd an-Naby, extorted from 
him such information as he required, and took from 
him a great amount of riches. He carried him to 
Aden, which he captured. Then he went to Zabld 
and made it the seat of government. Conceiving ere 
long an unfavourable opinion of its salubrity, he 
made a journey to the mountains, accompanied by 



Geography of Yam an. 165 

bis physicians, for the purpose of selecting a spot 
with a healthy atmosphere and wholesome water, 
in which to establish his place of residence. Their 
choice fell upon the site of Ta'izz, where Turan Shah 
founded the city, which became the seat of goveru- 
ment to himself, to his descendants (read to his 
successors of the Aj^yubite family), and to their 
freednien, the Banu RasCd (who followed the Ayyub- 
ites), as we will relate in their history. 

With the fall of the Banu Mahdy, Arab 
sovereignty came to an end in Yaman, and supreme 
rule was thenceforth held by the Grhuzz and bv their 
freedmen. 



The Provixces and Cities of Yaman. 

We will now proceed to give a brief historical sketch 
of the capitals and cities of Yaman, one by one, as 
supplied by Ibn Sa'id. 

Yaman forms part of the Arabian Peninsula and 
comprises seven royal seats of government. It is 
divided into two parts. Tihamah and al-Jibal (the 
highlands). Tihamah consists of two kingdoms, 
that of Zabid and that of Aden. The name Tiha- 
mah denotes the low country of Yaman adjoining 
the sea-coast and extendino' from as-Sirravn on the 
borders of Hijaz, to the extremity of the province 
of Aden, round by the Indian Ocean. Ibn Sa'id 
states that the Arabian Peninsula is situated in the 
First Climate and that it is bounded by the Indian 
Ocean on the south, by the Sea of Suez on the 
west, and by the Persian Sea on the east. Yaman 
belonged in ancient days to the Tababi'ah (the 
Tubbas). It is a more productive country tlian the 
Hijaz. Most of its inhabitants are descendants of 
Kahtan, but it contains also people of the tribe of 



1 66 Ibn KJialdun. 

*Anz son of Wri'il.^^"* It is ruled at tlie present day 
by tlie Banu Rasfd, clients of the Banu Ayyub, and 
their capital is Ta'izz, which succeeded al-Jawwah, 
where the Rasulites at first took up their abode. 
The Imam of the Zaydites resides at Sa'dah in 
Yaman, 

ZabId (named after its capital) is one of tlie king- 
doms of Yaman. On its north is Hijaz, on the south 
the Indian Ocean, and on the west the Sea of Suez. 
The city was founded by Muhammad ibn Ziyad in 
the days of al-Ma'mun, a.h. 204. It is enclosed in 
walls, and a stream of running water penetrates 
into the cit}^, introduced by its kings. Close to it 
are low-lying grounds planted with palm trees, a 
spot resorted to during the dry season.* ZabId is 
now part of the kingdom of the Banu RasTd. It 
was formerly the seat of government of the Banu 
Ziyad and of their freedmen, and it was conquered 
by the Banu Sulayhi, whose history has been re- 
lated. 

'Athtitar, Haly and ash-Sharjah are provinces 
bif^ Zabid, in its northern part, and are known as 
pelled minions of Ibn Tarf. They extend over a dis- 
of the whoieven days' journey by two days', from 
twenty-five b>to Haly. From the latter to Mecca is 
of which he coirney. 'Aththar is the seat of govern- 
conquered, and utuated on the borders of the sea. 
the payment of t,rf held the place against Abu '1- 

When Shams f, and his revenues amounted to 

brother of Saladi^f ter a time he submitted to Abu '1 

(read 569) audi his name in the Khutbah and paid 

Yaman, he seize a later period, the kingdom passed 

him such informs the Suleymanites, descendants of 

him a great amovs of Mecca, on their being expelled 

Aden, which he qt the Hashimites.f Grhalib (read 

and made it the sc .. 

long: an unfavoun^'^^'\^-P-i f"^' , ^t t^i n- . .i 
=> . ment and others by Ibn Khaldun to the 

made a journey to 3 



GeograpJiy of Yaiiian. 167 

Gliamm) ibn Yahya belonged to that family, and lie 
paid tribute to tlie Prince of Zabid. It was from 
liim that Muflih the freedman of Fatik sought assist- 
ance against Suriir. Ghanim was succeeded by 'Isa 
the son of Hamzah, who was one of the sons of 
Grhanim. When the Ghuzz conquered Yaman, 
Yahya the brother of 'Isa was taken prisoner and 
carried' to 'Irak. 'Isa contrived to obtain his 
brother's release, and Yahya returned to Yaman, 
where he slew his brother and became ruler of the 
principality. 

Al-Mahjam is one of the provinces of Zabid, at a 
distance of three days' journey from that city. The 
Arabs who inhabit it belong to the tribes of Hakam 
and Ja'far (read Ju'fi ?), two sub-divisions of the 
tribe of Sa'd al-'Ashirah. Ginger is exported from 
that province. 

As- SiERAYN is the furthermost place of the Tiha- 
mah of Yamau. It is on the borders of the sea, 
uu walled, and its houses are built of reeds. It was 
conquered about a.h. 650 by Rajih son of Katadah, 
Sultan of Mecca, and he possessed a castle at half a 
day's journey from the town. 

Az-Zara'ib is one of the provinces north of 
Zabid. It belonged to Ibn Tarf . He was supported 
in that district by twenty thousand Abyssiuians. 
When the Da'y as-Sulayhi arose, he attacked Ibn 
Tarf at az-Zara'ib, with about three thousand men, 
put him to flight and killed all the Abyssinians that 
were with him. 

Ibn Sa'Id says, speaking of the provinces of Zabid 
and of those that border on the middle road between 
the sea and the mountains, that az-Zara'ib stands 
on the Zabid road, north of that city, and that the 
road is the great highway to Mecca. 'Omarah says 
that it is the royal highway, that it .is distant 
a day's journey, or less, from the sea and at the 
same distance from the mountains, and that the 



1 68 Ibn Khaldiui. 

two roads, the middle one and that running' along 
the sea-shore, join and diverge at as-Sirrayn. 
123 Aden is one of the kingdoms of Yaman, south of 
Zabid. The city is the seat of government, and it 
is situated on the shores of the Indian Ocean. It 
has been a place of trade since the days of tlie 
Tubbas. It is thirteen degrees distant from the 
equator. Its soil produces neither crops nor trees, 
and the food of its inhabitants consists of fish. It 
is the port of embarkation for India from Yaman. 
It was at first ruled by the descendants of Ma'n son 
of Zaiclah, who resisted the authority of the Banu 
Ziyad, but paid them tribute. "When the Sulayhites 
became supreme over the country, the Da'y 'Aly 
confirmed the Banu Ma'n in their government. But 
his son Ahmad al-Mukarram afterwards ejected 
them, and appointed over the country the Banu al- 
Karam, of the sub-tribe of Jusham son of Yam, his 
kinsmen, and like himself, descendants of Hamdan. 
The Banu Zuray', a family of the Banu Karara, be- 
came possessed of exclusive power, and they inherited 
the office of Da'y held by the Sulayhites, as well 
as their sovereignty, all which has already been 
related. 'Aly ibn Mahdy was not able to subdue 
the Zuray 'ites, and he w^as obliged to content himself 
with the tribute they paid him, until they were con- 
quered by Shams ad-Daulah Turan Shah son of 
AyyiJb, as hereinbefore mentioned. 

Aden-Abyan is a well-built city in the neighbour- 
hood of ash-Shihr.* 

Az-Za'azi' stands in the valleys of Aden, and 
belonged to the Banu Mas'Cid ibn al-Karam, the 
rivals of the Banu Zuray'. 

Ai.-Jawwah was built by the Zuray 'ite kings in 
the neighbourhood of Aden. The Ayyubites made 
it their place of residence, but afterwards they re- 
moved to Ta'izz. 

* See Kote 11. 



Geography of Yainan. 169 

The Castle op Dhu Jiblah is one of the fortresses 
of the Mikhlaf of Ja'far. It was built by 'Abel 
Allah the Sulayliite, brother of the Da'y ('Aly), in 
A.H. 458. 'Aly's son al-Mukarram removed thither 
from the castle of San'a together with his wife 
Sayyidah daughter of Ahmad, who gained absolute 
control over her husband. It was she who com- 
pleted the castle to its full height, in the year 480. 

Al-Mukarram, before his death, had committed 
supreme authority, that of King aud of Da'y, to 
Sabii son of Ahmad son of al-Muzaffar the Sulayli- 
ite, who occupied the castle of Ashyah. Sayyidah 
relied for support upon the chief of the Banu Janb, 
a people who, in pre-Islamitic days, were of small 
repute, but who gained a conspicuous position in 
the province of Ja'far. After a time Ibn Najib ad- 
Daulah came from Egypt as Da'y. He abode in 
the city of Janad and obtained support from the 
tribe of Hamdan. Sayyidah fought against him, 
aided by the Banu Janb and Khaulan, until he em- 
barked at sea and was drowned. After the death of 
her husband al-Mukarram, her affairs were directed 
by al-Mufaddal ibn Abi 'l-Barakat, who established 
his influence over her. 

At-Ta'kar, in Mikhlaf Ja'far, belonged to the 
Banu Sulayhi and subsequently to Sayyidah. Al- 
Mufaddal ibn Abi 'l-Barakat having asked for it, 
she delivered the place to him and he dwelt therein, 
until he went forth and besieged the Banu Najah at 
Zabid. His absence prolonged itself, and certain 
fakihs (Jurists) revolted at Ta'kar, killed al-Mufad- 
dal' s deputy and proclaimed Ibrahim ibn Z ay dan, one 
of their number, who was uncle of 'Omarah the poet. 
They asked assistance of the Banu Khaulan, and 
al-Mufaddal thereupon returned and besieged them, 
as we have already related. 

The Fortress of Khddad (Khadid) belonged to 
'Abd Allah ibii Ya'la the Suhiyhite, and is situated 



I 70 Ibn Khalduii. 

in the Mikhlaf (province) of Ja'far. Al-Mufaddal 
had introduced into the fortresses of the province, 
a large number of Khaulanites belonging to 
the tribes of Bahr, Munabbili, RizfUi (Razih?) and 
Sha'b (Sha'b-Hay). When al-Mufaddal died, the 
Khaulanites seized the fortress of Ta'kar, but Dhu 
Jiblah continued in the possession of Mansur son 
of al-Mufaddal, under the guardianship of Say^adah, 
as already related. Muslim ibn az-Zarr the Khau- 
lanite suddenly arose and captured the fortress of 
Khudad from 'Abd Allah ibn Ya'la the Sulayhite. 
*Abd Allah fled to the fortress of Masdud and Sayyi- 
dah appointed Muslim ibn az-Zarr successor to al- 
Mufaddal. She acted with scrupulous good faith 
towards him and towards his two brothers (read 
sons) 'Imran and Suleyraan. He died and his son 
Suleyman succeeded him in the joint possession, 
along with Sayyidah, of the fortress of Khudad, 
replacing his brother (read his father) Muslim. 
She married him to the daughter of the Ka'id Fath, 
governor on her behalf of the fortress of Ta'kar, 
of which Suleyman contrived by treachery to dis- 
possess him. The Khaulanites extended their hands 
(oppressively) over the people, and Sayyidah sought 
assistance against the two brothers from the Banu 
Janb. 'Imran and Suleyman were the Queen's ad- 
visers, and it was they who by her orders expelled 
the Da'y Najib ad-Daulah from the city of Janad 
and from Yam an. 

- Tbe Fortress of Masdud is one of the (great) 
fortresses of the province of Ja'far, which are five 
125 {sic) in number, namely, Dhu Jiblah, at-Ta'kar and 
Khudad. When the Banu Khaulan wrested Khudad 
from the hands of 'Abd Allah ibn Ya'la the Sulayh- 
ite, he took refuge, as we have mentioned, in the 
fortress of Masdud. The Khaulanites took it from 
him likewise, but they were dispossessed by Zaka- 
riya ibn Shakir the Bahrite. 



115 



Geog7'apJiy of Yanian. lyi 

The Banu Kurandi, descendants of Himjar, were 
Kings in Yaman before the days of the Sulayhites, 
and were dispossessed by the latter. They owned 
the province of Ja'far and its fortresses, the province 
of Ma'afir, that of Janad, of Had,* and the fortress 
of Samadan. 

The fortress of Masdiid was afterwards held by 
Mansiir son of al-Mul"addal son of Abu '1-Barakat, 
who sold it to the Banu Zuray', as already men- 
tioned. 

San'a was the capital of the dynasty of the 
Tubbas before the days of Islam, and was the 
first city built in Yaman. It is said to have been 
built by 'Ad, and it was called Uwal (or Uwwal) 
signifying primacy, in the dialect of the country 
Kasr Ghumdan, in its neighbourhood, was one of 
the seven temples. It was built by ad-Dahhak and 
dedicated to Zuhrah.f It was an object of pil- 
grimage, and was destroyed by 'Othman (the third 
Khallfah). San'a is the most celebrated city of 
Yaman. It possesses, it is said, a temperate 
^climate. At the commencement of the fourth cen- 
tury, it was subject to the Banu Ya'fur, a family 
dating from the days (descendants?) of the Tubbas, 
but they resided at Kahlan, and San'a did not acquire 
celebrity as a royal seat (at that period), until it 
became the residence of the Banu Sula}- hi. It was 
conquered by the Zaydites and then by the Suley- 
manites, after it had been held by the Sulayhites. 

The Castle of Kahlam is one of the dependencies 
of San'a, and it belonged to the Banu Ya'fur, a family 
(descendants ?) of the Tubbas. J It was built near 

o ^ 

* The name Ha4 ^s>- is not in the printed edition. It looks, 
I think, like a copyist's error for ^y.a>.. 

t Commonly regarded as the Arabian Venus. 

\ Dr. Glaser marks upon his map a place Kohlun, about ten 
miles N.E. of Hajjah, a position which does not correspond with 
that mentioned in our text. But Ibn Khaldun's statements must 
not unf reipiently be received with caution. See No te 8, footnote. 



172 Ibn KJialdun, 

San'a by Ibraliim (son of Muhammad sou of Wfur), 
who possessed Sa'dali, Sau'a, Najran aud other 
places iu the higlilands of Yaman. The Banu 'r- 
Rassy, the Zaydite Imams, made war upon the Bauu 
Ya'fur and conquered Sa'dah and Najran. The Banu 
Ya'fur had recourse, for protection against their 
enemies, to the walls of the castle of Kahlan. Al- 
Bayhaki says that the castle was strengthened by 
As'ad ibn Ya'fur and that he fouo^ht ag-ainst the 
Banu 'r-Rassy and against the Banu Ziyad in the 
days of Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak. 

The Fortress of as-Samadan is also a dependency 
of San'a. It contained the treasur}^ of the Banu 
'1-Kurandi the Himyarites, until the fortress was 
taken by 'Aly as-8ulayhi. Al-Mukarram restored 
12(5 to them some of their fortresses, which they held 
until they were deprived of power by 'Aly ibn 
Mahdy. They possessed the province of Ja'far, in 
which the city of Dhu Jiblah and the fortress of at- 
Ta*kar are situated. The Mikhlaf Ja'far consists 
of the provinces of Janad and of Ma'afir. The seat 
of government of the Banu Kurandi was Samadan, 
a fortress stronger than Dumluwah. 

The Cattle of Minhab is one of the castles depen- 
dent upon vSan'a, situated in the highlands. It was 
taken by the Banu Zuray' and was appropriated 
by a member of that family, al-Mufaddal, son of 
'Aly son of Radi son of the Dii'y Muhammad son of 
Saba son of Zuray'. The author of the Kharidah ^'" 
o'ives him the title of Sultan. He further mentions 
that al-Mufaddal was owner of the castle of Minhab 
and that he was alive in the year 586. After his 
death the castle passed into the possession of his 
brother al-A'azz ibn 'Alv. 

ft/ 

Mount al-Mudhaykhikah is near San'a. The 
province of Ja'far was" founded by Ja'far, freedman 
of Ibn Ziyad Sultan of Yaman, and was named after 
him. 



Geography of J ^ avian. 



/J 



'Aden-La'ah is close to al-Mudliaykliirah.* It is 
the place in which the Sh?ah doctrines were first 
openly preached in Yaman. The Da'y Muhammad 
(read 'Aly) ibn al-FadI was a native of 'Aden-La'ah, 
and it was to that place that Abu 'Abd Allah ash- 
Shiya'i, the Ismailite missionary to North Africa, 
came. It was there also that 'Aly son of Muham- 
mad the Sulayhite studied in the days of his youth. 
'Aden -La' ah was the chief centre for the propaga- 
tion of the Ismailite doctrines in Yaman. Muham- 
mad ('Aly) ibn al-Fadl was the Da'y in the days of 
Abu '1-Jaysh ibn Ziyad and of As'ad ibn Y^a'fur. 

Bayhan is mentioned by 'Omarah among other 
districts in the mountains. f It was possessed by 
Nashwan ibn Sa'Id the Kahtanite (and Himyarite). 

Ta'izz is one of the greatest of the mountain for- 
tresses that overlook Tihamah. It has always been 
one of the royal strongholds. It is now the seat of 
the Hasidite dynasty, and it is regarded as one of 
the chief cities of their kingdom. Among other 
Yamanite kings by whom it was inhabited, was 
Mansiir son of al-Mufaddal son of Abu'l-Barakat, of 
the family of the Sulayhites (read the Himyarite). 
His father was (became) possessed of Ashyah and 
made himself master of the fortresses owned by the 
Banu Abi '1-Barakat and by the Banu '1-Muzaffar. 
His son Mansfir inherited them, but sold them one 
7 after the other to the Da'y the son of al-Muzaffar 
and to the Zuray'ite Da'y (read, sold them to the 
Da'y Muhammad ibn Saba the Zuray'ite), until 
none remained to him but Ta'izz, of which he was 
deprived by Ibn Mahdy. 

The Fortress of Ashyah is one of the greatest of 
the mountain strongholds, and it contained the 
treasures of the Banu MuzafFar. It was owned by 
the Da'y al-Mansur Abu Himyar Saba son of Ahmad 
son of al-Muzaffar the Sulayhite, to whom it was 

* See Xotes 10 and 11. t See Note 9. 



I 74 Ibii Khaldun. 

bequeathed by the son of his paternal ancle al- 
Mukarrara, Lord of Dim Jiblah. (The Egyptian 
Khalifah) al-Mustansir appointed him supreme Da'y, 
and he died in a.h. l-SG (read 192). His son 'Aly 
gained possession of tbe royal fortress of Ashyah. 
Al-Mufaddal was unable to prevail against him, but 
eventually conttived an artifice whereby he brought 
about his rival's death by poison, and the fortresses 
of the Banu Muzaffar passed into the possession of 
the family of Abu 'l-Barakat. Al-Mufaddal died 
and was succeeded by his son MansQr. The latter 
after a time disdained the kingdom bequeathed to 
bim by his father and sold all its fortresses. He 
parted with Dhu Jiblah to the Zuray'ite Da'y, Prince 
of Aden, for one hundred thousand dinars. Ho 
sold also the fortress of Sabir, after having sworn 
the oath of divorce that he would not do so. His 
wife was consequently divorced from him and was 
taken in marriage by the Zuray'ite. iMansur enjoyed 
a lone Hfe. He succeeded to the throne at the a^e 
of twenty and reigned for eighty (thirty ?) years.* 
The fortress of Ta'izz was taken from him by 'Aly 
ibn Mahdy. 

Sa'dah is a kingdom adjoining that of SanTi and 
situated on the east thereof. It contains three 
seats of government, Sa'dah, Jabal Kutabahf and 
the fortress of Thula, besides other strongholds. 
The entire country is known as that of the Banu 'r- 
Rassy, whose history we have already related {injra, 
p. 184). 

The Fortress of Thqla is the place that first 
witnessed the rise of al-Muti, who restored to the 
Banu 'r-Bassy the Zaydite Imamate, of which they 
had been deprived by the Banu Suleyman.; The 
adherents of the Rassites withdrew to Jabal Kuta- 
bah, and in the year 645 they swore allegiance to 

* See Note 99. t Sec below. 

+ See Note 130. 



Geography of Yam an. 175 

Ahmad al-Muti. He was a Jurist and a pious man. 
Nur ad-Din ('Omar) ibn Rasid besieged him in the 
fortress for a year. He collected troops for the 
purpose of (renewing ?) the siege, but he died in 
^ A.H. ^-^^ (read 'o-Vl). His son al-Muza£far (Yusuf) 
became absorbed in the siege of ad-Dumluwah, 
whilst al-Miiti acquired great power and became 
possessed of the fortresses of Yaman. He marched 
npon Sa'dah and the Suleymanites, whose Imam, as 
has been related in the history of the Banu Rassj^* 
was Ahmad al-Mutawakkil, swore allegiance to 
him. 

KuTABAH is a lofty mountain on the east of Sa'dah, 
upon which stands a castle and villages. ^^' The 
Banu '1-Hadi made it their place of refuge when 
the Suleymanites took Sa'dah from them, and there 
happened that which we have related. 

Haraz and Masar. Haraz is part of the country 
of the tribe of Hamdan, and it is also the name 
of one of their sub-tribes, to which as-Sulayhi 
belonged, ^^^ whilst the fortress of Masar, in the dis- 
trict of Haraz, is the place where he first manifested 
himself. Al-Bayhaki says (of the Banu Hamdan) 
that their country is in the eastern (read western) 
portion of the highlands of Yaman. f They became 
dispersed after the appearance of Islam, and there 
are now no wanderins; communities of the Banu 
Hamdan elsewhere but in Yaman. They are the 
greatest tribe of Yaman. It was with their sup- 
port that al-Muti rose to eminence. They became 
masters of several fortresses in the highlands, 
v\'here they possess the districts of the Banu Bakll 
and Banu Hashid, the two sons of Jusham, son of 
Habwan (read Khaywan) son of Xauf son of Ham- 
dan. Ibn Hazm % says that the sub- tribes of Ham- 
dan branch forth from Bakll and Hashid. End of 

* Infra, p. 189. f See Note 23. 

X Ibn Hazm the genealogist died in a.h. 456. 



1/6 Ibn KJialdun. 

the quotation (from al-Bayliaki). To the tribe of 
Hamdan belonged the family of Zuray*, who exer- 
cised sovereignty and held the office of Da'y at 
Aden and at al-Jnwwah. The Banu Yam, the 
tribe of the Sulayhites, are one of the subdivi- 
sions of the Banu Hamdan. The Banu Hamdan 
are Shl'ahs. At the present time they carry heresy 
in their country to an extreme, and most of them 
are Zaydites. 

The Country op (the Banu) Khaulan, according 
to al-Bayhaki, is situated in the east of the high- 
lands of Yaman, adjoining the country of the Banu 
Hamdan. The Khaulanites possess the strongest 
fortresses of the hio-hlands and of Miklilaf Ja'far. 
They invaded the province of Ja'far in the days of 
the Sulavhite dynasty, and the Banu '/-Zarr, who 
were members of the tribe, possessed themselves of 
the fortresses of Khudad, of Ta'kar and of others. 
The Banu Khaulan and the Banu Hamdan are the 
greatest tribes in Yaman. The Khaulanites have 
many sub-tribes, and tliey dispersed themselves 
throughout the countries of Islam, but at tlie pre- 
sent time not a tent of the tribe is to be found else- 
where but in Y'^aman. 
129 The district of the Banu Asbah is situated in 
Wadi (valley of the) Sahfil. Dhu Asbah, from 
whom thev claim descent, has been mentioned in 
tracing the genealogy of the Tubbas and Akyal 
(kings, descendants of Himyar). 
- The District of Yahsub borders upon that of the 
Banu Asbah. Yahsub and Asbah were brothers. 

The District of the Banu Wa'jl. The chief citv 
of this province is Shahit. Its ruler was As'ad ibn 
Wa il and the Banu Wa il are a tribe of Dhu '1-Kala'. 
The latter are descended from (Himyar and) Saba. 
They conquered the country upon the death of 
al-Hasan (Husayn) ibn Salamah, governor of the 
highlands on behalf of the Banu Najrdi (read 
Ziyadj. 



Geography of Ya^nan. 1 77 

The District of Yarbu' is in the highlands. It 
was conquered bj the Banu 'Abd al- Wahid after the 
death of Hasan (Husaj^n) ibn Salaraah. The in- 
habitants of the country had seized the frontier 
places. They were attacked by Hasan (Husayn) 
ibn Salamah, who made war upon them until they 
submitted. He built the city of al-Kadra on the 
Mikhlaf (read river) Saham and that of al-Ma'kir 
on the river Dhu'al. He died in a.h. 402. 

The Country of the Banu Kindah is in the por- 
tion of the highlands of Yaman that borders upon 
Hadraraaut and upon Abjar and ar-Raml. The 
Bauu Kindah were ruled by a dynasty of kings, and 
their capital was Dammfm, which is mentioned by 
Imru '1-Kays in his poems.* 

The Country of JMadhhij adjoins the mountain- 
ous district of al-Janad, and it is inhabited by the 
Banu 'Ans, Zubayd and Murad, sub-tribes of the 
Banu Madhhij. A portion of the Banu 'Ans are in 
North Africa, allied with the native wanderino- 
tribes. The Banu Hurab, a subdivision (read kins- 
men) of the Banu Zubayd, inhabit the country 
between Mecca and Medinah in Hijaz. The Banu 
Zubayd of Syria and Mesopotamia are a subdivision 
of the tribe of Ta'y, and do not belong to the tribe 
here in question. 

The Country of the Banu Nahd lies in the hol- 
lows of the Sarawat and so also Tabalah. The Sara- 
wat (plural of Sarat) are (the chain of mountains) 
between Tihamah on the one side, and the hio-lilands 
30 of Yaman and of Hijaz on the other. They bear a 
resemblance to the back (sarat) of a horse. The 
Banu N"ahd are derived from Kuda'ah, and they 
settled in Yaman in the neighbourhood of the Banu 
Khath'am. The Banu Nahd are like wild beasts, 
and the vulgar call them as-Sarwa. Most of them 

* See Hamdani's Geography, p. 85. 

N 



178 



Ibn Khaldini. 



are a mixed race, partly descended from the Banu 
Khatli'am and Bajilah. 

Tabalah is in the country of the Banu Nahd, and 
it is inhabited by a people possessed of considerable 
power, who belong to the tribe of 'Anz ibn Wa'il. 
This is the place of which al-Hajjaj was appointed 
ruler, and which he disdained and relinquished. 

The Countries adjoixixg Yaman. 

Al-Yamamau is the first. Al-Bayhaki says tliat 
it is a separate country with its own rulers, but the 
actual fact is that it is part of Hij'"^^^, precisely as 
Najran is part of Yaman. Such is also the opinion 
of Ibn Haukal. Yamfunah, as a kingdom, is inferior 
to Hijaz.* Its territory is called al-'Arvfl, on 
account of its interposing between Hijaz and Bah- 
rayn. On the east it is bounded by Bahrayn ; 
on the west by the outlying extremities of 
Yaman and Hijaz ; on the south by Najran, and on 
the north by the ISTajd (highlands) of Hijaz. It is 
twenty days' journey in length, and it is four days 
distant from Mecca. Its capital is Hajr, written 
with fath. The city of Yamamah was the seat of 
kings before the days of the Banu Hanifah. The 
latter afterwards adopted Hajr as their place of 
residence. Between the two cities is a distance of 
a day and a night's journey. The high-lying por- 
tions of the country are inhabited by sections of the 
tribesmen of Yarbil', derived from the Banu Tamim, 
and of Banu 'Ijl. Al-Bakri says its name was Ja.ww, 
and that it was named after Zarka '1- Yamamah, by 
the last Tubba' (read by Hassan ibn Tubba'). It is 
situated, as well as Mecca, in the Second Climate, 

* de Goeje's ed. p. 18, There seems reason to suspect an 
error here, perhaps committed by Ibn Khaldun himself. Ibn 
Haukal writes, speaking of the chief city of Yamamah Ljx^ ^J.i ^^ 
iii\ Jj^j (p. 26). See also the corresponding passages in Istakhri, 
pp. 14 and 18. 



Geography of Yavian. 179 

and the two cities are equally distant from the 
equator. Among the inhabited places of Yamamah 
are Tudih and Karkara.* According to at-Tabari, 
Rami 'AHj is between Yamamah and ash-Shihr. It 
is a country of nomads. Yamamah and Ta'if be- 
longed formerly to the Banu Hizzan son of Ya'fur 
sou of Saksak. The tribes of Tasm and Jadis con- 
quisred the country, but were eventually overcome 
by the Banu Hizzan, who thenceforward ruled over 
Yamamah, with the Banu Tasm and Jadis, as their 
dependnnts. The last king of the Banu Hizzan 
was Kurt son of Ja'far. Upon his death, the Tasm- 
ites possessed themselves of supreme power. 
*Amlik, whose history is well known, was one of 
the tribe. The supremacy of the Tasmites was 
followed by that of the Banu Jadis. Al- Yamamah, 
[31 after whom the city of Jaww was named, belonged 
to that tribe. Her history is well known. Yama- 
mah was next conquered by the Banu Hanifah. 
Of them was Haudhah son of 'Aly, King of Yama- 
mah. He wore a crown, or according to other 
accounts, jewels strung together, none of the de- 
scendants of Ma'add having ever made use of a crown. 
After Haudhah, Thumamah ibn Uthal reigned over 
Yamamah in the days of the Prophet. He was 
taken prisoner, adopted Islam, and continued stead- 
fast in the faith throughout the days of apostacy. 
Musaylimah (the false prophet), whose history is 
well known, likewise belonged to the tribe of Hani- 
fah. Ibn Sa'id reports having asked the Arabs of 
Bahrayn and certain members of the tribe of Madh- 
hij, to what people Yamamah belonged in his day. 
He was told in reply, that it was in the possession 
of Arab tribes descended from Kays 'Ay Ian, and 
that the fame of the Banu Hanifah had perished 
throughout the country."^ 
The Provinces of Hadramaut. They are situ- 

* See Hamdilni, p. 164. 

N 2 



I So Ibn Khaldun. 

ated, says Ibn Hankal, eastward of Adon on tbe 
borders of tlie sea.* The chief city of Hadramaiitis 
small, but its provinces are of wide extent. It is 
separated from Aden on the one side, and from 
*Oman on the other, by sandy wastes known by the 
name of the Ahkaf (sand heaps). It was the 
dwelling-place of 'Ad, and it contains the tomb of 
Hiid, upon whom be peace. In its midst is the 
mountain of Shabam (Shibani). Hndramaut is 
situated in the First Climate and twelve desfrees 
distant from the equator. It is reckoned as part of 
Yaman. It is a cultivated country and is planted 
•with palms and other trees. Most of its inhabitants 
upliold the supremac}'' of the descendants of 'Aly 
and Fatimah, but they abhor 'Aly for having con- 
sented to submit his rights to human judgment. 
The largest city of Hadramaut in the present day is 
the fortress of Shibam, in which the horses of the 
king are kept. Along with ash-Shihr and 'Oman, 
it originally belonged to 'Ad, from whose people it 
was conquered by the Banu Ya'rub son of Kahtan. 
It is said that (the Banu) 'Ad were led to the 
Arabian Peninsula (to Hadramaut ?) by Rukaym 
son of Aram (Rukaym son of 'Abir son of 'Ad ?), 
who had formerly visited the country in company 
with the Prophet Hud. He returned to the people 
of 'Ad and led them in ships to the country and to 
its invasion. They wrested it from the hands of its 
inhabitants, but they were themselves subsequently 
conquered by the Banu Ya'rub son of Kahtan. ^^"^ 
Kahtan ruled over the country, and it was governed 
by his son Hadramaut, after whom it was named. 
132 Ash-Shihr is, like Hijazand Yaman, one of the 
kingdoms of the Arabian Peninsula. It is separate 
from Hadramaut and 'Oman. Ash-Shihr is so 
named after its capital. There is no cultivation, 
neither are there palm trees in the country. The 
* de Goeje's ed. p. 32. See also Isatkhrij p. 25. 



Geography of Vaman. i8i 

wealth of the inhabitants consists in camels and 
goats. Their food, is flesh, preparations of milk and 
small fish, with which they also feed their beasts. 
The country is also known as that of Mahrah, and 
the camels called Mahriijah camels are reared in it.* 
Ash-Shihr is sometimes conjoined with 'Oman, but 
it is contiofuous to Hadramaut and it has been de- 
scribed as constituting the shores of that country. 
It produces frankincense (luban, olibanum), and on 
the sea-shore the Shihrite ambergris is found. 
It is bounded on the east and on the west (south ?) 
by the shores of the Indian Ocean, on which Aden 
is situated, on the east (also ?) by 'Oman. The 
Indian Ocean extends along the south and on the 
north Hadramaut, as if Shihr were the sea-shore of 
the latter. Both belong to one king. Shihr is situated 
in the First Climate and it is hotter than Hadramaut. 
It belonged in ancient times to the people of 'Ad, 
who were succeeded by the tribe of Mahrah, 
descended from Hadramaut, or according to other 
accounts, from Kuda'ah. The people who inhabit 
these sandy deserts are like wild beasts, and their 
rehgion is that of the Kharijites, according to the 
tenets of its branch sect, the Ibadites.f 

The first of the Kahtanites who settled in Shihr 
was Malik son of Himyar. He revolted against his 
brother Wad (or Wathil), who was king at Kasr 
Ghumdan. A lengthened war endured between 
them, and Malik died. He was succeeded by his 
son Kuda'ah. Saksak son of Wa'il continued the 
war, until he subdued his enemy, and Kuda'ah was 
restricted to the possession of the country of Mah- 
rah. He was succeeded by his son al-Haf, who was 
followed by Mrdik son of al-Haf. The latter re- 
moved to 'Oman, where he thenceforward reigned. 

* See Mas'udi (Barbier de Meynard), vol. i. p. 333-41, as also 
Istakhri and Ibn Haukal. 

• • • • ^ 

t See Mas'udi, vol. vi. p. 67. 



1 82 Ibn Khaldiin. 

Al-Bayliaki says that Mahrah son of Haydan son 
of ('Amru son of) al-Haf reigned over the countries 
of Kuda'ah, and made war upon his paternal uncle 
Malik son of al-Haf, PriDce of 'Oman, and conquered 
that province. These people are now no longer 
borne in remembrance beyond the limits of their own 
country. 

MiEBAT and Zafar, of the same measure as the 
word nazal, are two cities of Shihr.* Zafar was the 
seat of empire of the Tubbas, and Mirbat was situ- 
ated on the sea-shore. Both cities are now in 
ruins. Ahmad ibn Muhammad il)n jMahmud al- 
133 Himyari, who bore the surname al-Bakhudah (al- 
Hamiidi ?), was a wealthy merchant. He obtained 
access to the prince of Mirbat with his merchandise, 
and gained his confidence. After a time the prince 
appointed him to the office of wazir, and upon his 
death Ahmad al-Bakhudah (al-Haraudi) obtained 
possession of the throne. In the year G19 he de- 
stroyed the cities of Mirbat and Zafar, and he built 
on the sea-coast the city of Zufar, written with tlie 
Vf'tco^ z moved by damm, which he surnamed al- 
It is s^x-^7ah after himself. He destroyed the old 
Arabian Bei> possessed no anchorage. ^^^ 
son of Aram (Ku autlior of al-Kama im (?) says 
who had formerly net district and separate from 
with the Prophet Kit is a province thereof. Al- 
of 'Ad and led themi.g extending over a space of 
its invasion. They wx Jt lies to the north-east of 
inhabitants, but they w.Hijaz. It contains two 
conquered by the Banu.^ ^f nearly equal impor- 
Kahtan ruled over the cou^^f ^he country consists 
by his son Hadramaut, aftei resemble the wander- 
132 Ash-Shihr is, like Hijaza^^ 

kingdoms of the Arabian Pen^ Najran, which was 
from Hadramaut and 'Omai.|^^^ ^^^ Ka'bah of 
named after its capital. Thei 
neither are there palm trees in ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
* de Goeje's ed. p. 32. See also i 



Geography of Yanian. 183 

Yaman. Some of the Arab people made it an 
object of pilgrimage and a place for sacrifices. It 
was known by the name of ad-Dayr (the Convent). 
Kuss ibn Sa'idah was in the habit of worshipping 
at the jDlace/-^ The Kahtanites who settled in the 
country were a section of the Banu Jiirhum, but it 
was aftewards conquered by the Banu Himyar. 
They governed the country under the authority of 
the Tubbas. The rulers bore successively the title 
of al-Af a (the Viper). One of the Af'a of N'ajran 
bore the name of al-Falammas (Kalammas ?) son of 
*Amru son of Hamdan son of Malik son of Muntab 
son of Zayd son of Wa il son of Himyar. He was a 
diviner, and it was to him that the sons of Nizar re- 
sorted and referred their dispute, as is mentioned 
in this work. Al-Falammas was governor of 
JSTajran on behalf of Bilkis. She sent him to Stdey- 
man, upon whom be peace. He became a believer 
and spread the Jewish faith among his people. He 
lived to a great age. It is said that both Bahrayn 
and al-Mushallal belonged to him.^^^ 

Al-Bayhaki says that the Banu Madhhij next 
invaded Najran and conquered it. Of them were 
the Banu '1-Harith son of Ka'b. Another authority 
relates that when the Yamanites went forth on the 
occasion of the floods of al-'Arim, they passed 
through Najran. They were attacked by the Banu 
Madhhij, and it was there that they became dis- 
persed. Ibn Hazm says that the tribe of al- 
Harith ibn Ka'b ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Mrdik ibn Nasr 
ibn al-Azd settled, under a peaceful agreement, in 
the neighbourhood of the Banu Madhhij. After- 
^4 wards they wrested the country from the Banu 
Madhhij and held sway over it. Christianity was 
introduced into Najran through the means of Fay- 
mun (Faymiyyun), whose history is commonly found 
in biographical works. ^^* The rulership over Najran 
by the Banu 'l-Harith the Madhhijitcs descended to 



184 Ibu Khaldun. 

the Banu 'd-Dayyan (Rayyan?) and to the posterity 
of 'Abd al-Madan (son of Dayyan). Yazld (son of 
*Abd al-Madan), wlio hved in the days of the 
Prophet (whom God bless and hail with salutations 
of peace), made the profession of Islam to Khalid 
ibn al-Walid. He came as envoy to the Prophet 
with others of his people, but is not mentioned by 
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, and this is an amendment of that 
"writer's omission/-* Yazid's nephew Ziyad, the 
son of his brother *Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Madan,* 
was maternal uncle of (the Khallfah Abu 'l-'Abbas) 
as-Saffrdi, who appointed him governor of Najran 
and Yamaraah. He left two sons, Muhammad and 
Yahya. The fourth centur}^ commenced with 
supreme authority exercised by the family of 
Abu '1-JQd ibn 'Abd al-Madan and rulership con- 
tinued in their hands. War repeatedly arose be- 
tween them and the Fatimites of Egypt, who at 
times dispossessed them of Najran. The last of 
the dynasty was 'Abd al-Kays, who was deposed by 
'Ah' ibn Mahdy. He is mentioned and eulogized, 
by 'Omarah.^-^ 

And unto God, be He extolled and magnified, be- 
longeth perfect knowledge of the truth. 



135 History of the Dynasty of the Banu 'e-Rasst, 
THE Zaydite Imams at Sa'dah, the Rise op 
THEiE Dynasty and its Vicissitudes. 

We have herein before given an account of Muham- 
mad ibn Ibrahim, he whose father bore the sur- 
name of Tabataba, the son of Isma'Il son of Ibrahim 

* Kcad Ziyad, descendant of Yazid's brother, was, etc. 



The Baim'7^ Rassy. 185 

son of Hasan the second, (son of Hasan son of 
'Aly), of his revolt in the days of al-Ma'miin, of his 
recognition by Abu Saraya and of all that relates to 
him. Upon his death and upon the death of Abu 
Saraya, and upon the failure of their enterprise, al- 
Ma'mfm issued an order for the arrest of Muham- 
mad's brother al-Kasim ar-Rassy, son of Ibrahim 
Tabataba. He fled to Sind, where he remained 
until his death in a.h. 245. His son al- Hasan (read 
Husayn) returned to Yaman, and of his posterity 
were the Imams of Sa'dah in Yaraan, where they 
founded a Zaydite dynasty, which has endured to 
the present day.^^^ 

Sa'dah is a mountain east {sic) of San'a, on 
which are many fortresses, the most celebrated of 
which are Sa'dah, the fortress of Tula (Thula), and 
the mountain of Kutabah. The whole of that 
country is named after the Banu Rassy. Yahya 
sou of al-Husayn son of al-Kasim ar-Rassy was the 
member of the family who first rose to eminence. 
He proclaimed himself at Sa'dah, adopted the sur- 
name of al-Hady, and received oaths of allegiance in 
A.H. 288, during the lifetime of his father al-Husayn. 
He collected a force consisting of his sectaries and 
other persons, and attacked Ibrahim ibn Ya'fur, or 
according to other authorities As'ad ibn Ya'fur, who 
had arisen at San'a and at Kahlan (?), and who was 
a descendant of the Tubbas. Al-Hady seized upon 
San'a and Najran, ruled over them and struck coin- 
age in his own name. But the Banu Ya'fur soon 
again wrested these places from him, whereupon he 
returned to Sa'dah, and died in a.h. 298, after a 
reign of ten years. Such are the particulars given 
by Ibn al-Mujab. He adds that Yahya was the 
author of works treating of things lawful and unlaw- 
ful. According to other statements, he was an 
assiduous investigfator of relio^ious law. He held 
doubtful opinions on questions of Jurisprudence, and 



1 86 Ibn KJuildun. 

was the author of books that are well known among 
the dissentient sects. 

As-Suli^^^ says that he was sncceeded by his son 
Muhammad surnaraed al-Murtada. The people rose 
against him, and he perished in the year 320, after a 
reign of twenty-two years. He was succeeded by 
his brother an-Nasir Ahmad, whose authority was 
firmly established and passed on to his children after 
him. 

His successor was his son Husayn al-Muntakhab, 
who died a.h. 32i, and he was succeeded by his 
brother al-Kasim al-Mukhtar, who reigned until he 
was slain by Abu '1-Kasim ad-t)ahhak, the Ham- 
danite, in a.m. 344. 

As-Suli says that the sons of an-Nasir who suc- 
ceeded to the throne were ar-Rashid, al-Munta- 
khab, al-Mukhtar and al-Mahdy.* Ibn Hazm, in 
speaking of the descendants of Abu '1-Kasim (read 
al-Kasim) ar-Rassy, says as follows: — "Among 
others of his posterity there were the princes who 
ruled at Sa'dah in Yaman. The first was Yaliya 
al-Hady, who held opinions on JurisprudcDce which 
I have investigated. They are not widely or funda- 
mentally different from the received doctrines. His 
father (read, his son) Ahmad an-Nasir had several 
sons, of whom the followmg ruled over Sa'dah after 
him, namely, Ja'far ar-Rashid, next after him his 
brother al-Kasim al-Muhktar, then al-Hasan al-Mun- 
takhab and Muhammad al-Mahdy.f The Yamanite 

* For al-Mukhtar, see Note 8 (footnote). The other three 
names are not mentioned by the author of the IlwlaiJc, although 
he enumerates the sons and daughters of an-Nfisir, See next 
footnote. 

t The names of an-Nasir's sons, as given by the author of the 
Hadd'ik, were al-Kasim Abu Muhammad (al-Mukhtar), Isma'il, 
Hasan, Ja'far, Yahya and 'Aly. The name al-Mahdy Muhammad, 
cited in the text, may perhaps be referred to the Persian Imam, 
who died in Tabaristan A.H. 360. But he was a descendant of al- 
Kasim son of Hasan, and not a member of the Rassite family. See 
the genealogical table, Note 107. 



The BanuW-Rassy. 1S7 

who was at Merida in 343 styled himself 'Abdallah 
son of Ahmad an-Nasir brother of ar-Rashid, of al- 
Mukhtar, of al-Muntakhab and al-Mahdy." 

Ibn al-Mujab says that the succession to the 
Imamate of the Banii Rassy continued until dis- 
sensions arose among them. The Suleymanites 
came from Mecca, on being expelled by the Hashim- 
ites. They conquered Sa'dah, and the dominion 
of the Banu E-assy came to an end in the sixth 
century.* 

Ibn Sa*id relates that among the members of the 
family of the Banu Suleymrm, there was at the 
time of their removal from Mecca to Yaman, 
Ahmad son of Hamzah son of Suleyman.f The 
people of Zabid besought his assistance against 
'Aly ibn Mahdy the Kharijite, who was besieging 
the city, then under the rule of Fatik ibn Muham- 
mad, of the dynasty of .Najah. He consented on 
condition of their slaying Fatik, which they accord- 
ingly did in a.h. 553. They raised Ahmad ibn 
Bamzah (Suleyman) to the throne, but being un- 
able to withstand the power of 'Aly ibn Mahdy, lie 
fled from Zabid and the city was taken by Ibn 
Mahdy. Ibn Sa'ld adds that 'Isa son of Hamzah, 
brother of Ahmad, possessed 'Aththar, one of the 
fortresses of Yaman. J Another member of the 
family was Grhanim son of Yahya. Then the power 
of the Suleymanites perished throughout the whole 
of Tihamah, throughout the highlands, and through- 
out Yaman, at the hands of the Banu Mahdy. Next 
afterwards th.e Ayyiibites conquered these countries 



* With reference to the above and to most of what follows, see 
Note 130, 

t Read Ahmad son of Suleyman. See Notes 88 and 130. 

\ Instead of brother of Ahmad, Ave may perhaps read brother 
0/ Yahya (father of GJianim). See Note 88. But see also supra, 
I>. 167, where Ghanim is said to have been succeeded by a yraud- 
son named *Isa son of Hamzah. 



i8S Ib}L Khalduii. 

and lield tbe Suleymanites in subjection. The 
Suleymanite sovereignty was lastly held by al-Man- 
sur 'Abd Allah son of Ahmad son of Hamzah.* Ibn 
al-'Adlm,^^^ says that he inherited the throne at 
Sa'dali from his father. He displayed a hostile 
demeanour towards the 'Abbaside Khalifah an- 
Nasir (a.h. 575 — 622), with whom he affected a 
tone of equality, and he sent his Da'ys to the 
Daylamites and to Jllan, with the result that the 
Khutbah was recited among these people in his 
name, and that he appointed governors over them. 
An-Nasir endeavoured to raise the Arabs of Yaman 
against al-Mansur by means of subventions, but 
could not prevail against him. 

Ibn al-AthIr says that al-Mansur 'Abd Allah, 
son of Ahmad son of Hamzah, Imam of the Zayd- 
ites at Sa'dah, collected troops in a.h. 592 and 
marched upon Yaman. Al-Mu'izz son of Sayf al- 
Islam Tughtakin ibn Ayyub was filled with alarm, 
but went forth to meet him, and put him to flight. 
Al-MansLir again collected, in a.u. 612, an army 
composed of Hamdanites and Khaulanites. Great 
agitation was produced in Yaman, and (the Ayyub- 
ite Sultan al-Mas'ud (Salah ad-din Yusuf) son of 
al-Kamil, at that time sovereign of the country, was 
filled with apprehension. He had Kurdish and 
Turkish troops, and the commander-in-chief, 'Omar 
ibn Rasul, recommended promptitude of action, ere 
the enemy could gain possession of the fortresses. 
Disputes broke out among the followers of al- 
Mansur, and on being attacked by al-Mas'ud his 
army was routed. 

Al-Mansur died in a.h. 630 at an advanced age.f 
He left a son named Ahmad, whom the Zaydites 
raised to the throne. They did not recognize him 
as Imam, but they waited for the increase of his 

* Kead 'Abdallah son of Hamzah. . , 

t Eead, in 611, aged 53 years. 



The Banu ^r-Rassy. 189 

years and for evidence that in his character he ful- 
filled the requisite conditions. In a.h. 645, certain 
Zaydites, inhabiting the fortress of Tula (Thula), 
proclaimed allegiance to al-Muti, a member of the 
Rassite family. His name was Ahmad ibn al- 
Husayn, a descendant of al-Hady. When the Banu 
Rassy were driven from the seat of their Imamate at 
Sa'dah by the Suleynianites, they took refuge on the 
mountain of Kutabah, east of Sa'dah {sic). There 
thev remained, and members of the family succes- 
sively and nninterruptedly exercised the office of 
Imam, publicly asserting their right to supreme 
authority. This continued until the Zaydites recog- 
nized Ahmad al-Muti. 

He was a highly trained jurist, learned in the 
doctrines of his sect, constant in prayer and assi- 
duous in fasting. He received the oaths of fealty iu 
A.H. 645. 

His career raised apprehension in the mind of 
Nur ad-din 'Omar ibn Rasiil. He besieged al-Miiti 
in the fortress of Tula (Thula) for a year, but the 
Imam was successful in his defence. Nur ad-din 
relinquished the siege, and set about collecting 
troops from the neighbouring fortresses for the 
purpose of resuming it. He was assassinated (a.h. 
647), and his son al-Muzaffar (who succeeded him) 
devoted his efforts exclusively to the fortress of 
Damliiwah. Al-Muti increased in power. He 
made himself master of twenty fortresses, then 
marched upon Sa'dah and wrested it from the hands 
of the Suleymanites. 

They had proclaimed Ahmad, son of their Imam 
*Abd Allah al-Mansfir, and upon al-Muti being re- 
cognized as Imam at Thula, they gave Ahmad the 
surname oi at- MutawaJcJdl. Thev had waited for his 
advance in years, but on al-Muti receiving oaths of 
allegiance, they recognized Ahmad as Imam. AViien 
al-Muti took Sa'dah, Ahmad al-Mutawakkil went 



I go Ibn Khaldun. 

down to liim, swore allefriance and placed himseli 
under his protection. This was in the year 649. In 
650 he went on the pilgrimage, and the Zaydites of 
Sa'dah continued under the authority of the descen-l 

dants of al-Muti.''" 

I was informed in Egypt that the Imam of Sa'dah,|{ 
previously to a.h. 780, was 'Aly ibn Muhammad, a 
descendant of the family. He died before that data* 
and was succeeded by his son Sahlli, who received 
the oaths of allegiance from the Zaydites. Some 
of them maintained that he was not a lawful Imam, 
by reason of his not possessing the qualifications! 
required in the holder of the office. He was in the 
habit of answering that he was prepared to be what- 
ever they chose. Imam if they pleased, and if not. 
Sultan. Salrdi died at the end of a.h. 793 and was 
succeeded by his son Xajah. The Zaydites refused 
to recognize him, whereupon he said that he 
rendered account to God alone. This is what we 
heard in Egypt, touching the Zaydites, daring ourg 
sojourn in that country. ^ 

And God is tiie Inheritor of the earth and of 
all that therein is. 



» ACCOUNT 



OF THE 



KAEMATHIANS IN YAMAN, 



EXTRACTED FROM 



THE KITAB AS-SULUK, 



OF 



BAHA 'D-DIN AL-JANADI. 



In the days of As'ad ibn Ya'fur, the Karmathians 
appeared in Yaman, 'Aly ibn Fadl in the country of 
Yah', and MaDsilr ibn Hasan, who was known under 
the designation of Mansur al- Yaman. ^^^ 

I will now, therefore, briefly relate their history, 
as it has been told by Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad 
ibn Malik ibn Abi '1-Kabail, a Jurist of Yaman and 
a learned Sunnite. He was one of the persons who 
joined the Karmathian sect in the days of as- 
Sulayhi, and he acquired a thorough knowledge 
of its character. On becoming convinced of the 
depravity of the Karmathian doctrines, he abjured 
them, and he composed a celebrated treatise, in 
which he has described the principles upon which 
they are founded, he demonstrates their wickedness 
and warns his readers against their deceptions. 

'Aly ibn Fadl, he says, was an Arab of the tribe 
named al-Ahdim (Ajdiin ?), who trace their descent 
from Dhu Hadan (Dhu Jadan?).^^^ He was a 
Shi'ite of the Dodekite sect. He went on a pil- 
grimage to Mecca, and thence he went forth with 
the pilgrim caravan of 'Irak, for the purpose of 
visiting the tomb of Husayn (son of 'Aly). Ou 
reachmof it he beo:an utterino- lamentations and cried 

O o i-J 



192 Al-Baha 'l-Janadi. 

aloud, saying : " AVould that (I had been) one of 
thy companions, sou of the Prophet, when the 
hosts of the wicked came forth asfaiust thee ! " 

Maymuu was in charo^e of the mausoleum and his 
son 'Obayd was with him as assistant. ^^^ When 
they beheld the condition of Ibn Fadl, they were 
filled with the desire to enlist him in their service. 
Maymfin spoke to him in private and made known 
unto Ibn Fadl that his son 'Obayd was destined to 
be the founder of a dynasty, which would be an 
inheritance unto his descendants, but that this 
thing could come to pass only after being prepared 
for in Yaman, at the hands of certain of his mission- 
aries (da'ys). "That may well be accomplished in 
Yaman," answered Ibn Fadl, " for ingenuity in the 
conduct of affairs is general among its people." 
Maymun ordered him to remain and to wait until 
140 he had considered the matter. 

Maymun was originally a Jew, who regarded 
Islam with envy. With the object of protecting 
his own religion, he made outward profession of 
Islam and devoted himself to the care of the tomb 
of Husayn at Karbala.* He was a native of 
Salamiyah, a city in Syria, and claimed to be a de- 
scendant of the family of 'Aly. Most of the Alides 
deny his pretensions, and God is all-knowing. Ibn 
Malik pronounces him to have been a Jew. 

A certain man, who belonged to Karbala, entered 
into terms of friendship with Maymun. He was 
known by the name of Mausur son of (Husayn son 
of ?) Zadan son of Haushab son of al-Faraj son of 
al-Mubarak, a descendant of 'Akil son of Abu TaHb. 
His grandfather Zadan was a Dodekite Shi'ah, 
and one of the chief men of Kufah, aud he appointed 
his sons to dwell at the tomb of Husayn. When 
Maymun came, he attached himself to Mausur, [and 

* I translate this passage with considerable hesitation. Dia- 
critical points here, as throughout the book, are generally absent. 



The Kar77iathia7is in Yaman. 193 

perceiving] his eminent qualities and his fitness to 
command, he sought his friendship and his society. 
Maymun was a man possessed of remarkable 
ability, which he employed for the furtherance of 
his objects. He was learned in the science of the 
stars, and it became known unto him that Mansur 
was destined to rule, and that he was to be one of 
the propagators of his son's claims. When Ibn 
Eadl came and attached himself to him, Maymun 
perceived that what he sought was found, Ibn Fadl 
being a native of Yaman, well acquainted with the 
country and with its people. 

Maymiln, speaking to Mansur said unto him : 
" Abu'l-Kasim, verily submission to the law of 
Grod belongeth to Yaman, wisdom belongeth to 
Yaman, the foundation of all things is there, all 
great events have their beginning in Yaman and the 
issue endureth whilst its star endureth.^^^ I am of 
opinion that thou and our friend 'Aly ibn Fadl pro- 
ceed to Yaman. Ye shall call upon its people to 
recognize the authority of my son, and ye shall 
attain in that country power and dominion." Man- 
sur had learned much from Maymun of the means 
whereby their ends could be gained. He agreed to 
what was proposed. Maymun brought him and 
Ibu Fadl into one another's presence, he made them 
enter into a mutual compact, and solemnly charged 
each one to deal justly by his companion. Man- 
sur' s relation is as follows : — 

" When Maymun decided upon sending us to 
Yaman he exhorted and instructed us. He de- 
sired me, on my arrival, to conceal my objects, so 
that they might be more surely attained. Twice 
repeating the name of God, he charged me with the 
care of my companion, to protect him, to act justly 
towards him, and to enjoin upon him the practice of 
righteousness. ' He is one,' he added, ' unto whom a 
high destiny is reserved, and yet I cannot withal be 





194 Al-BaJia ' l-Janadi, 

free of uneasiness respecting him.' Then turning" 
to Ibn Fadl, lie said unto liim: 'In the name of 
141 God! In the name of God ! I charge thee to deal 
righteously with thy companion. Respect him, re- 
cognize what is due to him and obey him. His 
knowledge is greater than thine, and it is greater 
than mine. If thou disregard his authority, thou 
shalt be deprived of safe guidance.' 

" He bade us farewell, and we travelled with the 
pilgrims until we reached Mecca. "We performed 
the rites of pilgrimage and then proceeded with the 
pilgrims of Yaman and reached Ghulafikah.^^^ We 
parted after mutual promises not to forget one 
another, and pledges that each should keep his com- 
panion informed of his proceedings. I went forth 
and arrived at al-Janad, then in the possession of 
al-Ja'fari, who had conquered it and wrested it from 
the hands of Ibn Ya'fur. 

" The Shaykh Maymun had solemnly enjoined me 
to commence the accomplishment of my mission at 
no other place but at one named 'Aden-La'ah, 
' for,' he said, ' it is the town in which thy talents 
will find their field and in which thou shalt accom- 
plish thine objects.' I was unacquainted with the 
place, and I reached 'Aden-Abyan. I sought infor- 
mation respecting 'Aden-La'ah and was informed 
that it was in the neighbourhood of Hajjah. I next 
inquired after any natives of the place who might 
have come to 'Aden-Abyan, and was directed to 
certain persons who had come for purposes of trade. 
I made their acquaintance and frequented their 
society and contrived to win their friendship. I 
told them that I was a man devoted to study, that 
I had heard they were natives of a mountainous 
country, and that I desired to visit it in their com- 
pany. They bade me welcome, and when they 
departed I accompanied them. On the road I 
entertained them with the recital of traditions. I 



The Karmathians in Yaman. 195 

urged upon tbem the observance of the duty of 
prayer, and they followed the examples I set them. 
On arrival at La'ah, I inquired for its principal city, 
and was directed to it. T proceeded thither and 
I became an assiduous frequenter of certain of its 
mosques. I devoted myself to the worship of Grod, 
and a large number of persons attached themselves 
to me. When I perceived that affection for me had 
taken possession of their hearts, I informed them 
that I had come to their country for no other pur- 
pose but to call upon them to recognize the Mahdy 
announced by the Prophet, whom God bless and 
hail with salutations of peace. I made a large num- 
ber swear to be faithful, and they commenced pay- 
ing me the legal alms. When a considerable sum had 
accumulated in my hands, I told them it was neces- 
sary I should possess a place of defence, where 
the alms could be preserved in safety and which 
should be a treasure-house unto the Muslims. 'Ayn 
Muharram was accordingly built for the purpose. 
2 The fortress belonged to a people known by the 
name of Banu 'l-'Ad'a, and thither I removed the 
corn and money that had accrued to me.* When I 
proceeded to the fortress, carrying with me my 
possessions, five hundred men, who had sworn to 
be faithful, accompanied me, bringing with them 
their property and their families. I now openly 
exhorted unto submission to 'Obayd Allah the 
Malidy, son of the Shaykh Maymun, and the people, 
without exception, showed themselves disposed to 
conform." 

On gaining possession of the mountain of Mas- 
war, al-Mansur adopted the use of drums and of 
standards. He was attended by thirty drummers, 
and whatever place he came to, the sound could 
be heard from a great distance. Al-Hawwali (Ibn 

* Al-Khazraji says that 'Ayn Muharram stood at the foot of 
Mount Maswar. 

2 



19^ A I- Balm 'l-Janadi. 

Ya'far) possessed a fortress on the mountain of 
Maswar, under the charge of a governor, from 
whose hands the place was wrested by al-Mansiir. 
The latter, seeing that his authority was securely 
established, now wrote to Maymun informing him 
thereof, and of his having overcome all opposition. 
He sent him splendid presents and articles of value. 
This was in the year 290. Maymun, on the news 
reaching him, and on receiving the presents, said to 
his son 'Obayd (Allah) : *' Behold thy supremacy is 
now establislied, but mv desire is that it shall be 
publicly proclaimed only from North Africa." ^^"^ 
He then sent Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn son of 
Ahmad son of Muhammad son of Zakarl}';!, known 
under the name of ash-Sli'iya'y (the Shi'ite) and a 
native of San'a, to North Africa, and ordered him 
to organize its people and to subject them to his 
son 'Obayd (Allah). Abu 'Abd Allah accordingly 
went forth as he was commanded. He was a man 
of remarkable ability, one of those whose names, on 
account of their talents in the science of frovern- 
ment, become proverbial. His task was not com- 
pleted until the year 296, when he wrote to the 
Mahdy informing him that the people recognized 
his authority, and he bade him come. 'Obayd 
(Allah), surnamed the Mahdy, hastened to comply, 
and arrived in the province of Africa. Abu 'Abd 
Allali had become possessed of supreme authority, 
and on arrival of the Mahdy, he delivered it 
into his hands. His brother reproached him say- 
ing : " An evil thing is this that thou hast done ! 
Supreme power was in thine hands, and thou 
givest it unto another ! " He continued to repeat 
these words until they impressed themselves upon 
his brother's mind. Abu 'Abd Allah resolved to 
betray the Mahdy, but the latter received informa- 
tion of what was occurring. He was filled with 
alarm, and instigated against his rival a person, by 



The Karmathians in Yanian. 197 

wliom Abu 'Abd Allah and his brother were slain 
on the same day, the fifteenth of Jamad al-Akhir of 
*3 the year 298. 

This man, 'Abd Allah ('Obayd Allah) sur- 
named the Mahdy,* was ancestor of the sovereio-ns 
of North Africa who afterwards held Egypt. Ibn 
Khallikan says, touching the 'Obaydites' pedigree, 
that they were descendants of 'Obayd Allah, and 
that some persons term them Alides, thereby ac- 
knowledging their pretensions. And Grod is all- 
knowing. f 

In the foregoing abstract, I have set forth the 
rise of the Karmathian power in Yaman, the events 
in which Mansur, a man of singularly sound judg- 
ment, was concerned, and his objects. The history 
of Ibn Fadl will now be entered into at such length 
as to make known his achievements and adventures. 
His pedigree and birth-place have already been 
mentioned. Those who compiled the history of his 
life relate that when he parted from Mansiir at 
Ghulafikah, as hereinbefore stated, he ascended the 
mountains and proceeded to Janad. Thence he 
went forth to Abyan, which was at that time in 
the possession of a man of the tribe of Asbah named 
Muhammad ibn Abi 'l-'Ula. From Abyan he pro- 
ceeded to the country of Yafi'. He found its 
people to be a medley of the basest of mankind. 
He withdrew into the valleys, and devoted himself 
to the worship of God. The people brought him 
food, of which he ate very sparingly, and only at 
the hands of those who believed in him. They in- 
habited the summits of the mountains % and, filled 

* Ou his coinage the name is written 'Abd Allah. 

t See De Slane's Ibn Khallikan, vol. ii. p. 77. The account in 
our text of the death of Abu 'Abd Allah is evidently borrowed 
from Ibn Khallikan (De Slane, vol, i. p. 465). 

X Khazraji states the contrary, namely, that Ibn Fadl abode on 
the summit of the mountaius and that the people dwelt in the 
valleys. 



198 Al-BaJia ' l-Janadi. 

■with admiration for him, they requested him to 
dwell in their midst. For a long time he would 
not consent, until, when they persisted in their 
demand, he told them that he was prevented from 
dwelling among them by their disobedience to the 
commands they had received enjoining the practice 
of righteousness, and by their neglect of the prohi- 
bitions to do evil and to indulge in intoxicating 
drinks and in wickedness. They swore to be faith- 
ful unto him, and to obey his commands, whereupon 
he promised that they should be rewarded. They 
now began to collect and to pay him the legal alms 
and tithes, and large sums accumulated in his hands. 
He attacked Abyan, slew the ruler of the province, 
declared the country and all it contained to be law- 
ful booty unto his followers, and possessed himself 
of a large amount of wealth. He then marched 
upon Mudhaykhirah,* a large city on Mount Ray- 
mah, which was under the rule of the Ja'farite.f 
He attacked him repeatedly, his efforts were 
crowned with success, and the Prince was slain.^ 
His country was declared to be lawful booty, and 
the women were reduced to captivity. Ibn Mahk 
has entered, in his treatise, into full particulars of 
these events, but they are not necessary for the 
purposes of this book and may be deferred to 
another occasion. Ibn Fadl having reached al-Mu- 
dhaykhirah was pleased with it. He there openly 
avowed his doctrines and made the city the seat of 
his government. Soon after he declared himself a 
prophet, and as such he proclaimed to his followers 
144 the lawfulness of wine, and of intercourse with their 



* In A.H. 291 according to Khazraji. 

t Ja'far ibn Ahmad al-Manaklii, according to Khazraji ; but the 
correct reading seems to be Ja'far ibn Ibrahim. See Note 6. 

X A.H. 292 (Khazraji). Al-Hamdani says (p. 75, 1. 9) that Ja'far 
ibn Ibrahim al-Manakhi was killed at Khawalah, close to one of the 
sources of the Wadi Nakhlah. 



The Karmathiaiis in Yanian. 199 

daughters and sisters. He proceeded to Janad at 
the season of the festival, the first Thursday of 
Kajab * He mounted the pulpit and recited the 
well-known verses of which the following is a 
copy : — 

Seize the tabour, O maiden, disport thyself, sing thy merriest 
songs and rejoice. 
The prophet of the line of Hashim hath passed away. But 
another hath arisen, and he of the stem of Ya'rub. 
Every prophet hath his law. Hearken now unto the law of this 
other prophet. 
He hath released us from subjection to prayer and to 
fasts. No longer shalt thou suffer under their burden. 
When others pray thou needest not rise ; when they fast, eat thou 
and drink. 
Seek not the course between Safa and Marwah,f nor to visit 
the tomb at Yathrib.;}; 
Deny not thyself the marriage-bed of thy nearest, whilst consent- 
ing to that of the stranger. 
How canst thou be lawful unto the stranger, and forbidden 
unto thy father % 
Doth the plant not belong unto him that tended it and watered 
it in the days when it was yet unproductive ] 
Wine is lawful as the waters of heaven, and its use is now 
hallowed by the law."' 

Ibn Fadl's authority acquired increasing strength 
and stability. He conquered Mikhlaf Ja'far and 
Janad, and then determined upon attacking San 'a, 
,at that time under the rule of As'ad ibn Ibrahim 
ibn Ya'fur. He marched by way of Dhamar and 
captured the fortress of Hirran. Its governor and 
most of the people accepted the doctrines of the new 
sect. The remainder took refuo-e with As'ad ibn 
Ya'fur. The latter on learning the strength of his 
enemy's forces fled, and Ibn Fadl entered San'a on 
Thursday, third of Ramadan of the year 299.^^^ 

At the time of his arrival exceedingly heavy rains 

* See sujjra, p. 10. 

t One of the ceremonies of the pilgrimage at Mecca. 

J jNIedinali. 



200 A I- Baku U'Janadi. 

occurred. Ibn Facll alighted at tlie mosque and 
caused tlie channels, provided for carrying away the 
water, to be closed. He ordered the women, cap- 
tured at San'a and elsewhere, to be brought to him, 
and he ascended the minaret. The women were 
cast into the water with uncovered faces and 
145 naked, and those tliat found favour in his eyes he 
took into the minaret and dishonoured. It is said 
that many virgins underwent that fate. 

The water was retained in the mosque. It 
filled the building up to the ceiling, and the traces 
thereof may be perceived to this day. The fact 
is mentioned by the Kitdi Surayy (ibn Ibrahim), 
whose life will be related hereafter (among other 
biographies of Jurists). 

Ibn Fadl now shaved the hair of his head, and 
one hundred thousand persons followed his ex- 
ample. He ordered the house of Ibn 'Aubasah to 
be destroyed, expecting to find a large sum in gold, 
but only ten thousand dinars were found, although 
Ibn *Anbasah was one of the leading men of 
San'a, who fled from the city along with As'ad. 
On hearing of the destruction of his house, he 
sickened and died. 

When Mansiir heard of Ibn Fadl's capture of 
San'a he was filled with gladness. He came unto 
him and they met and rejoiced with one another. 
Ibn Fadl then went forth unto Haraz * and besieged 
al-Mahjam, which he captured. Thence he pro- 
ceeded to al-Kadra and took it likewise. He then 
reached Zabid, at that period under the rule of 
Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak son of Ibrahim, son of Muham- 
mad who came to Yaman from Bao-hdad. It is said 
that Abu '1-Jaysh fled from Zabid, and according 
to other accounts, that he fought and that he was 

* Khi says, to Hariiz and Milhan. The latter, also called 
Rayshan, is a mountain that overlooks Mahjam. See Yakut and 
Hamdani, p. 68, 1. 25. 



The Karmathians in Yainan. 201 

slain by Tbn Fadl.* Zabid was declared lawful spoil. 
The women were reduced to captivity, and historians 
relate that about four thousand virgins were cap- 
tured, besides mothers of children. Ibn Fadl then 
started with his army for al-Mudhaykhirah, by 
way of al-Mlrad (?), a mountain east of Zabid. On 
reaching a place named al-Madahis, or al-Masha- 
khis,^^*^ he ordered his criers to proclaim a halt. 
The troops accordingly halted and were summoned 
to assemble. They obeyed and gathered around 
him, whereupon Ibn Fadl spoke unto them, saying : 
" Ye know that ye have come forth for no other 
purpose but that of striving for the advance- 
ment of the cause of God. Ye have captured 
a large number of the women of al-Husayb, but 
I cannot trust them with you, lest they fasci- 
nate you by their allurements and divert you 
from the holy war.^'^^ Let every man, therefore, 
slay the women that have accompanied him." They 
obeyed. The traces of their victims' blood con- 
tinued visible for many years, and for that reason 
the place was named al-Madahis or al-Mashakhls. 
On reaching al-Mudhaykhirah, Ibn Fadl ordered the 
roads to be closed to traffic, especially the pilgrim 
^^ roads. "Perform the pilgrimage," he said, " to 
al-Harf, a place near al-Mudhaykhirah, and perform 
the minor ceremonies at ath-Thalathi, (?)." The 
latter is a valley in the vicinity of al-Harf. f 

When Ibn Fadl beheld that his power over 
Yaman was securely established, he cast off his 
allegiance to 'Obayd (Allah) ibn Maymun, for 

* See J^ote 13. 

f Al-Hamdani mentions al Harf (p. 69, 1. 5) in the liigli-lying 
portion of Sarat Kudam, not far therefore from Hajjah. But 
if that be the place referred to in our text, it is a long distance 
from Mudhaykhirah. Thalithah has been mentioned at p. 131, 
and Note 100, as a phxce in Mikhlaf Ja'far. See also in Sprenger, 
p. 153, Hisn Thalath, near San';i. 



202 Al-Baha ' l-Janadi. 

whose cause he had hitherto professed to labour. 
He wrote informing his colleague Mansur. The 
latter answered, reproaching him and saying : 
" How canst thou renounce the authority of him 
through whom alone thou hast acquired all that is 
good, and how canst thou discontinue the propaga- 
tion of his supremacy ? Rememberest thou not 
the pledges entered into between him and thee, and 
hast thou forgotten the identical injunctions he 
placed upon us to act together in harmony ? " Ibn 
Fadl heeded him not, but again wrote, saying: 
" My case is that of Abu Sa'id al-Jannfibi ! ^" Is it 
an evil thing in him that he hath proclaimed himself 
paramount ? If thou dost not come hither and 
submit thyself unto me, I will make open war upon 
thee." Wlien Mansur read these words the con- 
viction of Ibn Fadl's treason was forced upon him. 
He ascended Mount Maswar and occupied himself 
in strengthening its works. " I have fortified this 
mountain," he said, " solely against that insolent 
rebel and against his like, for I perceived in liis face 
the evil that was in him, when we met at SanTi." 
Soon after sending his letter, Ibn Fadl prepared 
to attack Mansur. He collected for the purpose 
ten thousand men, the choice of his army. He 
marched from Mudhaykhirah and reached Shibam'.* 
Repeated battles were fought between his troops 
and those of Mansur. He then entered the district of 
La'ah and he ascended Mount Jamimah, a word of 
which the first letter is moved by the vowel a. It is the 
same as Mount Fa'ish, near Maswar, and belonged 
to a tribe known by the name of Banu Muntab.f 

* The place here referred to, I presume to be Shibam-Akyrm. 
See IS'ote 11. 

t I do not find the name Jamimah in Hamdani's Geography. 
For Jabal Fa'ish, see Note 11. Dr. Glaser has Dj. Djemime in 
lat. about 16* 6', but that can hardly be the same. 



The Karmathians in YaiJian. 20 



o 



For eight montlis he besieged Mausur witliout suc- 
cess. His long detention became grievous unto him, 
and Mansur received information thereof. He sent 
proposals of peace, but Ibn Fadl replied that he 
would not agree thereto, unless Mansur sent him 
his son to remain with him, subject to his authority. 
It should not, he said, be reported of him that he 
had departed without gaining his ends, but it should 
be known and spread among the people, that he 
had left Mansur of his good grace and not for lack 
of power. Mansur complied with his demands. 
He came, accompanied by one of his sons, unto 
l'^^ Ibn Fadl, who placed upon his neck a golden 
collar.* 

On his return to al-Mudhaykhirah, Ibn Fadl 
directed his efforts to the task of legalizing things 
prohibited by the law and of inculcating liberty to 
do that which is forbidden. He erected a large 
building, in which he was in the habit of collecting 
most of his sectaries, men and women, decked with 
ornaments and perfumed. The place was lighted with 
candles and the guests entertained one another with 
conversation of the most attractive and alluring cha- 
racter. Then the lights were extinguished and each 
man laid his hands upon a woman, whom having 
seized he did not abandon, even though she were unto 
him within the forbidden degrees. Sometimes it hap- 
pened that what fell to a man's lot did not please 
him, either on account of his partner's years, or 
for some similar reason. He might endeavour to 
escape from her, but she would allow him no excuse. 
Ibn Malik relates that a very aged woman once fell 
to the lot of a certain man. On discovering the 
fact he desired to slip away from her, whereupon 

* According to Khazraji, it was Mansur who placed a collar of 
gold rouud the neck of Ibn Fadl, 



204 Al-Baha 'l-Jauadi. 

she said to hira : ^' Dahmlda min dJii hiil'nntl-Ain'ir.^* 
iJu is the negative in certain dialects of Yaman, and 
did is used for the relative pronoun iUadhi. The 
. sentence therefore signifies : There is no escape 
from that which is an ordinance of the Amir, that 
is to say, of Ibn Fadl. 

Such practices are most sha^meful and pernicious, 
and they are repudiated by all who follow the 
doctrines of Ismallisra. They are things that 
cannot be proved against anyone but Ibn Fadl. 
I have inquired of many persons, from whom 
correct information can be obtained respecting 
the doctrines of the sect. They condemned these 
misdeeds, and I found all agreed in regarding 'Aly 
ibn Fadl as an atheist, whilst upholding Mansiir 
al- Yaman as one of the most distinguished and 
most worthy men of their sect. These opinions are 
in conformity with the conclusions I have myself 
arrived at, and they are firmly establislied in my 
mind. 

"When Ibn Fndl in consequence of his partiality 
for al-Mudhaykhirah made it his place of residence, 
he appointed As'ad ibn Ya'fur, of whom mention 
has been made, to be his deputy over San'a. lie 
was not convinced that As'ad had really allied him- 
self with him, and he was, on the contrary, appre- 
hensive of treachery. He therefore made him his 
deputy at San'a. As'ad was, indeed, keenly desirous 
to avenge the Muslims, and he was also filled with 
mistrust and with resentment against Ibn Fadl. He 
rarelv abode at San'a, through fear of a sudden 
148 attack. Ibn Jarir says that the heading of Ibn 
Fadi's letters to As'ad was as follows : " From him 
idIio hatJi spread out the 'plains of the earth and extended, 
them as a carpet, who maJceth the mountains to shake 
and who hath firmly rooted them, ^Aly ibn Fadl, unto 
his slave As'ad." Naught besides these words is 



The Kannathians in Yam an. 205 

required to convict him of atheism, from which 
God grant us to be preserved. 

Whilst As'ad was acting* as deputy for Ibn 
Fadl, there came unto him a stranger, said to 
be a Sharif and native of Baghdad. He became 
an associate and companion to As'ad. It is said 
that he was sent by the Sovereign of Baghdad 
for the purpose of contriving the death of Ibn 
Fadl, and he abode with As'ad for a time. 
This man, who was a surgeon, had a perfect know- 
ledge of therapeutics, he was highly skilled in 
venesection, in the cure of wounds and in the ad- 
ministration of beneficial remedies. Perceiving the 
intensity of As'ad's fear of Ibn Fadl, he said to the 
Prince : "I have resolved upon making my life an 
offering unto God, and an alms unto the Muslims, 
that T may relieve them of this tyrant. Give me 
now thy promise, that if I return unto thee, thou 
wilt share with me the sovereignty thou shalt 
acquire," As'ad gave his consent, and the stranger 
equipped himself for his undertaking and left the 
Prince, who was then dwelling in al-Jauf, in the 
country of Hamdan, in perpetual fear of Ibn Fadl.* 
The stranger travelled until he reached al-Mudhay- 
khirah. There he sought the society of the 
foremost and o-reatest officials of the State. He 
attended upon them, bled them, and administered 
healing draughts and boluses. They mentioned him 
to Ibn Fadl, praised him and described the skill he 
displayed, which, it was said, was such that its 
possessor's services were meet for none but for such 
as Ibn Fadl or his equals in rank. 

On a certain day Ibn Fadl desired to be bled. 
He inquired for the stranger, who was brought to 

* Al-Jauf is the name given to a large district in the country 
of Hamdan, watered by four rivers, of which the most important 
is the Kharid (Hamdani, p. 81). 



2o6 A I -Bah a ' l-Janadi. 

him. Tli3 physician, ou being summoned, appHed 
poison to his own hair on the front of his head, and 
his hair was very thick. Ou entering into the pre- 
sence of Ibn Fadl, he was ordered to divest himself 
of his raiment and to put on other garments pro- 
vided for the purpose. Ibn Fadl then commanded 
him to draw near for the purpose of performing the 
operation. He obeyed, and seated himself in front 
of him. He then produced the lancet and, placing 
it between his lips, he sucked it, to show that it was 
free from poison. Then he wiped it upon his hair at 
the spot where he had placed the poison, some of 
which adhered to the lancet. He now bled his 
patient from one of the veins of his hand, and having 
bound up the wound, he hastily departed. Resting 
149 his fears upon the praise he rendered unto God, he 
travelled forth from al-Mudhaykhirah, hastening to 
rejoin As'ad ibn Ya'fur. 

When Ibn Fadl had rested for a while, he began 
to feel the effects of the poison. He became aware 
that he had been deceived by the phlebotomist and 
commanded him to be sent for, but the man could 
not be found. Ibn Fadl's desire for his capture in- 
creased, and he ordered him to be pursued whither- 
soever he might have gone, and to be brought 
back. Soldiers went forth seeking him in various 
directions, until one of them overtook the physician 
in Wadi Sahul, close to the mosque known by the 
name of lyujnan.^ He would not surrender, but de- 
fended himself and was killed. His tomb is on that 
spot. It is a mosque for congregational prayer, 
supplied with a minaret. It is much visited, and 
blessings attend those who resort to it. I visited it 
in the year 696. 

* Al-Hamdani mentions Kajnan as situated in the province of 
SaLul and in the northern portion of the country of Dbu 'l-Kalil^ 
pp." 68, 6, and 100, 15. 



The Karrnathians in Yaniaii. 207 

The death of the physician was soon followed by 
that of Ibn Fadl, on the night of Thursday the 
fifteenth of Rabi'u '1-Akhir of the year 303. The 
Mushms suffered under the trials of his usurpation, 
for a period of seventeen years. When As'ad heard 
of his death he rejoiced, and so did all the people of 
Yaraan, with exceeding joy. They wrote to As'ad 
requesting him to attack Mudhaykhirah, and to 
destroy the dominion of the Karrnathians. He 
consented and collected a strong force from 
San'a and its neighbourhood. On his arrival 
in Mikhiaf Ja'far, he was joined by its inhabit- 
ants, as also by the people of Janad and of al- 
Ma'afir, and the army marched upon al-Mudhay- 
khirah. 

Ibn Fadl had left a son who was known by the 
name of al-Ghqfai, by reason of a whiteness on the 
iris of his eyes. As'ad besieged al- Mudhaykhirah 
with his troops. He encamped upon Mount Thau- 
man, which I. have hereinbefore mentioned, when 
speaking of al-Ja'fari. It is now known by the 
name of Mountain of Khaulan, because it is in- 
habited by Arabs of that tribe, known under the 
name of Banu '1-Bi'm (?). The army remained at 
this place, and whenever troops issued forth from 
the city, the Muslims defeated them. This occurred 
time after time, until the enemy was utterly dis- 
heartened and humbled. As'ad then erected man- 
gonels, by means of which most of the houses in 
the city were destroyed, and he finally captured the 
place by force of arms. The son of 'Aly ibn Fadl 
and as many of his followers, members of his family 
and persons who had embraced his sect, as As'ad 
could lay his hands upon, were put to death. His 
iO daughters, three in number, were captured. As'ad 
selected one, named Mu'adhah, and gave her to his 
nephew Kahtan, unto whom she bore 'Abd Allah, of 



2o8 Al-BaJui '/-lanadi. _ 

I 

whom mention will be made hereafter.* Her two " 
sisters fell to the lot of two chiefs. Tlie siege of 
al-Mudhajkhirah by the Muslims endured for a 
whole year, and it is said that during all that time 
As'ad never put off his armour or divested himself j 
of his sword. The rule of the Karmathians was 
extirpated froniMikhlaf Ja'far, and al-Mudhaykhirah 
has continued in ruins from that period unto the 
present. 

As for Mansiir, he continued in the condition 
above described, but (in contrast with Ibn Fadl) 
he was an able ruler who took pleasure in the per- 
formance of good works, the record whereof en- 
dureth. He did not leave the district of La'ah, and 
he died before Ibn Fadl, in the year 302, after 
bequeathing his authority to a son of the name of 
Hasan and to one of his followers, named *Abd 
Allah ibn al- 'Abbas ash-Shawiry. Mansur placed 
special confidence in this man, and had sent him 
on a mission with letters and presents to the 
Mahdy ('Obayd Allah), to whom ash-Shawiry 
became personally known, and whose esteem he 
also won. Mansur, on becoming sensible of his 
approaching death, sent for these two persons and 
said unto them : " I charge you both with the care 
of our dominion. Be careful to preserve it, and 
cease not to propagate the authority of *Obayd 
(Allah) ibn Maymim. We are one of the trees his 
family hath planted, and but for our appeals to their 
rights and authority, our ends could not have been 
gained. It will be your duty to communicate, by 
means of letters, with our Imam the Mahdy, and 
upon naught shall ye decide without consulting 
him. I have not gained the dominion we possess 
by means of great riches nor with the help of multi- 
tudes of men. I came to this country unwillingly, 

* See Note 8. 



The Karinathians in Yaman. 209 

and I have attained the results that are known 
unto you, under the good auspices of the Mahdj, 
of whose coming the glad tidings were given 
by the Prophet, whom God bless and hail with 
salutations of peace." These words he often re- 
peated before multitudes of people. 

Upon the death of Mansiir, ash-Shawiry, the 
executor of his will, wrote to the Mahdy, then re- 
siding at Mahdiyah, informing him of the event and 
stating that the office of Da'y remained in sus- 
pense, awaiting the Mahdy' s commands. But he 
sent also assurances that he was prepared to exer- 
cise the office of Da'y with loyalty and fidelity, 
apart from the sons of Mansur. One of the latter 
was entrusted with the letter. He set forth upon 
his journey, and on arriving at al-MahdIyah he 
delivered the letter, with the contents of which he 
was unacquainted. The Mahdy knew ash-Shawiry, 
who had aforetimes come unto him witli missives 
)\ from Mansur. He knew him to be well qualified 
to fulfil the office of Da'y, and he feared lest the 
sons of Mansiir should prove unequal to the task. 
The Mahdy replied consenting to the appointment 
of ash-Shawiry alone, and the son of Mansur re- 
turned to Yaman deceived in his expectations. 
But he concealed his disappointment and delivered 
the Mahdy 's letter. He and his brethren continued 
on terms of friendly intercourse with ash-Shawiry, 
who on his side showed them honour and respect. 
He did not preclude them from free access unto 
him. They entered his presence whensoever they 
pleased, without the interference of a chamberlain. 
At length, he who had been sent to the Mahdy 
came unto him, and seizing an opportunity when 
ash-Shawiry was off his guard, he slew him. He 
made himself master of the country, and collecting 
the people from every district, he took them to wit- 

p 



2IO Al-Baha ^l-Janadi. 

ness that lie abjured bis father's sect, arid that he 
joined that of the Sunnis. The people listened 
with approval, they rewarded him with their love 
and they submitted to his authority. One of his 
brethren, named Ja'far, came unto him. Ja'far con- 
demned his brother's conduct and upbraided him, 
but his brother would not listen. Ja'far left him in 
anger and went unto the Mahdy at Kayrawan. He 
found that 'Obayd Allah was dead and that he 
had been succeeded by his son al-Kfi'im (bi amr 
111 ah). These events^ had occurred in the year 
822. The son of MansCir remained with the new 
Khalifah. 

Meanwhile his brother massacred the members 
of his father's sect, and drove them forth, until 
none remained around him but such whose religious 
tenets were held in secret. Only a small number 
continued to dwell in the country and they corre- 
sponded with the family of 'Obayd (Allah) son of 
Maymiin at Kayrawan. The son of Mansfir then 
went forth from Mas war unto 'Ayn Muharram, 
which has been previously mentioned, and where 
there was a man of the family of al-'Arja, sultans of 
that country. The son of Mansur (before starting) 
appointed a deputy over Maswar, a man named 
Ibrahim ibn 'Abd al-Majid (al-Ilamid ?) asb-Shiya'y. 
He was ancestor of the Banu '1-Muntab, after whom 
Maswar has been named and is called al-Muntab. 
When the son of Mansur reached 'Ayn Muharram, 
Ibn al-'Arja suddenly attacked him and killed him. 
Ibn 'Abd al-HamId, on hearing thereof [tarried at 
Maswar and proclaimed himself sovereign of the 
district]. The members and women of the family 
of Mansur who were with him, fled to Mount al- 
Jdashab (Bani A'shab ),* but they were attacked 

* The tribe of A'shab son of Kudam dwelt, according to 
Hamdani, in tlie mountains between the rivers Lfi'ah and Surdud 
(p. 112, 1. 19 sqq.). 



The Karmathians in Yaman. 2 1 1 

^2 by the people, wlio robbed, plundered and murdered 
them. 

Ibn al-'Arja and Ibn 'Abd al-Hamid arrived at an 
agreement, in accordance with which the country- 
was divided between them. Ibn 'Abd al-Hamid ab- 
jured the doctrines of Mansur. He built a mosque, 
in which he placed a pulpit, and the Khutbah was 
recited therein in the names of the 'Abbasside 
Khallfahs. He sought out the Karmathians wher- 
ever he could hear of them, until they were almost 
exterminated, and only a small remnant continued 
to subsist in the neighbourhood of Maswar, who 
held the doctrines of their sect in secret and who 
recognized as their chief a man known by the name 
of [Ibn at-Tufayl. He was slain by Ibrahim. But 
after the latter' s death and during the reign of al- 
Muntab son of Ibrahim, at-Tufayl was succeeded in 
the office of Da'y by a person named] Ibn Rahim 
(Ibn Juftam ?), a man of resolute character. His 
dwelling-place was kept secret lest al-Muntab or 
other Suunites should lay hands upon him, but he 
was in correspondence with the family of the 
Mahdy whilst they were at Kayrawan and after- 
wards in Egypt. It was in his days that al-Mu'izz 
son of (al-Mansiir billah son of) al-Kaim son 
of the Mahdy ('Obayd Allah) came ibo Egypt 
and built Cairo, which became his place of resi- 
dence. ^^^ When Ibn Juftam felt the approach of 
death, he appointed over his sectaries a man named 
Yusuf ibn al-Asad (?). Ibn Juftam died when al- 
Hakim (grandson of al-Mu'izz) was on the throne 
at Cairo (a.h. 386 — 411)."^ Ibn al-Asad secretly 
laboured to spread al-Hakim's supremacy, and re- 
cognized it himself until he knew that his end was 
nigh, when he appointed as his successor a man 
named Suleyman (read 'Amir) ibn 'Abd Allah ar- 
Rawahy, a native of the district of Shibam. He was 
a man of great wealth, of which he made use iu 

r 2 



2 12 



Al-Daha 'I-Janadi. 



beguiliDg the people and in protecting his own fol- 
lowers from persecution. If any person meditated 
putting him to death, he would say : " I am a 
Muslim and I bear testimony that there is no God 
but God. How then can the spilling of my blood 
or the seizure of my property be lawful unto you r " 
Thereupon he would be left to go his w^ay. On the 
approach of death, he appointed as his successor 
'Aly son of Muhammad the Sulayhite. The hitter's 
family was originally from al-Ahraj (al-Akhriij),"^ 
and he was a member of the community of ShI'ahs 
of Haraz. 



NOTES. 

Note 1 to p. 1. — The Dd'ys, a word derived from a verb 
signifying- to invite or summon, were missionaries em- 
ployed by tlie Ismailites, to teach and propagate the 
doctrines of their sect. Their Chief, whose residence, 
under the Fatimite (or Ismailite) Khallfahs, was at Cairo, 
was styled the Dd'y of Dd'ys. The title was hardly in- 
ferior to that of Kddij of Kddys, and both offices were fre- 
quently held by the same person. It has been suggested 
that the word is the origin of the designation Bey, applied 
by Europeans to the Viceroys of Algiers. 

Note 2 to p. 3. — These words occur in five separate 
passages of the Kur'an. That in Ch. xxxv. v. 19 is as 
follows : — 

No burdened soul shall {on the day of resurrection) bear 
tlie load that belongeth unto another. And though one call 
upon another to assume its burden, that other shall not be 
laden therewith, even though the appeal proceed from its 
nearest kindred. 

NoTK 3 to p. 3. — The Ash'^arites were Kahtanites, descen- 
dants of 'Arib. A noteworthy member of the tribe was 
Abu ""l-Hasan 'Aly al-Ash'ari, originator of the religious 
sect known as the Ash'arites. The 'Akkites are like- 
wise often described as Kahtanites, descendants of Malik 
and Kahtan and of 'Udthan. But it is said that the last- 
mentioued name must be read 'Adudn, and that the 
'Akkites are to be reckoned as an Ishmaelite tribe. They 
removed at an early date to the Tihamah of Yaman, where 
they entered into close alliance with the Ash'arites. The 
two tribes are stated to have been the first to apostatize in 
Yaman upon the death of the Prophet. 

In all works on Arab history and on the geography of 
Arabia, continual reference is made to seemingly endless 
numbers of tribes, and more especially is this so when the 
Yamanite provinces are in question. Readers unftimiliar 
with the subject, may find it useful to be supplied with its 



2 14 Notes. NOTE 3. 

general outlines^ and I accordingly add to this note an 
enumeration of the principal tribes of Yaman. Carefully 
prepared tables have been constructed by F. Wustenfeld, and 
they will be found of great service to anyone desirous of 
studying the Arab tribal system. For the following slight 
sketch, not having Wiistenfeld's book within easy reach, I 
have contented myself with following Ibn Khaldun's 
chapters on the descent of the tribes, making, however, 
certain corrections and additions, chiefly derived from 
Hamdani's Description of Arabia, from YJikut's Geogi^a- 
phical Dictionary, and, in a small number of instances, from 
one or two other works. 

The subject, it must be remai'ked is beset with so many 
discrepancies and with such frequent disagreements, that it 
would be impossible to supply, within a moderate compass, 
anything approaching to an exhaustive account of the 
tribes and of their genealogies, as taught by the native 
traditionists. Many tribes, moreover, some of common, 
others of entirely distinct lineage, bear the same name, and 
their origin is not unfrequently matter of dispute. Al- 
Hamdani, speaking of certain Arabs bearing the name of 
Ja'dah (p. 89-90), who, he says, claimed to be descendants 
of the Ishmaelite tribe of Ja'dah derived from Kays 'Avian, 
makes the remark that it was a common practice for a 
tribe of desert Arabs to avail itself of such similarity of 
name, and to assert a claim to identity of lineage with that 
of a greater and more illustrious namesake. The thing, 
he continues, was of frequent occurrence and had often 
come under his personal observation. 

The inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula are by com- 
mon consent divided into two great Septs or Nations, 
one of which, the more ancient of the two, is generally 
known under the designation of the Yamanite tribes, be- 
cause for the most part they inhabited, and still inhabit, the 
southern pi'ovinces of Arabia. They claim to be the direct 
descendants of Kahtan, whom the Arabs identify with 
Joktan of the Jewish Scripture, the ancestor of Hazar- 
maveth (Hadramaut), Uzal, Sheba (Saba) and others. It 
is admitted that a more ancient tribal race at one time in- 
habited the Arab Peninsula, but one the greater part of 
which has long been extinct, whilst of the remainder it is 
only known that no traces of its posterity can be distin- 
guished. The traditions respecting the aboriginal race, it 
is further allowed, rest upon no sure authority, with the 



NOTE 3. Notes. 215 

exception only of the few particulars preserved in the pages 
of the Kur'an. It is universally held that these people 
were, like the Kahtaiiites^ descendants of Shem the son of 
Noah, and it is generally believed that their language was 
Arabic, a fact positively stated in respect to some of the 
tribes. 

The second great division consists of the race descended 
from Ishmael son of Abraham. The Ishmaelite Arabs are 
sometimes termed Nizarites or Ma'addites because they 
are descended from Nizar son of Ma^add, son of 'Adnan. 
The precise links in the chain of descent from Ishmael to 
Adnan cannot be authoritatively stated, but the truth of 
that descent is absolutely unquestioned. 

'Adnan is said to have been contemporary with the pro- 
phets Jeremiah and Baruch, and with Nebuchadnezzar 
(Bukht Nassar). The latter, according to Arab tradition, 
by command of God invaded Northern and Central Arabia, 
and exterminated all but a small fraction of its inhabicants. 
Ma'add son of Adnan was at that time in his childhood. He 
was conveyed, for safety — miraculously, it is said — to the 
ancient town of Hai'ran in Mesopotamia. On his return he 
collected the remnant of his father's people, who had sought 
refuge with the Yamanites. The Ishmaelite Arabs, accord- 
ing to the commonly received version, are descendants of 
Ma'add, precisely as the Yamanite Arabs are held to be 
descendants of Kahtan. 

The posterity of Ishmael divide themselves into three 
great stems. That of al-Ya's son of Mudar son of Nizar, 
to which belonged, among others, the tribe of Knmi/sh, 
whereof the Prophet was a member, that of Kays 'Aylan, 
brother of al-Ya's, and that of Rabi'ah, brother of Mudar 
and son of Nizar. 

The Yamanite tribes are in like manner divided into 
three great stems, all descended from Saba or 'Abd ash- 
Shams (servant of the Sun) son of Yashjub, sou of Ya'rub 
son of Kahtan. 

There are in the first place the Himyarites, composed of 
the descendants of al-'Aranjaj, better known under his sur- 
name of Himyar, son of 'Abd'ash-Shams. Among the prin- 
cipal Himyarite tribes and those whose names are most fre- 
quently met with in the histories of Yamau, were the Barm 
bhar'ah, the Banu Sha'bdn, and numerous tribes descended 
from Zayd al-Jamhur, such as the tribes of Dhu Ru'ayn or 
Yarlm, Ydfi', Wululzah, Dliu 'l-KaW, Hardz, Maytam, 



2i6 Notes. NOTE 3. 

8ahvl, AuzcV and Dhu Ashah. It will be noticed that many 
places in Yaman were named after the tribes by which they 
■Were inhabited. 

The other two great Kahtanite stems consist of the de- 
scendants of Malik and of 'Arib, sons of Zayd son of Kahlan 
son of 'Abd ash- Shams. 

Among the tribes of Malik, the chief place may be as- 
sigued to that of Hamdan, descendant of al-Khiyar son of 
Malik. The Banu Hamdan branch forth into an almost 
endless number of subdivisions, all connected together by 
common descent, and like other Arab sister-tribes, for the 
most part, though by no means always, in more or less 
close alliance with one another. Of the Hamdauite sub- 
tribes, it may be sufficient here to mention the names of 
Edxhid and Bal'U (seldom dissociated from one another) 
the Banu Yam, Jushani and Shi Jul b. Next in importance 
to the Banu Hamdan may be reckoned the Azdite.^, a name 
borne by the most im]:)ortant section of the people who in- 
habited the country of Saba and its capital Ma'rib, at the 
time of the rupture of the dyke of 'Arim and of the ruin to 
which that portion of Yaman was in consequence reducetl. 
All but a small section of the Azdites abandoned the 
country.* A portion proceeded to 'Oman. The chief 
body went to the Tihamah of Yaman, inhabited by 
the tribes of 'Akk and Ash'ar. Here they settled in 
the neighbourhood of a Pool named Ghassdn, situated 
between the rivers Zabid and Rima*. After a lengthened 
stay, dissensions with the original occupants of the 
country compelled the Azdites to depart. A portion of 
the tribe established itself in Najran, in the neighbour- 
hood of the Madhhijites who had long occupied and 
ruled the country. Another section led by Harithah 
son of 'Amru, attacked and overcame the Jurhumites at 
Mecca and became known as the Khuzd'ah, a designation 
given to them, it is said, because they " separated " them- 
selves from their brethren led by Tha'labah son of *Amru. 
The Azdite sub-tribes of Aus and Khazi*aj, so named after 
the two grandsons of Tha'labah, possessed themselves of 
Yathrib (the ancient name of Medinah). Their descend- 
ants were the first Ai'ab community to embrace Islam, and 
their recognition of the Prophet, at a time when his pro- 

* This occurred, according to Caussin de Perceval's conjecture, 
in A.D. lis. 



NOTE 3. Notes. 217 

spects seemed sunk iuto a deptli of utter hopelessness, 
became tLe chief means that eventually brought about the 
triumph of his cause. He accepted the refug-e they offered 
him and he bestowed upon them the title of al-Ansdr, the 
Defenders, whilst the small party that accompanied him on 
his flight from Mecca, received the designation al-Mu- 
liajiron, the Emigrants or Refugees. The Ghassanite 
Azdites gradually travelled northwards and eventually 
reached Syria, where they founded the kingdom known as 
that of Ghassan, which endured under Roman supremacy, 
until the conquest of Syria by the Muslims. Other two 
tribes of the stem of Malik are the Banu Khaih'am and 
Banu BajUah, descended from al-Ghauth, father of al-Azd. 
But according to some authorities these two tribes were 
Ma'addites. 

The third great stem of the Kahtanite Arabs consists, as 
already mentioned, of the descendants of 'Arib, brother of 
Malik. It subdivides itself into four branches, three of 
which, the Bamc Tayy, Banu Madlihi^ and Banu Hurrah, 
comprise a large number of sub-tribes. The fourth is the 
tribe of AsWar, the associates of the Banu 'Akk in the 
Tihamah of Yaman. 

The Banu Tayy abandoned Yaman shortly after the dis- 
persion of the Azdites, and settled for the most part in 
Northern Arabia, near the mountains of Aja and Salma, 
whence they spread into 'Irak and into the Syrian desert. 
Among the sub-tribes of the Madhhijites are the Banu 
Ju'fi, Zubayd, Hal-am, and Sinhdn, derived from Sa'd al- 
'Ashirah son of Madbhij, also the Banu 'Jrt.9, Banu Murdd 
Banu Jald, Banu Hurah, Nakha', Munahbih or Janh, and 
the Banu 'l-Hdrith ibn Ka'h, who conquered Najran and 
dwelt there for many centuries. According to some ver- 
sions, the Banu Sinhan and Harith were included in the 
designation Janb. 

From the Banu Mtirrah were descended the Banu 
Kliauldn, who are described as sons of 'Amru son of Malik 
son of al-Harith son of Murrah and their kinsmen the i? a wtt 
Jurrah sons of Rakla son of 'Amru son of Malik, Other 
authorities, however, pronounce the Banu Khaulan to be a 
sub-tribe of Kudd'ah, sons, that is to say, of 'Amru son of 
al-Haf son of Kuda'ah. Al-Hamdani, if the version given 
by Y''akiit (vol. iv, p. 437-38) can be trusted, admits two 
separate tribes of the same name, one of which he distin- 
guishes under the name of Khaulan al-'Aliyah, and the other 



2i8 Notes. KOTE 4. 

as Kliaulaa-Kuda'ah.* The tribes of Haindau and of 
Khaulau were by far the largest aud most powerful tribes 
in Yaman. 

There were many other subdivisions of the branch of 
Murrah. Among' these may be mentioned the tribe of 
Ma'djir (son of Ya'f ur — see Harndfiui, p. 67, 25, and Yfikut 
iv. 670), t that of Kiudah and its sub-tribes SdJiun, Tujlb 
and Saksak, also the B(uiu Laklim, and Banu Judhdm. 

There remains to be noticed the great Arab stem of 
Kuda'ah, respecting which the generally accepted opinion 
is that they are descendants of Miilik son of Himyar. 
Some, however, contend that Kuda'ah was son of Ma'add. 
and that his descendants are Ishmaelite Arabs, whilst on 
the other side it is held that he was only the adopted and 
step-son of Ma'add. According to another version, the 
Banu KudfVah were expelled from Najran by the Banu '1- 
Harith ibn Ka'b the Azdites, and it is said that they went 
to the Hijaz and there became allied with the Ma'addites. 
The sub -tribes of Ku(l;x'ah are very numerous. It may be 
suflBcient to mention here the Banu Kalb, Banu TauukJi, 
Banu Jarm, Banu Nahd, Banu 'Zhllivah and Banu Fahm. 
I have already stated that the Banu Khaulan, according to 
some accounts, were a sub-tribe of Kuda'ah. 

Note 4 to p. 4. — Most of what precedes is reproduced, 
almost verbatim, by Yakiit in his article on Zabld. Ibn 
Khaldim, in his account of the descendants of Abu Talib 
(vol. iv. p. 115), repeats what he tells us in his history of 
Yaman [supra, p. 141) touching the Khalifah al-Ma'mun's 
motives for sending Muhammad ibn Ziyad to that country. 
He was sent, he says, on a mission to suppress the rebel- 
lion of the Alides, who, under the leadership of Ibrahim 
al-Jazzar (the Butcher), threatened to detach the province 
from the rest of the Empire. And Ibn Ziyad, he con- 
tinues, was chosen by al-Ma'mun on account of the intense 
hatred he was known to entertain against the family of 
^Aly.l 

* In Miiller's edition the passage referred to occurs at p. 107. 
See also pp. 109 and 113. It will be observed that Yakut supplies 
us with a different reading. 

f Ibn al-Athir describes the Banu Ma'afir as a Himyaritic 
tribe (vol. viii. p. 499). 

X Another rebellion is stated to have occurred in Yaman in 
^.H. 207 (Tabari, iii. p. 1062), led by the Alide 'Abd ar- Rahman 



NOTE -4. Notes. 21 g 

Ibn Ziyad^s descent seems to be traced through Ziyjid's 
son 'Obayd Allah, the same who took a leading part in the 
slaughter of the Imam Husayn, grandson of the Prophet, a 
memorable event which Gibbon has made familiar to Eng- 
lish readers. Ziyad himself, the ancestor of the founder of 
Zabid, was regarded as son of Abu Sufyan, brother therefore 
of Mu'awiyah. th.e first Khalifah of the Omayyad dynasty. The 
circumstances of his birth were such, it is true, as to cast 
grave doubt upon his claims. He was therefore generally 
known by the surname Ibn Al^ihi, the S07i of his father. 
Mu'awiyah eventually acknowledged him as his brother, 
far less, there is reason to suspect, out of conviction, than for 
the purpose of disarming an ambitious and dangerous sub- 
ject. Ziyad owed, probably, much of his success and 
influence to his talent as an orator. It is related of him, 
that when a young man, barely over twenty years of age, 
he preached a Khuthah at Medinah, the eloquence of which 
filled his hearers with admiration. " How marvellous a 
talent hath Grod granted to that youth ! " exclaimed 'Amru 
ibn al-'As. " Were his father of the tribe of Kuraysh, it were 
easy for him to drive the Arab nation before him with a 
switch ! '■* " By Allah,'^ answered Abu Sufyan, " I know 
who is his father.'^ 'Aly, who was close at hand, turned 
round and stopped the discussion of so dangerous a topic : 
*' Silence, Abu Sufyan, for tbou well knowest, were ^Omar 
to hear thy language, its punishment would quickly follow ! " 
Zivad was born in the first year of the Hijrah and died iu 
A.H. 53. 

Suleyman ibn Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik, from whom one 

ibn Ahmad. It was suppressed, we are told, by Dinar ibn 'Abd 
Allah, sent for the purpose, at the head of a strong force, by al- 
Ma'uiun. The insurrection is said to have occurred in the coun- 
try of the 'Akkites. There is some ditficulty in reconciling the 
story with the statement that the district iu question was, at 
that time, absolutely subject to Ibn Ziyad. But it may well be 
that the latter's rise in the Tihamah of Yaman Avas far less rapid 
than is represented by 'Omfirah. Al-Hamdaui, who died in A.n. 
334, indeed tells us (p. 103) thut, from the time of al-Mu'tasim 
(a.h. 218—227) to that of al-:\Iu'tamid (a.h. 256—279), a certkiu 
family of the Banu Shurfih (subdivision of the tribe of Dhu Ru'ayn 
the Himvarites) exercised sovereign rule over the Tihamah of 
Yaman, Elsewhere (p. 120, 1. 7) he says that the B.iuu Sliurah 
held paramount sway, at Zabid, over all the neighbouring Arab 
tribes. See also p. 119, 1. 23. 



2 20 JVo/es 



NOTK O. 



of the Ziyadite^s compauious claimed to be descended, 
was, as is indicated by his name, son of the Omayyad 
KbalTfah Hisham. He was slain in a.h. 132, one of the 
many victims of the first Abbasside Khalifah 'Abd Allah 
as-Saffah, the Blood- spiller. Ibn Ziyad's companion, it 
will be observed, is also designated the Manvdmte, after 
his ancestor the Khalifah Marwan, father of 'Abd al-Malik. 
The Banu Taghlib were a Ma'^addite (Ishmaelite) tribe 
descended from Rabl'ah son of Nizar. The Taghlibite com- 
panion of Muhammad ibn Ziyad bore the same name as 
Muhammad (al-Anilu), son and successor of Harun (ar- 
Rashid). Al-Amin was deposed from the Khallfate iu 
favour of his brother 'Abd Allah al-Ma'mfin, aud in 
A.H. 198 he was captured and slain by Trdiir ibn al-Husayu, 
the general in command of al-Ma'mun^s troops. The new 
Khalifah, it is said, never ceased secretly to lament the 
slaughter of his brother. On one occasion, at the sight of 
Tahir, he burst into tears, and when asked the cause of his 
grief, he replied that he wept at the remembrance of a 
thing, the mention of which was dishonour and its sup- 
pression mourning. The circumstance was reported to 
Tahir, who, greatly alarmed, solicited and obtained the 
government of Khurjl'^fin, where he soon became practi- 
cally independent, and founded the dynasty known as that 
of the Tahirites. 

Note 5 to p. 4. — Al-Khazraji, at this point of his his- 
tory (p. 78), enters into certain particulars touching the, 
town of Zabid. The city, he says, is circular iu form. 
It stands half-way between the mountains and the sea, 
^ at a distance of about half a days' journey from either. 
On the south flows the river Zabid* and on the 
north the river Rima*. Elsewhere (p. 81), the same 
writer describes the walls of Zabid, which he says were 
originally built by Husayn ibn Salamah, rebuilt by Mann 
Allah al-Fatiki, in a.h. 520 and odd years, again by the 
Banu Mahdy, and again, in a.h. 589, by Sayf al-Islam j 
Tughtakin the Ayyubite. It has, he says, four gates. 
One on the east called Bab ash-Shihdrik, leading to Shi- 
barik, a village situated on the river Zabid, and thence 
to the fortress of Kawarir. One on the west, which in his 
day was called Bub an-Nakhl, but which at an earlier period 

* Al-Janadi tells us that the city of Zabid was named after the 
river (fol. 29 obv.). 



NOTE 6. Notes. 



221 



bore the name of T^uh Gliuldfikah. The road leads to 
Ghulafikah. and to al-Ahwab. The former, he says^ served 
at one time as the port of Zabid, but it fell into decay 
and was ^superseded by al-Ahwab, whicli was in his time 
known under the name of al-Buk''ah. The third gate, 
on the north, bore the name of Bah SaJulm. It led 
to Wadi Eima' and Wadi Saham. The fourth gate, BcJO 
al'Kurtub, on the south, led to Wadi Zabid and thence to 
the village of Kurtub, situated upon that river.* 

Al-Khazx-aji next enters into lengthy details touching the 
extent of the walls, in which it is needless to follow 
him. In describing the city walls and bastions, he quotes 
the work of Ibn al-Mujawir, written about a.h. 630, a book 
freely used by Sprengei-, in his valuable work upon East- 
ern Geography, under the title of TariJih al-Mustansiry. It 
may be worth remarking that in the Leiden MS. of al- 
Khazraji, the word, excepting in one instance, is written 
al-Mustahsiry. 

Note 6 to p. 4. — 'Oraarah's statements touching the 
foundation of al-Mudhaykhirah and on the derivation of 
the name Mil:lilaf J a' far are mentioned, but absolutely 
contradicted by al-Janadi. The city of Mndhaykhirah, 
situated on Mount Thauman, was built, he says (fol. 182 
rev.), by Ja'far ibn Ibrahim al-Manakhi. Elsewhere, in his 
chapter on the Abbasside governors of Yaman, he says (fol. 
28 rev.), that the founder of the principality was Ibrahim 
ibn Abi Ja'far al-Manakhi, who conquered Mount Thauman 
in the days of al-Ma'muu. Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Hamid, 
appointed Governor of Yaman in a.h. 213, marched against 
al-Manakhi in the following year, but was defeated and 
killed. Janadi specifies the orthography of the name 

^;}~oy, but adds that the form of the word is that of the dual 

of ^y. 

Yakut gives 'Omarah's description of Mndhaykhirah, as 

* Johannsen gives most of these particulars (pp. 120, 253, 
261) as they are borrowed from al-Khazraji by Dayba', but having 
misread Ja-.! for Jol, a not inexcusable error in the absence of 
diacritical jjoints, he has missed the sense of the writer's words re- 
garding the name Buk'ah. Khazraji writes : hj Jl jJ>:Jl Jol 
iaLll ♦-J ^y\\ JxJ^ J (_>ljftV'. It will be observed that there is 
room for doubt whether the name Buk'ah is meant to apply to 
Ghul'ifikah or to al-Aliwub. 



2 22 A'^oieS. NOTE G, 

also the greater part of the passage relating to Ibu Ziyfid's 
freedman Ja'far, as is shown in the notes I have appended 
to the Arabic text. Yakut begins by stating that j\Iudhay- 
khirah stood on Mount Sabir, which I need hardly say is 
an error. (See infra. Note 11.) 

Abu JaTar al-Manakhi was descended, according to 
Janadi, from Dhu'l-Muthlah (aJ-Ji jj ; but cf. Harndfini 
p. 100, 1. 25 and 26), the Himyarite, and from Dhu '1- 
Manakh. His posterity continued in existence down to the 
writer's days, and they were known as Sultans of Kiyad 
(? ^j^Ls) Bayt 'Izz, Eaym (Raymah ?) and Karm 'Amim. 
Ibrahim Abu Ja'far possessed himself of Mount Raymah 
as well as of Thaumtln, and it acquired the name of Raymat 
al-Manakhi. He made himself master of the greater part 
of Mikhlfif Ja'far. 

Some further particulars touching the petty dynasty of 
Maniikhi, are supplied in the accounts preserved by al- 
Janadi and Khazraji, of the circumstances under which the 
Karmathian or Ismailite doctrines were established in 
Yaman. Mudhaykhirah, it will be seen, was conquered by 
Ibn Fadl. Its ruler at that time, says al-Khazraji (who 
derives his information from the same source as al- 
Janadi), was Ja'far ibn Ahmad (Ibrahim?) al-Manakhi, 
after whom Mikhlaf Ja'far is named. Aly ibn Fadl 
marched against him in a.h. 291, but was defeated and 
compelled to fall back upon the country of Yafi'. Five 
months later, in a.h. 292, he again attacked the city and 
he succeeded in gaining possession, first of jMudhaykhirah 
and next of the fortress of Ta'kar. Ja'far ibn Ibrahim 
{ttic) fled to Tibamah and reached al-Kurtub in the valley 
of the river Zabld. He was assisted with troops by the 
Prince of Zabld (Abu '1- Jaysh Ishak ?). With these he 
resumed the struggle. A celebrated battle was fought, 
says Khazraji, in Wadi Nakhlah, in which Ja'far ibn Ibrahim 
{sic) and his nephew Abu '1-Futuh were killed. Ja'far' s 
rule, adds the same writer, endured from a.h. 249 to 292, 
forty-three years.* 

* Hamdani (p. 75,1. 9) says that "Ja'far ibn Ibraliim al- 
Manakhi " was killed at or near the fortress of Khawalah, 
situated close to one of the sources of the Wadi Nakhlah. 

Dr. Glaser visited the town of Menakha near Shibam-Haraz, 
which I need hardly say is geographically quite distinct from 
Mikhlaf Ja'far, or the country of al-Manakhi, as it is sometimes 
called. I find no mention of Manakha in Hamdani or other 



NOTES 7—8. Notes, 223 

Al-Mudliaykbirah, as will be seen, was re-captured from 
the Ismailites by As'ad ibn Ya^fur, in or shortly after a.h. 
303. The city was destroyed, and Jauadi adds that it con- 
tinued in ruins down to his time. It will be noticed that 
Jabal Thauman was, in the writer's days, known under the 
name of Mountain of Khaulan. 

Note 7 to p. 5. — For Diyclr Kindah, SMhr and Mirhdt, 
see supra, pp. 177, 180 and 182. See also de Goeje's ed. 
of Ibn Haukal, note to p. 32 (vol. iv. p. 432), whence it 
appears that a note appended to the Paris text in the 
sixth century of the Hijrah, describes Mirbat as a sea- 
port situated at a distance of one and a half days' journey 
from Zafar, whilst according to Yakiit the distance is five 
parasangs. All these places are marked on modern maps. 

Note 8 to p. 5. — We have seen that Ibn Ziyad was sent 
to Yaman as Amir, a word of somewhat doubtful meaning, 
since it may be taken to signify a Prince, a Governor, or 
a military Commander. But it is tolerably clear that he 
was not intended to supersede the Governors of the pro- 
vince of Yaman, whose residence was at San 'a, and who con- 
tinued to be appointed by the Khalifah al-Ma'mun and bis 
successors long after the foundation of the Ziyadite Prin- 
cipality. 

The family of the Banu Ya^fur, who eventually estab- 
lished themselves as a virtually independent dynasty at 
San'a, was, according to our text, descended from the 

native writers I have at my command, and the name in its 
application to the town in question, is perhaps of more modern 
date. 

Al-Hamdani mentions another place, Mandhi, written, accord- 
ing to Miiller's edition, with the letter ha not kha. He describes 
it "(pp. 82, 12; 110, 6, 8) as situated at the jmiction of the two 
main streams of the Wadi Kharid — one of which flows down 
from San'il. The other has its chief sources in the neighbourhood 
of Sliibam-Akyan and Haclur Bani Azd, Its upper course bears, 
according to Dr. Glaser's map, the name of Wadi Khuziimir and, 
lower down, that of Wfidi Shuwabah (of. Hamdani, p. 82, 1. G, 
and p. 110, 1. 6), Among its affluents is, as shown by Dr. 
Glaser, the small stream of Dhi Bin (or Dhu Bin), in Balad 
as-Sayad (Hamdani, p. 82, 1. 8, and 111, 25). The town 
of Dhu Bin, the burial-place of the Imiim Ahmad ibn ^^usayn, 
is frequently mentioned in the histories of the Zaydito Imams. 



2 24 Azotes. NOTE S. 

Tubbas or ancient Himyarite Kings, and Ibn Khalduu, iu 
his chapter on the Rassite Sharlfs of Sa'dah, likewise 
speaks of them as of the posterity of the Tubbas. Else- 
where, when describing- the genealogies of the Yamanite 
princes and tribes (vol. ii. p. 213), he gives us the pedigree 
of the family of Ya'fur, from which, however, it seems diffi- 
cult to trace their descent from the Tubbas, excepting inas- 
much as they were of the posterity of Zur'ah (Himyar the 
younger), son of Saba the younger. 

Among their ancestors were two who bore the name of 
Dhu Hawwal,* whence probably the surname the Haw- 
•walites, by which the family is frequently designated. 
Ya'fur ibn 'Abd ar-Rahmiln, founder of the dynasty, is first 
heard of, according to Janadi, under the Governorship of 
Aytakli, who was appointed over Yaman by the Khallfah 
al-Mu'tasim, according to at-Tabari, in a.h. 225 (vol. iii. 
p. 1302)." Al-Wathik (a.h. 227—232), replaced Aytakh by 
Ja'far ion Dinar, who had formerly ruled over the country, 
but had been deposed in favour of Aytakh. The appoint- 
ment of Ibn Dinar took place in a.h. 231, according to 
Ibn al-AthIr, and he tells us that the new Governor pro- 
ceeded to San'a accompanied by a force of 4000 horse and 
1000 foot soldiers. Janadi says that Ibn Dinar attacked 
Ya'fur ibn 'Abd ar-Rahmfm, but that peace was eventually 
concluded between them. Al-Mutawakkil, who succeeded 
to the Khalifate in a.h. 232, appointed Himyar ibn al- 
Harith. The new Governor was unable to withstand the 
attacks of Ya'fur, and was at length compelled to return a 
fugitive to 'Irak. Al-Mutawakkil's assassination occurred 
shortly afterwards (a.h. 247), and Ya'fur made him- 
self master of San'a and of Janad, but not of Tihamah, 
which since a.h. 204 was in the possession of the Banu 
Ziyad. 

Ya'fur was succeeded by his son Muhammad ibn Ya'fur. 
He recognized the supremacy of the KhalTfah al-Mu'tamid 
(a.h. 25G — 279), who in a.h. 259, formally invested him with 
the Government of San'a. Hadramaut and Janad were 
included in the dominions of Muhammad ibn Ya'fur, but 
he owned allegiance to the Ziyadites and paid them tribute. 
He started on the pilgi'image in a.h. 262, after appointing 
his son Ibrahim to be his deputy. On his return he built, 

* The name is pointed Hiwal in Midler's edition of Hamdani 
(see Isote 11). Yakut, s.v. ^.^.a^ writes Hawwal. 



NOTE 8. Notes. 



2-'D 



i o 



in 265, the mosque of San'^a accordiag to the design which, 
al-Janadi says, it still retained in his own day. Muh'im- 
mad "was assassinated by his son Ibrahim, and the latter, 
according to al-Janadi quoting Ibnal-Jauzi,* is said to have 
murdered not only his father, but also his uncle, his cousia 
and his father's mother.f This occurred, he adds, six 
months before the death of al-Mu'tamid, in Muharram, 
therefore, of a.h. 279. Ibrahim continued the alliance with 
the Ziyadite Princes, but his reign did not long endure, 
and he was succeeded by his son As^ad, in whose days 
the Karmathians or Ismailites acquired dominiou over the 
greater part of Yaman. Al-Janadi here proceeds with his 
account of their concjuests and of the subjection of As'ad to 
'Aly ibu al-FadI, which is included iu this volume. 

The statement that Muhammad ibn Ya'fur was assassi- 
nated by his son Ibrahim is not contained in Khazraji's ver- 
sion of the history of that period (fol. 29). His account, 
which at this particular point, differs materially from thac 
supplied by al-Janadi, is to the following effect : — 

Ibrahim, he says, continued to administer the affairs of the 
kingdom after his father's return from Mecca. A rebellion 
broke out at Sau^a some time after a.h, 270, and the in- 
surgents offered supreme authority to Ja'far ibn Ahmad 
(ibn Ibrahim ?) al-Manakhi. Eventually the entire family 
of the Banu Ya'fur were driven out of the city, and 
Muhammad ibn Ya'fur was shortly afterwards killed at 
Shibam. He was succeeded, not by Ibrahim, but by 
a nephew, 'Abd al-Kadir, son of Ahmad ibn Ya'fur, a 
circumstance that may perhaps be accounted for by the 
charge made against Ibrahim of being the assassin of 
his father. 'Abd al-Kadir retained power for only a few 
days. A governor, 'Aly ibn Husayn Juftam, arrived from 
Baghdad in Safar 279, the next month after that in which, 
according to Janadi, Muhammad lost his life. Juftam ruled 
until A.H. 282, when he returned to 'Irak. Ibrahim ibn 
Ya'fur now attained absolute sovereignty, but his reign did 

* The writer quoted by Janadi is perhaps the grandson of 'Abd 
ar-Kahmfm ibn al-Janzi, namely, Abu '1-Muzaffar Yiisuf ilni 
Kizuglili, generally known as Sibt ibu al-Jauzi. He was author 
of a history, Mirat az-Zamdrif which the author of the Kashf az- 
Zunun says consisted of forty volumes. A small portion of the 
work exists iu the Library of the British Museum. 

f Janadi, fol. 29 rev. 

Q 



2 26 Notes. NOTE 8. 

not loDg endure. He died and was succeeded by his son 
As'ad. 

In A.H. 288, San'ji was conquered by the Eassite Imam 
al-Hady (see Tabari, iii. p. 2201 and Ibu al-Athir, vii. 
p. 352). He imprisoned the chief members of the family of 
Ya'fur, but they were released and escaped to Shibfim,* 
where As'ad's authority over his followers was maintained 
until he was able to compel the Imam to abandon San'a. 
The city was finally conquered by the Karmathians, in 
A.H. 299 accordingly to both al-Janadi and al-Khazraji.f 

Upon the death of 'Aly ibn al-Fadl the Karmathian, in 
A.H. 303, As'ad speedily re- established his authority in 
Yaman, and it endured until his death in A.H. 332, the 
year ia which al-Mas'udi commenced writing* his tioldoi 
Meadowfi, in which he describes in glowing terms the wealth 
and power of the Himyarite Prince. J 

Ibn Khaldun says (supra, p. 141) that As'ad was succeeded 
by a brother named Muhammad, but after Assad's death, 
the Banu Ya'fur never again recovered the brilliant posi- 
tion to which he had raised the family. The ensuing twelve 
years were occupied in the suppression of repeated attempts 
at rebellion, accompanied by incessant strife between the 
various members of the family. 

In A.H. 3-15, the Eassite Imiim of Sa'dah, al-Mukhtar, son 
of an-Nasir Ahmad sou of al-Hadi, acquired possession of 
Sau'a, but before the end of the year, he was assassinated 
by a powerful Hamdanite chief, known by the name of 
Pahhak.§ A freedman of the Banu Ya'fur, 'Aly ibn 
Wardan, supported by Dahhak, was recognized as Prince 
of San'a. He was barely able to withstand the opposition 
of the Khaulanites, led by al-Asmar Yusuf ibn Abi '1-Futuh, 

* Shibam-Akyan ? See Note 11. 

■]• See j^ote 138. According to the Hadu'ik, al-Hadi acquired 
possession of San'a in 297, and appointed his son over it as 
Governor. The Imam died, as will be seen (Note 127), in 
A.H. 298. 

The particulars that follow hereabove are for the most part 
taken from Dayba' (seventh chapter), that is to say therefore, 
from Khazraji at second hand. 

\ Yol. ii. p. 55, of Earbier de Meynard's printed text and trans- 
lation. 

§ Al-Kasim, surnamed al-Mukhtar, is mentioned by the Zayd- 
ite historians, but they do not reckon him among the Imams, nor 
do they say that he was assassinated. 



NOTE 8. Notes. 



227 



and he died in a.h. 350. He was succeeded by his brother 
Sapur, with whom Dahhak continued in alliance. In the 
following year they made an unsuccessful attack upon the 
Khaulanites. They were put to flight, and whilst en- 
deavouring to escape to Dhamar, Sapur was overtaken by 
al-Asinar and killed. 

Dahhiik now tendered submission to the Prince of Zabid, 
Abu M-Hasan (Abu '1-Jaysh ?) ibn Ziyad. Al-Asmar the 
Khaulanite, on the other hand, offered the throne to the Amir 
'Abd Allah ibn Kahtan (grand-nephew of As'ad ibn Ya'fur), 
by whom the offer was accepted (a.h. 352). He entered 
San'a, whence Dahhak hurriedly fled. Next followed a 
series of struggles between the contending parties, in which 
a Rassite Imam, Yusuf son of Yahya son of an-Nasir 
Ahmad, took a prominent part, with the result of his 
being for a time recognized as sovereign Prince of the city 
and province.* 'Abd Allah succeeded, however, in re- 
covering his authority, and he enjoyed a long but disturbed 
reign. In a.h. 879 he was able to invade Tihamali at the 
head of an arm}'-, with which he attacked and utterly de- 
feated '' Ibn Ziyad." f Zabid was taken and sacked, and 
'Abd Allah, having abolished the Abbasside Khuthah 
throughout his dominions, proclaimed the supremacy of the 
Egyptian Fatimites.J He died in a.h. 387 and was suc- 
ceeded by his son As'ad. But the fortunes of the Banu 
Ya'fur, as one of the great ruling families of Yaman, were 
now at an end. The last vestige of their authority in the 
city of San'a disappeared. Their condition became at best 
that of obscure and petty chiefs, and we are henceforward 
left in ignorance even of their names. We find mention of 
them, however, so late as a.h. 679, when we read in 
Khazraji's 'JJkud (fol. 115 obv.) as well as in Ibn Hatim 

* The name of the Imam Yusuf son of Yahya is mentioiied by 
the Zaj'dite writers, but I can find no account of his career. The 
author of the Jmoaliir gives him the title of Dfi'y, and simply says 
that he was contemporary Avith al-Mansiir al-Kfisim. The latter 
was surnamed al-'Ayani, after the name of the place in which he 
proclaimed himself in A h. 389. 

f Husayn ibn Salamah, we have been told, was regent from 
A.n. 372 to 402. 

I The Fatimite Khalifah al-'Aziz reigned from A. 11. 365 to 386. 
It deserves perhaps to be here borne in mind that 'Abd Allah 
was, through liis mother, grandson of lim Fadl the Karinathian. 
{ISiqira, p. 207.) 

Q 2 



2 28 Notes, NOTE 8. 

(fol. 105 obv.), that the Rasfilite Saltan of Yaman regaitipcl 
possession of the fortress of Kaukaban from the Bana 
Hawwal. 

San 'a, until its conquest by *Aly the Sulayhite, became 
the scene of perpetual strife, not only between the rival 
tribes of Hamdan and Khaulau, but also between various 
pretenders to the dignity of Imam. In 389, the Imam 
al-Mansur al-Kilsim son of 'Aly appeared from the country 
of the Banu Khath'am. AVitli the assistance of the Ham- 
danites, he drove the Imam Yfisuf son of Yahya fro a 
Sa'dah and placed the city under the command of his son 
Ja'far. He next reached Raydah,* where he received the 
submission of Ja'far son of ad-Dahhak and of the people of 
al-l^aun. He thence despatched to San'il a Zaydite Sharif, 
named al-Kasim ibn llusayn, a descendant of the Imam 
Zayd son of 'Aly Zayn al-'Abidin, and the Zaydite sectaries 
readily submitted to his authority. f 

As'ad son of 'Abd Allah the Ya'furite had established 
his residence at Kahlan, and he recognized the supremacy 
of the Imam al-Kasini.J But ere long the Zaydite Sharif 
renounced his allegiance to al-Manslr al-Kasim ibn 'Aly, 
and declared himself in favour of the authority of the 
Imam Yusuf sou of Yahya. The Imam al-Kasim died iu 
A.H. 393. Sau'a became the scene of prolonged strife, a 
prey to contending factions of rival Imilms and Arab 
families, among which Hamdanites and Khaulanites played 
a prominent part, but none able to establish a settled or 
permanent government. In a.h. 401, llusayn son of al- 
Kasim declared himself, as has been done by so many pre- 
tenders, both before and since his time, to be the Mahdj/, 
whose coming, according to an old tradition, was foretold 
by the Prophet. He obtained a large following among 
the Himyarites and Hamdanites, who abandoned the cause 
of the Zaydite Sharif. The latter was driven out of San'a. 

* Raydah was a town of considerable importance, in tlie dis- 
trict of al-Baun. 

f I find no mention elsewhere of this " Zaydite Sharif." 
J I have mentioned {stipra, p. 171 footnote) that Dr. Glaser 
has Kohlfm on his map, north-east of Hajjah, probably the old 
fortress of the Banu Ya'fur. Yakut says that the Yanianites 
pronounce the name Kuhlan, but he calls the place a Mikhluf. 
Hamdani mentions it as the name of a totally different place, m 
the neighbourhood, it would appear, of Yarim or Dhu Ru'ayn. 
Kiddan, according to the Kamus, was the name of an Arab tribe. 



NOTE S. Notes. 229 

He was pursued, overtaken, and killed in a.h. 403. But in 
the following year, the Mahdy was himself expelled from 
the city, and lost his life near Dhu Bin, in the course of an 
attack by«the Hamdanites, from among whom a chief of 
the family of Dahhak had been called to the throne by the 
citizens. The Mahdy had not yet attained the age of 
thirty years, and long afterwards his adherents, it is said, 
believed him to be living. In a.h. 413, the Sharif Ja'far, 
brother of Husayu the Mahdy, arrived from Sa'dah on the 
invitation of the Hamdanites and Himyarites, the former of 
whom, afier the death of Husayn, exercised intermittent 
authority over San^a. In 418, a new and unknown pre- 
tender appeared at Ma'rib, who proclaimed himself Imam, 
under the title of al-Mu'ld li-din Illah (He who brings the 
people back to the religion of God), He succeeded in 
making himself master of San'a,* but was killed in 421, 
during which and the following year, severe famine prevailed 
throughout Yaman. In 422 the Imamate was claimed by 
Abu Hashim al- Hasan sen of 'Abd ar-Rahman, who was 
accompanied by his son Hamzah, from whom the Hamzite 
kSharifs derive their distinctive appellation.f He possessed 
himself of San'a, from which Ibn Abi Hashid escaped, whilst 
Mansur ibn Abi '1-Futiih tendered his submission. Abu 
Hashim's authority endureduntil a.h. 429, when he was driven 
i orth by the Hamdanites. On their invitation, after an interval 
of two years, Ja'far son of al-Mansiir al-Kasim I'e-established 
his rule over the city. The next seven years were occupied 
in conflicts, during the course of which Abu Hashim, on the 
invitation of Ibn Abi Hashid retui-ned and recovered posses- 
sion of San'a for a brief period. Meanwhile a new pretender 
to the Imamate, named Abu ^1-Fath Nasir the Daylamite, 
had appeared. Aided by the Hamdanites, he captured and 
plundered Sa'dah, and next made himself master of San'a. J 

* I can find no trace of this personage in the Zaydite historians. 

t I do not find the date of Abu Hashirn's death. His son 
Hamzah was killed in a.h. 459 fighting the troops of 'Alj the 
Sulayhite. 

X An-ISTasir Abu '1-Fath the Daylamite was a descendant of 
Zayd son of Hasan (see the genealogical table added to Note 107). 
He arrived in Yaman, from Persia, between a.h. 430 and 440, and 
is said to have been killed by 'Aly the Sulayhite shortly after 
440, 

Ja'far son of Man.sur al-Kasim is likewise stated to have made 
war upon the troojts of as-^utayhi (see infra, Xute 21)), 



230 Notes. NOTE 8. 

His supremacy was for a time recognized by Ja'far sou of 
the Imam al-Kasim, aud lie maiutaiued his authority on a 
comparatively secure basis, until he was in his turn driven 
forth from the city by Ja'far and by Ibn Abi Ilashid the 
Kliaulauite. Yahya ibn Abi llfishid, to whom the writer 
gives the title of Sultan, died at the commencement of 
A.H. 440. His son was invited by the people to succeed him 
and received oaths of allegiance from the Haradauites. 
San'a was conquered (about a.h. 453) by 'Aly the Sulayhite, 
whose first manifestation in Yaman, adds the writer, dates 
i'l'om the night of Monday, third of the month of Jaraiidi 
'1-Akhir of the year 439 (429 ?), the uiglit of the conjunction 
of the planet Jupiter, 

We have seen {.mpra, p. 41) that when al-Mukarrani 
Ahmad son of 'Aly transferred the seat of the Sulayhite 
dominion to Dhu Jiblah in 480, he appointed over San'a 
'Imriin ibn al-Fadl the Yaraite. Upon the death, in 
A.H. 402, of Saba ibn Ahmad, the city and adjoining country 
was formed into an independent Principality, under Sultan 
Hatim ibn al-Ghashim, also a meml er of the tribe of 
Hamdan (see Note 42). He died in a.h. 502 and was suc- 
ceeded by his two sons, by 'Abd Allah, who died of poison 
after a reign of two years, and then by Ma'n ibn Hfitim, 
who was deposed in a.h. 510. 

Another Hamdanite family reigned until a.h. 533, when 
Hamid ad-DauIah Hiitim son of Ahmad son of 'Iraran son 
of al-Fadl — grandson, therefore, of the governor appointed 
by al-Mukarram the Sulayhite — was invited by the tribe to 
assume the crown.* 

He was attacked in a.h. 545 by the Zaydite Imam al- 
Matawakkil Ahmad son of Sulaymiin, against whom, how- 
ever, he succeeded eventually in defending himself. Hatim 
died in a.h. 556, and was succeeded by his son 'Aly, sur- 
named al- Wahid. 'Aly took the leading part in an alliance, 
formed in the early part of a.h. 569, against 'Abd an-Naby 
son of 'Aly ibn Mahdy (see Note 101), and he was the 
reigning Prince of San'a when, six months after his 

* It will be seen that, according to the above, Ibn Khaldun's 
statement (sMj:»ra, p. 148), to the effect that 'Imran ibn al-Fadl 
became independent at San'a and transmitted the crown to his 
descendants, is erroneous. 

The historian Ibn Hatim was a descendant of Hamid ad- 
Daulah. 



NOTES 9, 10. Notes. 231 

campaign against the Malidyites, Yaman was invaded and 
conquered by Turan Shah the Ayyubite and brother of 
Saladin. 

Muhammad son of Ahmad son of 'Imran, mentioned at 
p. 60, must have been brother of Sultan Hamid ad-Daulah 
Hatim. 

Note 9 to p. 6. — Wadi Bayhan is marked on Walker's 
map of Arabia, south-west of Ma'rib and north-east of 
Dhamar, at about the same distance from either. 

Nashwan ibn Sa'id, who accordiug to Ibn Khaldun {supra, 
p. 173), was ruler or chief of Bayhan, wrote the Kasldat 
al-Himyarlijah, publislied some five and twenty years 
ago at Vienna, by Baron von Kremer, with a translation 
into German. 

A description of Najran and Jurash,with a sketch of 
their early history, are given by Ibn Khaldiin [supra, 
p. 182). 

Note 10 to p. 6. — There is evidently an omission here, as 
I have indicated in the translation. 

As to the descriptions of San'a^ of al-Mudhaykhirah and 
of Shibam that follow, they are copied almost verbatim 
from Ibn Haukal.* The latter borrowed them from al- 
Istakhri^t and transferred the passages to his own book, 
those especially relating to San'a and to al-Mudhaykhirah, 
with such slight alteration, that it is only just possible to 
pronounce with some degree of certainty, that Ibn HaukaFs 
Geography was the authority to which 'Ouiarah had re- 
course. The statement that San'a stands on tbe equator is 
made by Ibn Haukal, but is not to be found in al-Istakhri. 
Yakut quotes the description of San'a as given by our 
author, but the latter's name is printed 'Iinrun ibn Abi '1- 
Hasan instead of 'Omarah. 

The statement that follows in our text, to the effect 
that the mountain of Mudhaykhirah was twenty parasangs 
or sixty miles in height, appears in both I^takhri aud Ibn 
Haukal. I do not know how it can be explained. Even 
if we read circuit for height, it would be a manifest exag- 
geration. 

* de Goeje's ed. p. 31. 

t Id. p. 24. Istakhri seems to have borrowed his account of 
the climate of Sau'u from al-Hamdfini. See Miiller's edition, 
p. 195, 1. 24. 



2Z2 Notes, NOTE 11. 



J 



Note 11 to p, 6. — It must be through a corruption of 
the text that 'Oinarah is made to speak of Ibn Fadl as 
" Sheykh of Lfi^nh/' a designation which could ouly be pro- 
perly given to his colleague and eventual rival Ibn llaushab 
or Mansur al-Yaman. I have omitted in my translation, 
the conjunction that appears in the MS., icY j sJa, which 
reduces somewhat the difficulty of making seuse of the 
passage. It seems to be intended to signify that the town 
of Adeu-La'ah was in the neighbourhood of al-Mudhay- 
khirah. That this is iucori'ect is shown with sufficient clear- 
ness by 'Omarah himself, when he tells us that Mudhay- 
khirah stood in the province of Ja'far (see Note G). 

Yakut has the following passage (vol. iii. p. (322) s.v. 
'Aden : h^ ^4-?^^ A^ '^*^ J^' [j* jr^ Jr* ^J ^-^ ^'^^ ^J^ S^ 
icV ^jsc- l^ Jlii) iflJal proceeding as in our text down to the 
words ^J*i\J aojLJl to which, however, he adds uor^' J'*^- 
Here we have probably the origin of the statement that al- 
Mudhaykhirah stood on Mount Sabir, and indeed other 
quotations to be found in Yakut, as well as the above, lead 
to the suspicion that his MS. of 'Omarah was by no means 
perfect. 

Al-Mukaddasi mentions al-Mudhaykhirahin his enumera- 
tion of towns in Yaman (p. 5-3 and p. 70), along Avith Janad, 
Dhamar, Yahsib (or Yahdib), Khaulan, Sahul, etc. Hani- 
dani mentions the place only twice in his Geography, but he 
tells us (p. 68, 1. 3 sqq.) that it was situated in the country 
of Dhu '1-Kala', along with ath-Thujjah (which, it may be 
inferred (p. 75, 1. 23), stood at the foot of Ta'kar), and to- 
gether with Ta'kar itself, Sahiil, Kaymah, etc. At p. lUO 
(1. 10 sqq.) he tells us that al-Mudhaykhirah, Thauman (see 
yujira, p. 207), the mountain of lia'dan, also Kaymah, etc., 
were in the district of Sahul. 

Ibn Khalduu, as will be seen, distinctly says that Mu- 

dhaykhirah and 'Aden-La'ah were close to one another 

{^v/pra, p. 173), misled probably by YakCit or by Ibn Sa'id, 

from whom, as I have already had occasion to say, he seems 

to have borrowed freely. 

I may here add ttiat Ibn Khaldun commits a similar 
error when he speaks (sujjra, p. 168) of Aden-Abyan as a 
separate and distant place from the well-known seaport ot 
Aden. They are in fact one and the same.* 

The town of 'Aden-La'ah stood probably on or close to 



* 



Sec, i7iter alia, al-Mukaddasi, p. 85. 



NOTE 11. Notes. 233 

the banks of tlie WaJi La^ah, an important affluent of the 
Wadi Maur, one that retains its name to the present day. A 
similarity of name, taken by itself, must, it is true, count for 
little and may, indeed, at times be very misleading.* But 
other evidence is not wanting. Al-Hamdaui tell us, p. 69, 
1. 1) that La'ah was situated in the Sarat or mountain-range 
of al-Masaui'. At p. 112, he tells us that La'ah marked the 
beginning of the country of Hashid, north-west of San'a. 
Otlier passages from the same author ai'e to the same effect 
(p. 10(3,1. 23; 113,1.19; 193,1.12). We are distinctly told, 
moreover {ntpra, pp. 194, 195, etc.), that 'AdenLa'ah was 
in the neighbourhood of Hajjah and of Jabal Maswar, both 
which will be found on Dr. Glaser's map. Al-Janadi tells 
us (fol. 6 obv.) that 'Aden-La'ah, " one of the towns of Hajjah 
in which Mansur al-Yaraan proclaimed the 'Obaydite supre- 
macy," had long been in ruins. 

Al-Uamdaui mentions another important mountain in 
the Masani' range, Jahdl Tukhla (pp. 69 and 190 sqq.). In 
his detailed account of the mountain, of the roads that 
wind round it^ its villages and strongholds, the produc- 
tiveness of its soil, its healthy climate, its freedom from 
noxious animals and insects, our author writes in a glowing 
style, by no means usual with him. 

Though not attaining the elevation of the highest sum- 
mits of the Masani', it overlooks, he tells us, a wide extent 
of country. On the south, Bura*, Haraz and other moun- 
lains are distinctly visible. On the west, the view extends 
from the centre of the country of the Hakamites to Mah- 
jam, and the white stream of the "W'adi Maur is seen 
glistening through the haze that rests upon the plains of 
Tihamah. Farther away is spread the sapphire -tinted sea, 
and, in the extreme distance, those endowed with superior 
powers of vision may distinguish the Farasan Islands. 
On the east the view is obstructed by the higher range of 
the Masani^ 

Jahal Baijt Fd'ish, he tells us, is the name of one of the 
highest summits of Mount Tukhla. 

I feel somewhat at a loss to identify the mountain on the 

* Raynaud, in his translation of Abu '1-Fada's Geography, has 
thus been misled into correcting a supposed error of his author. 
He adds a footnote to his translation, in Avhich he declares that 
Sliarjali was nut a seaport. It is true that Niebuhr mentions an 
iidand village named Sharjah, south of Hays. 



2 34 Notes. NOTES 12, 13. 

map published by Dr. Glaser in the " Mittheilungen," but he 
mentions its name, and says that it stands due west of Jabul 
Mas war. 

'Omarah, still followins;' Ibn Haukal and al-TstMkhri, pro- 
ceeds (supra, Y). 7) with an account of Shibrim. Besides one 
in Hadramaut, there were two places in Yamau of that 
name. One stood on the mountains of Haraz, situated be- 
tween Wildi Saham and Wadi Surdud (Hamdani, p. 105). 
The other, which Hamdfmi calls Shibfun Akyan, stood close 
to Kaukabfin, at the foot of the mountain of Dhukhfir, 
whence the river Surdud has its source {ib. p. 106-7). Both 
these places are marked upon Dr. Glaser's map. 

The province of Akyan, accordiu*';' to Hamdani, belonged 
to the Hawwfilis or Banu Ya'fur. He adds that the coun- 
try was the scene of the contests, whereby Ya'fur ibn 'Abd 
ar-Rahman, in the days of al-Mu'tasim, of al-Wathik, and 
of al-Mutawakkil, raised himself to po\ver. 

Yakut, in his Mu^htarik, mentions still another place 
named Shibam, three parasangs north-east of San'a, but this, 
I think, requires confirmation. 

Shibam in Hadramaut was, says Hamdfmi, the chief city 
of the province. It had thirty mosques, but half the town 
was in his day in ruins. Its original name, he adds, was 
Shibat (pp. 80, 1. 25; 87,1. 25). 

Note 1 2 to p. 8. — The " statement of revenue " and the 
particulars that follow are simply borrowed, with some 
slight exaggeration, from Ibn Haukal (De Goeje's ed. 
p. 20), and the same remark applies to the information 
supplied {i<upra, pp. 5 and 7) respecting As'ad ibn Ya'fur 
and Ibn Tarf . In Ibn Haukal, the distance from Sharjah to 
Aden is stated at twelve, instead of at twenty days' journey. 

The 'Aththariyah dinar, according to al-Mukaddasi 
(p. 99), was two-thirds of a mithkal, the standard or original 
weight of a dinar. It would therefore be equal to about 
seven shillings in gold of modern money. See also Pro- 
fessor de Goeje's glossary to Ibn Haukal and al-Mukaddasi, 
p. 296. 

Ibn Haukal calls the Prince of Hali al-Khazdmi, but 
Miiller's edition of al-Hamdani (p. 120, 1. 12, and 14) gives 
the readins: al-Hirdmi. 



o 



Note 13 to p. 9. — According to Khazraji (p. 78), Muham- 
mad ibn Ziyad died in a.h. 245. His son Ibrahim, he con- 



NOTE 13. ' Notes. 235 

tiiiues, died in a.h. 289, after a reign of tliirty-eight years 
(,s';'c). .Next to Ibrahim followed Ziyad son of Ibrahim, who 
did not long reign and the date of whose death the writer is 
unable to give. Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak succeeded his brother 
Ziyad, and is said to have reigned eighty years. He is 
stated by Khazraji to have died in a.h. 391, for which we 
must read 371, as in our text and in Janadi, This would 
place his accession in a.h. 291, and would give a duration 
of two years to the reign of his brother and predecessor 
Ziyad. The latter may have been the prince who is re- 
ported to have been killed when Zabid was captured and 
looted by theKarmathians under 'Aly ibn Fadl {supra, p. 200); 
but as the capture of Zabid must have occurred after a.h. 292, 
when Ibn Fadl conquered Mudhaykhirah, it may with 
at least equal plausibility be conjectured that it was really 
Abu '1-Jaysh who was attacked, and that he did not lose his 
life. But how, on the other hand, are we to believe that 
Abu ^1-Jaysh, at the end of a reign of eighty years, left an 
infant son to succeed him ? (See Note 98.) 

Al-Mas'iidi says (vol. iii. p. 35) that in his day (a.h. 332 
or shortly after) the Prince of Zabid was Ibrahim ibn 
Ziyad, which adds to our difficulties. The Prince, he 
further tells us, bore the surname fiahih al-Harmali, which 
I have nowhere else met with. 

A valuable date is supplied by a dinar, published by Mr. 
S. Lane-Poole in the Journal of the Numismatic Society 
(1887, part iv.). The coin purports to have been struck 
by Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak, at Zabid, in a.h. 346, and it bears 
the name of the 'Abbasside Khalifah al-Muti' (a.h. 334-363). 

Of the last princes of the dynasty we are told next to 
nothing, and even their names are doubtful. That of the 
infant successor of Abu '1-Jaysh was, according to our text, 
either 'Abd Allah, or Ziyad. According to al-Janadi and 
Khazraji, it was 'Abd Allah, or Ziyad, or Ibrahim. After 
the death, in a.h. 402, of Husaynibn Salamah, who we are 
told, ruled the country as VVazir for about thirty years, we 
hud another child on the throne, the last of his race, to 
whom al-Janadi gives the name 'Abd Allah. In our text 
he is called 'Abd Allah at p. 13 and Ibrahim at p. 15. He 
was assassinated in a.h. 409. 

Al-Janadi (fol. 184 rev.) says it may clearly bo shown, 
that the Banu Ziyad held supreme rule for one hundred and 
sixty-eight years, from a.h. 203 to 371. From that date 
until the death of the last prince in 409, they reigned, he 



236 Notes. NOTE 14. 

continues, as titular sovereigns, for thirty- eight years. 
Next followed a struggle between Naiah and Auis, which 
endured for three years, until 412, when Najah became 
supreme ruler. He and his descendants and their wazirs, 
adds al-Janadi, ruled for 145 years, including the three 
years of war between NajJih and Anis, that is to say, from 
409 to 554, when Zabid was captured by Ibu Mahdy. 

The oi'iginal passage of which the above is the substance, 
will be found in Note 98. In the MSS. both of al-Janadi 
and Khazraji, the year 407 is given as the date at which the 
Ziyadite dynasty came to an end, and so it is also to 
be found in Dayba' and in al-Ahdal. Al-Janadi's own 
words, however, show conclusively that a.h. 409, as in our 
text, is the correct date.* It must be remarked that 
'Omarah tells us Zabid was founded in ah. 204, the year in 
which the Imam ash-Shafi' died. Al-Janadi (fol. 29 obv.) 
gives the same date for the conquest of Tihamah and for 
the foundation of the city, stating, however, likewise, that 
Ibn Ziyad arrived in a.h. 203. 

The i'reedman of Abu '1-Jaysh, Rushd, the master of 
Husayn ibn Salamah, is also so styled by al-Janadi and by 
Ibn Khallikiin. Al-Khazraji and Ibn Khaldun give him 
the name of Rashid. 

The assassin of the last Piince of the Ziyadite dynasty is 
called in our text Nafis, y^^^^ and so also in Khazraji. Ibn 
Khallikan and Ibn Khaldun give him the name of Kays, 
,__^J ; Al-Janadi that of Anis, ^^■^\ . He specifies the ortho- 
graphy and vocalization of the name and elsewhere returns 
to the point (see Note (J5). He is followed by al-Ahdal 
(p. 264 obv.), but the latter adds that other writers call him 
Nafis. 

Note 14 to p. 10. — Mu'adh ibn Jabal, of the tribe of 
Khazraj, was sent to Yaman by the Prophet, and remained 
there until the latter's death. He himself died at 'Amwas 
(Emmaus) in a.h. 18. His life is given by Ibn al-Athirin 
his biographies of the Sahabis, the ZZstZ al-Glidhah, "the 
Lions of the Jungle " (Bui. ed. vol. iv. p. 377). It contains 
the following passage, which tends to bear out a sugges- 
tion I have elsewhere had occasion to offer (Journal of the 

* All Arabic students are aware how eas-ily the words signify- 
ing seven and riine may be mistaken for one another, and how fre- 
quently the mistake occurs. 



NOTE 15 Notes 237 

R. A. S. vol. xiv. p. 240), that tlie word al-Kayi/F/m, iu the 
Ayat al-Kursy, ought in accordance with the definition of 
the commentators, to be rendered the Watchful, or the 
Vigilant. 

l^J^a. dAic j_jJ Jxs-l pftUl t-ft„'S^ ^Ul ^ j^>^a J tja? i.ii ^^ll, ^1 ^.jj 

"When MuTidh devoted a night to watchfulness and prayer, he 
was in the habit of using the following words : — 

" God, the eyes of men are closed in sleep, the stars are 
sinking into the mighty deep, whilst Thou, the Living, Thy 
never-ending watch dost keep. God, my yearnings for heaven 
have been tardy, my strivings to escape the hres of hell 
have been weak. God, grant unto me true guidance, in Thy 
keeping, which Thou wilt restore to me on the day of resurrection. 
And verily, thou wilt not fail in Thy promises." 

Note 15 to p. 11. — Sharjah and 'Aththar were two 
important seaports on the coast of Northern Yaman. I 
am not able to identify their precise position, but careful 
comparison of the information supplied by various writers 
renders it possible to determine their sites approximative! y, 
pending the time when further inquiry, or perhaps investi- 
gation on the spot, may enable the point to be settled with 
absolute precision. 

Ibn Butiitah landed at Sharjah on his way down the 
Red Sea, in the fourteenth century. He describes it as a 
place occupied by merchants of Sa'dah. Then he sailed to 
the New Haven,* where, however, he did not land, and then 
on to al-Ahwab. 

Al-Hamdani, in describing the coast of Yaman, proceed- 
ing from south to north (p. 52), next after Kamartlu men- 

* The New Haven, Marsa T-Hadith, is doubtless either Luhayy or 
Hudaydah, The earliest mention I have met with of the former 
is in l)ayba"s account of the invasion and conquest of Yaman by 
the forces of the Egyptian Sultan al-Ghuri. The army, composed of 
Circassians, Kurds and other Asiatics, landed in the Island of 
Kamaran in Dhu '1-Ka'dah a.h. 921 (December, 1515). Tiieir first 
operations were directed against the seaporttownof Jadldah (Huday- 
dah 1), which was looted and destroyed. The Governor of Luhayy 
tendered his submission and actively assisted the invading aimy 
in its advance into the interior. Zabid was taken in Jamad Awwal, 
922. The conquest of the country was completed hi Rabi Awwal 



238 Notes. NOTE 15. 

tions 'TIfaynah. At p. 120, 1. 1, we read 'Tfnah instead of 
the diminutive form 'Utaynah, and tlie author says that it 
and al-Hirdah are the ports of al-Mahjam. Al-Mukaddasi 
(p. 53) writes 'Itnah. 

Next to 'Utaynah, Hamdani mentions Hirdah, then 
Muufahik Jabir, a dangerous headland, where (violent) 
winds are frequent. Its limits extend to Sharjah, the sea- 
port of the country ot the Banu Hakam. Next Bdhat 
Jdzdn and on to 'Atldhar. At the headland of 'Atlithar the 
sea, he says, is remarkable for its heavy waves. See also 
p. 188, where, as well as at p. 120, the author mentions 
Wadi Harad among other places in the country of the 
l.Iakamites. 

Al-Ahdal (fol. 5 obv.) says that Sharjah is the port of 
Harad, SdJiil Hornd, and Khazraji gives it the name of 
Sharjat Harad, which practically conveys the same mean- 
ing. 

Ibn Hatim tells us (fol. 2 obv., see Note 101), that 
Ilarad was also c ailed Ma/iall Aid Turdb. I find " HaiTad " 
marked upon Walker's and other modern maps of Arabia. 
Its situation corresponds with the indications given by 
the Arab writers, and I think we may conclude that the 
port of Sharjah stood at or not far from the spot, which on 
the Admiralty chart bears the name of lias Mli sahib, 
about thirty- three miles north of Luhayy, or it may be 
somewhat farther south. It is hardly necessary to say that 
the village of the name of Sharjah, marked on Niebuhr's 
and subsequent maps south of Zabid, is an entirely differ- 
ent place. I have met with no mention of it in any of the 
Arab writers L have had occasion to consult. 

of the following year, when the last Sultjin of Yaman, defeated 
and flying before the invader, was killed near San 'a. 

It is a somewhat remarkable circumstance that whilst an 
Egyptian army was occupied in subjugating Yaman, the Turks 
under Sultan Selim were engaged in the conquest of Egypt, and 
Tuman-Bay, the last Mamiiik Sultan, was hanged by order of 
Selim at Cairo, a few days before the Sultan of Yaman was 
killed. 

The Egyptian army in Yaman comprised, according to Dayba', 
a formidable body of lOOO men armed with matchlocks, lent to al- 
Ghuri by Sultan Selim. These, however, had been supplied, not 
for purposes of conquest, but to assist the Egyptians in resisting 
the Franks, who had made their appearance in the southern seas, 
and were intercepting the road to India. 



NOTE 16. Notes. 239 

As to 'Aththar, according to Haradani as quoted above, 
it stood north of Bahdt Jdzdn, which may be presumed to 
be the same as Gizan of the Admiralty chart. At p. 54 
he calls the place 'Athr, biit the Arabs, he continues, 
generally pronounce the name 'Aththar. It is, he says, 
the port of Baysh (the same perhaps as Bish of modern 
maps), 'Ihvad, he adds, is a village in the plains of 'Aththar, 
both which places, he continues, are well-known haunts of 
lions. (See also p. 127, 1. 16.) " Etwid '^ is mentioned on 
the Admiralty chart. Al-Ahdal (fol. 5 obv.) says that 
'Athr (sic) was a village situated between Hali and Harad, 
aud, he adds, has loug been in ruins. Opposite it, he con- 
tinues, is an island that bears its name. Mukaddasi, who I 
need hardly remind the reader writes at a very much earlier 
date, calls 'Aththar (sic) a large and well-known city. At 
Baysh, where the Sultan or chief resides, the air, he says, 
is healthier and the water purer. 

The only map upon which I have found 'Aththar to be 
marked, is a Spanish sixteenth century map of the world, 
of which a copy exists in the India Office Library. 

Note 16 to p. 12. — Of the numerous other places described 
as standing on the pilgrim roads from Yaman, besides those 
referred to in the preceding notes, there are several which 
I am not able to identify. 

DIuH al-Khayf stands in Khazraji (fol. 60) DhJit al-Hubayt 
or al-Khubayt. Mauza' must surely be the " emporium " 
marked on Plolemy^s map, but it is somewhat puzzling to 
find it described by our author as an inland town. Ibn al- 
Mujjiwir, however, mentions it [apud Sprenger, p. 149) 
as a seaport south of As-Suhari, al-Khauhah and Maushij 
(travelling from north to south). Al-Hamdani mentions 
the town, but is not clear as to its precise position. 
Al-Jadun is written in Khazraji al-Hadiru. Ad-Dijd' is 
somewhat vaguely described by Yakut as a town near 
Zabid, Both al-Jaththah and 'Irk an-Naaham are omitted 

by Khazraji, but al-Jatldh cJ^ is mentioned in the Mara- 
sid as a village in Yaman. Al-Wadiydni is mentioned by 
Yakut as an important town in the province of Zabid, from 
which a large revenue is collected ; but it will be observed 
that 'Omarah invariably speaks of it as north of Mahjam 
and Maur. Jizdn might be taken to be the same as Gizan 
or Bdhat Jdzdn mentioned in the preceding note, but it is 



240 Notes. NOTE 10. 

not given as a seaport, whicli the latter is. In Kliazraji the 
name is written HayrJia, and Jizcin may perhaps be better 
identified with HayrJln, which is mentioned by HaradJliii 
(p. 120) alonof with Wddi Ta'xhar, as a town in the country 
of the Bann Hakam. Al-Mumid is called by Kliazraji o.s-- 
8(Vid, and the name i'^ so written in al-Hamdrmi (p. 119, 
1. 26). Al-Mahni and liiydh (?) are given by Khazraji, but I 
Lave nowhere else met wiHi any mention of them. Instead 
of al-Llth, Khazraji lias alHahf (Khabt?), but al-Llth is men- 
tioned by Ibn Khurdadhbah (p. 148) and by Hamdani (p. 120, 
1. 16). Al-Baydd and Wddi Eul-Jimah (?) by the same writer 
in the next line. Kliazraji writes Blr al-Baydd instead of 
al-I5ay(la, but Ibn al-Mujasvir, according to Sprensfer, gives 
it the ^ame name as in our MS. Kliazraji has B'lr Adam 
instead of Blrdd. We mny perhaps read Ai/darn, the name 
given by Ibn al-Mujawir (Sprenger, p. 131.) The names of 
the first stations ti-avelling southward from Mecca, as given 
by him, are as follows : — 

From ]\[ecca to al-Karhi, tiien to al-Baydd, then to Ayddm. 
Next to WCidi Muhram (Yalamlam ?) where the Yamauite pilgrims 
assume the Ihrdm. 

Sahalihat al-Gliurdh is so given by Khazraji. Ihn al- 
3Jiijdwir (Sprenger, p. 150) mentions a place al-Baydd in 
the desert or Kd' of Sabakhat al-Ghurab, near Aden, which 
I do not know how to account for. Al-Karin is men- 
tioned by al-Mukaddasi, as standing between Mecca and 
Juddah, Na'md.n, or A'a'maii al-Ardk, is described by Yakut 
and is also mentioned by Ibn al-Mujfiwir (Sprenger, p. 125). 

The following is Khazraji's version of the road between 
Yalamlam and Mecca: — 

Then the travellers reach Yalamlam, the MiJcdt of the people of 
Yanian (the place where the Yamanite pilgrims assume the garb 
and commence the ceremonies attendant upon the performance of 
pilgrimage). Y'alamlam has a well, constructed by Ibn Salamah. 
Next is Blr (the well of) Adam, which yields an abundant supply 
of drinking water. It is ten fathoms in length (depth) and it is 
five fathoms in width. Then the roads diverge. He whose 
destination is Mecca reaches Bir al-Baydd, a well constructed by 
Ibn Salamah, next al-Karin and then Mecca. 

Of the places on the maritime road, al-Mahhnak is men- 
tioned by Hamdani (p. 188, 1. 14). Mf/tr (?), on the southern 
coast, I was once inclined to think might be the same as 
'Abrah of Hamdani (p. 188, 1. 15) ; but although omitted in 



NOTES 17, 18. Notes. 241 

the MS. of Kliazraji, it is given by Dayba', and it is more- 
over mentioned by Ibn al-Mujtiwir (Sprenger, p. 150), as 
distant three parasangs from 'Arab. Next to Bab al- 
Mandab our MS. has as-Suhari. Hamdcini writes Suhari, 
Ibn al-Majawir {ainul Sprenger, p. 149) gives tbe name as 
in our text, but be places Suhari north of Khauhah, and it 
is so marked on the Admiralty chart. Al-Hirdcih and 
'Itnah, as stated in the preceding note, are mentioned by 
Hamdani as the ports of cd-Mahjam. For al-Mufajjar we 
may perhaps read Hajar (Hamdani, p. 188, Sprenger, 133). 
Buwaymah and Hamidah are referred to by al-Mukaddasi 
(p. 69 and footnote), and the last-mentioned by Hamdani 
(p. 52, 1. 14 and ] 20, 1. 16). 

Hamdani says (p. 51, 13) that Hamidah stood near a 
mountain which he calls Eudummul. The name Kofumhle 
appears on the Admiralty chart, but is given to a small 
island near the coast. See Miiller's Notes, p. 33. 

Note 17 to p. 12. — Niebuhr heard a precisely similar 
anecdote (vol, i. p. 302), with the addition that in order to 
prevent a repetition of so troublesome a miracle, the donor 
of the money ordered the tomb of the royal saint, who takes 
the part of the Prophet in the modern version of the story, 
to be securely walled up. 

Note 18 to p. 15. — MakrTzi, in his Khitat (vol. i. p. 448) 
gives the following description of the Imperial umbrella, 
which was borne on state occasions over the head of the 
Khalifah : — 

The umbrella was composed of twelve segments, each three and 
a third cubits in length and one span (cubit ?) in width at the 
lower end.* The upjjer extremities were extremely narrow. They 
were joined together and fitted round the end of the stem. This 
was a lance-shaft made of ash and enclosed in tubes of gold. The 
uppermost tube, which was close to the head of the shaft, was pro- 
vided with a ledge forming part of itself and projecting to the ex- 
tent of a thumb's width. The extremities of the segments were 
made fast to a golden ring, Avhich was loosely fitted on to the head 
of the shaft, the latter being here reduced in thickness. The ring, 
coming in contact with the ledge, was supported and prevented 

* Makrizi has previously mentioned that the umbrella, as well 
as the Khalifah's robes, was white, the Fatimite colonr. The 
colour of the 'Abbasides, it will be remembered was black, to this 
day that of the covering over the Ka'bah at Mecca. 

R 



242 Ahtes. NOTE 19. 

from slipping down the shaft. The umbrella had square ribs niade 
of Khalanj wood, equal in number to the segments and of the same 
length. The}'' were light in weight and coated with gold. They 
"were fitted with small hooks and there were rings to correspond, 
the hooks and rings fastening into one another. The umbrella 
could be closed and opened after the manner of the folding seg- 
ments of a leathern purse (?). The stem was surmounted by a ball 
the shape of a pomegranate, above which was another similar ball 
of a smaller size. Both were of gold, studded with jewels, con- 
spicuous (by their brilliancy) to the spectator. The umbrella had 
a valance, which encircled the opening and was of correspomling 
material. The volance exceeded a span and a half in depth. Below 
the pomegranate-shaped ball, there was a space of about three 
finger-breadths. Upon the ring, to which the extremities of the 
segments were attached, being placed on the end of the shaft, 
the ball was fitted over it. It was wrapped in a piece of Dahlkite 
cloth of gold,* which was removed by the bearer upon the umbrella 
being delivered to him. 



•o 



NoTK 10 to p. IG.— Al-Janadi states (ful. 182 obv), that 
when the Karmathian dominion came to an end (a.h 304), 
Yaman became subject to three families or dynasties, be- 
tween whom the whole country was divided. I'he Bauu 
Ziyad ruled over Zabid (Tihamah) and Aden. Sa'dah and 
the country ou the north were iu the possession of the 
Ziydite Imiims. Janad as well as the city and province of 
San'a was held by the Banu Ya'fur. 

As'ad ibn Ya'fur appointed the Ilimyarite family, the 
Banu Kurandi, to be governors of the province of Janad. 
AVhen, upon the death of Ibn Salamah in a.h. 402, the 
governors appointed by the Banu Ziyad usurped absolute 
power over their provinces, the Banu Kurandi likewise 
declared their independence. They were deprived of their 
kingdom by 'Aly the Sulayhite, and the deposed prince, 
as will be seen, was one of the chiefs who accompanied 
as-Sulayhi to al-Mahjam, and one of the few whose life was 
spared by Sa'id son of Najah. Some of these fortresses, as is 
stated by Ibn Khaldiin, were restored to the Banu Kurandi 
by al-Mukarram Ahmad son of'Aly, and of these they con- 
tinued in possession until they were deprived of their 
principality by Ibn Mahdy. Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayu 
ibn at-Tubba'y appears to have been the chief of the family 
at the time of its restoration. The part he took in the 

* Dcibik was a small Egyptian town near Tinnis, on an island 
in Lake Menzalah. 



Note 19". Nofcs. 24 



ni 



scheme to which Sa'ld son of Najah fell a victim, is related 
further on, and it may be noticed that he is there styled 
Prince of Sha'ir. 

Al-Hamdani says (p. 54, 1. 21) that the family of 
Kurandi belonged to the Banu Thumamah, descendants 
of Himyar al-Asghar (ancestor of the Banu Ya^fur and 
Banu Auza'). 

The following is al-Khazraji's enumeration of the petty 
dynasties that sprang up in Yaman upon the death of Ibn 
Salamah in a.h. 402, and of the territories and fortresses 
which they appropriated (fol. 83) : — 

The governors of the mountain districts and fortresses took 
possession of that with which they were entrusted. Among others, 
the Hamdanites seized upon San'a, as already mentioned. 

The Banu Ma'n took possession of Aden, of Lahj, of Abyan, of 
Shihr and of Hadramaut. They are not descendents of Ma'n ibn 

• • • •' 

Za'idah the Shaybanite. The Banu Kurandi, a family descended 
from Himyar, possessed themselves of Samadan, an exceedingly 
important fortress, of the strongholds of Sawa, of Dunduwah, of 
Sabir, of Dhakhir and of Ta'kar, a fortress which commands 
janad.* They made themselves masters of (large portions of) 
the provinces of Ja'far, of 'Unnah and of al-Ma'ahr. 'Omarah 
says of the Banu Kurandi that they held brilliant sway over their 
possessions, and were a conquering race of kings. Abu 'Abd 
Allah al-Husayn ibn at-Tubba'y took possession of the fortress of 
Habb, which resembles in strength at-Ta'kar, also of Azzfin, of 
Khadid, of Bayt 'Izz, of the fortresses of Sha'ir, of Abwar (Anwar), 
of ]S\akil, of Sahiil and of Shawafi. 

The Banu Wa'il ibn 'Isa seized upon Wuhazah and upon its 
strongholds, Yaris, Zahran, al-Kha(|ra, Sa'ab and Yafuz. The 
Banu Wa'il are descended from Dhu '1-Kala'. They are an ancient 
race of rulers, but they are a silly folk, who fancy themselves to 
be absolutely the noblest of mankind. Among others of the 
family, was As'ad ibn Wii'il, noted for his generous qualities and 
for the praise of which he was the theme. He was a pious man, 
and upheld the orthodox sect of the Sunnis, above all others. 
He sought the companionship of Kur'an readers and of wor- 
shippers, he held in high honour the practice of frequenting the 



* The name of this fortress, and of that of the same name at 
Aden, is thus given in the Kamus, Ta'kar, and it would appear 
to have been generally so pronounced. But in INI idler's Ham- 
dfini, it is for the most part written Ta'kur, which, or its alternative 
Ta'kir, is perhaps the more correct orthography. 

Al-Janadi tells us (fol. 191 rev.) that the castle of TVkar above 
Dim Jiblah was demolished in a.h. 594 by the Ayyubite Suhfiu 
al-Mu'izz Isma'il. 

R 2 



244 N'otCS. NOTE 19. 

mosques. He venerated the early Companions of the Prophet 
and followed the good examples of those who protected their 
names from insult. He Avas free from all taint of new doctrines. 
He was slain (and died a martyr) in the year 515, and was buried 
in the mosque of al-Ja'ami (al-Ju'fy ?). 

I omit the words that follow, evidently an imperfect 
rendering of the passage in 'Omarah, wherein he speaks 
of the fortresses and territories taken by a family of 
the tribe of Bakil and by that of 'Abd al-Wahid. 

(i^ J 'JJI ^J.^ ^ J Ja^ ^ ^;^•^ ja J J^S^\ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

^^ J ^^' L5i i:r» X^ Ji'^ J-'. J jy^ 3 ^— *- J ]/-^ J ul/*; J cry 
J'-'j L^ c^ J j^loVl ^jc j%j1 ^_^) t_ipl ^\ ^j^j)_ Ul^ j^^js _, UL'li* 
^«i li-Lj ^^ (jO ^ ^i : ^ \ L;)l J u^_^l ,^1 L_*».L» Jjlj ^^ jjj-^l ^^(k 
^. J J^sr^' i^Lp^;^. J .jQl J 1^_HJ1 t_*s:^-j »^ ^_^ iiJl ^_^i« 
f^j<»^ ii-j § Vyic j^jJ J icvJI ^^ ULj (jo j j,ii^U-lf (^Joflj J (_aILJ1 

Al-Khazraji has borrowed these particulars from al- 
Janadi, but in the Paris MS. of the latter (p. 183 obv.), 
the sense is partially obscured by what seems to be a 
copyist's error^ the omission probably of one, or it may 
"he, of two lines. I have therefore preferred Khazraji'a 



version. 



t J. jy>\ t 'Omarah, a1jI:u a-Ij, § J. 



NOTES 20-22. Notes. 



245 



Note 20 to p. 16. — Ma'a ibu Za'idali, of tlie Islimaelite 
tribe of Shay ban and of the great Sept of Kabrah, was 
appointed governor of Yaraan by the Abbaside Khalifah 
al-Mansiir *Abd Allah. His life is giveu by Ibn Khallikan 
(de Slane, vol. iii. p. o98), and from al-Janadi (fol. 27 obv.) 
it appears that he was Governor of Yaman from a.h. 145 
to 151. It will be seen that the claim of the Banu 
Ma'n of Aden to be descendants of Ma'n ibn Za'idah is 
mentioned by Ibn Khaldiin and distinctly contradicted 
by al-Khazraji (see the preceding note), as well as by 
'Omarah. 

Note 21 to p. 17. — The Imam Malik ibn Anas al-Asbahi 
was the founder of one of the four great schools into which 
the Sunnite Muharamadaus are divided. He was born, lived 
and died at Medinah, for which reason he is styled Imam of 
the City of the Fliglit. 

Note 22 to p. 17. — The places mentioned on this and 
the preceding page were situated, as will be sten, in the 
Mikhlaf Ja'far, but, with few exceptions, I have been un- 
able to ascertain their position. Dumluicah is mentioned 
by Niebuhr in his Description of Arabia (p. 212) and is 
marked upon his map, a short distance east of Ta izz. Ham- 
dani's description of the fortress will be found in Note 111. 
The fortresses of Sahir and DhaJchir stood without doubt 
on the mountains after which they appear to be named. 
These two mountains, according to al-Hamdani, are separated 
by an opening, in which stands the town and fortress of 
Jaba, the residence of the Banu Kurandy (p. 99, 1. 6). 
Mount Sabir, he adds (1. 21), separates Jaba from Janad. 
The valley of 'UiinaJt, so named after a sub-tribe of Himyar, 
was watered by a stream which flowed into the Wridi ZabTd 
(Hamdani, p. 71, 1. 16; 100,1. 5). 1 find no mention of 
Sawa [supra, p. 131) in al-Hamdrmi, nor of Saniaddn, 
which is stated to have been one of the most important 
fortresses in Yaman. According to YaKiiC, the former stood 
upon Mount Sabir. 

The Mountain of Hahb was, according to Hamdani, in the 
country of Dhu Ku'ayn (p. 101, 1. 12). It cannot have been 
far from the town of Ibb, perhaps to the ea>tward, and over- 
looking the valley that extends downwards and sweeps round 
Jabal Khubban. I do not find the name of Ibb in Ham- 
dani, and although it and Ilabb are mentioned as separate 



246 Notes. NOTE 22; 

places by'Omrirali {supra, p. lol), there seems to rae reason 
to suspect that the two may turn out to be, at least to all 
intents and purposes, one and the same place. 

Kliadid is so written in Miiller's Hamdani. In the 
British Museum MS. of Ibn Khaldun, it is pointed Jf/aifZacZ. 
Yakut has Khadad, and he merely says that it was a fortress 
situated in Mikhlaf Ja'far. Hamdani tells us (p. 78, 1. 17), 
that it stood at a distance of an hour's journey from tlie 
castle of the Wuhazites, and that it contained a magnificent 
palace. 

It is reached by two roads leading to the gates of the castle, 
near each of wliich there is a sujjply of water. Close to the road on 
the south side there is a cistern (Karif ?) known by the name of 
al-Wafayt, excavated in black rock. Its depth is fifty cubits. Its 
width twenty, and its length fifty cubits. It is protected and 
surrounded by a wall, to prevent accidents. Tlie other ^ource of 
water supply is close to the northern gate. It is a pit in the 
rock like a well, lined Avith masonry composed of flag stones. 
There are steps whereby the water can be reached from the sum- 
mit of the castle, with the help of torches, both by day and 
by night. It takes an hour's time to reach the water, and a 
pei'sou at the entrance of the well cannot be distinguished from 
above. 

The Castle of Khadid must, I conclude, have stood on the 
north or north-west of Ibb. 

'Azzdn, according to Yakut, stood on the mountain of 
Raymah in the country of al-Manakhi, not far, therefore, 
from al-Mudhaykhirah. Yakut mentions also 'Azzan-Khabt 
on Mount Sabir near Ta'izz, and 'Azzan-Dhakhir, wliich he 
says stood on Mount Sabir likewise. Bayt 'Zee, as we have 
seen (Note 6), stood in the country of al-Manakhi ; and ash- 
8ha'ir, so written by al-Janadi, the place where Sa'id son of 
Najah met his death, must likewise have been in that neigh- 
bourhood, or near the banks of the AVadi Sahul. Janadi, 
instead oi' Nur has Anwar {nupra, Note 19). This place is 
mentioned by Yakiit, who says it stood in Mikhlaf Kayzau. 
Hamdani makes mention of Kaynan, which, he says, was in 
the district of Sahul, and in the northern part of the coun- 
try of Dhu '1-Kalc4' (p. 100, 1. 15; 68, 6). An-NaJfll (the 
mountain pass) is doubtless Nakll Sayd, near Yahdib al- 
'Ulu, or the ruined city of Zafar. Sahul stood in the dis- 
trict of Dhu '1-Kala', and it is likewise the name of a stream, 
that flowed into Wadi Zabid, (Hamdani, p. 68, 1. 4; 71, 15.) 
Instead of Shaivd^iwe must i-ead, as in al-Jauadi, S/iatrdfi, 
which according to Hamdani was one of the inhabited 



NOTE 28. Notes. ia^-] 

places in the province of Sahal (p. 100, 1. 16). It is men- 
tioned by the author of the Marasid. 

Wuhdzah is described by al-Hamdani as part of the low- 
lying- lands of the district of Dhu '1-Kala' and contained a 
castle of the same name, also called Suba' (p. 68, 1. 6 ; 78, 
15). The name Bayhars is without doubt erroneous. Al- 
Janadi and Khazraji write Yai-l< {'\<_r-y)- The same 
writers have Zahrdii and 8a'b (Sha^b ?) instead of Dahwdn 
and Sha'r. Yakut says that al-Khadrd and al-Ydbis are a 
fortress {sic) on Mount Wusab. Al-Janadi says of Shdkit 
that it had formerly been the abode of kings, but that it 
had lost its importance. It is mentioned by Yrikut, but he 
adds nothing to what we are told by 'Omarah. He includes 
the verses given in our text, which he doubtlessly borrows 
from our author. Their point consists in the double signi- 
fication of the principal words, and their more obvious 
meaning is so gross, that I have gladly exempted myself 
from the task of i-endering it in English. I may here men- 
tion that al-Hamdiini explains (p. 84, 1. 12) that the word 
al-Glid'lt is used in Yaman to signify the desert. 

Jahjah, mentioned a few lines fai-ther on, is marked on 
Manzoni's map (Gebgeb), and is referred to by Haradani, 
(p. 68, 1. 5, 12; 104, 17). Wusdbal-'Ahi and Wnsab al- 
Asfal are identified by Glaser with Jnblan al-'Arkabah, 
which Hamdani tells us (p. 103, 12) stood between Wadi 
Zabid and Wadi Rima', adding elsewhere (p. 71, 22) that 
Wadi Rima' flows between Jublan al-'Arkabah and Jublan 
Raymah. 

Note 23 to p. 18. — The Hamdanite sister tribes of 
Hashid and Bakil were, as is mentioned by Ibn Khaldim on 
the authority of al-Bayhaki and of Ibn Hazni {supra, p. 1 75), 
the progenitors of most of the subdivisions of the Bauu 
Hamdau. The Banu Bakil and Banu Hiisldd were closely 
allied, and held high rank among- the most powerful Arab 
communities in Yaman. And they have, in fact, continued, 
as is shovm by Kiebuhr, to occupy that position down to the 
present day. The Banu Yam, to which the J-uIayhites and 
the family of Zuray' belonged, were a subdivision of the 
Banu Hashid. 

According to Hamdani (p. 109), the country of his tribes- 
men extended fromSan'a to Sa'dah.* The Banu Bakil, lie 



* Sa'dah belonged to the Eiinu Khaul.lu and in pic-Islamilic 
tiiueb it bore the name uf JuntcV (Hamdani, p. ii7.) 



248 Notes. NOTES 24, 25. 

adds, possessed, as a general rule, the country on the east 
of a line drawn from San'a to Sa'dah and the Banu Hashid 
that on the west. The latter owned also the district of al' 
Wahs]i, the western portion of the province of Sahul, 
lying next to the country of Dim 'l-Kal;V and enclosed by 
the streams that combine to form the Kiver Zabid. (Ham- 
dani, p. 100, 20 ) 

Note 24 to p. 18. — Jahal BurcV is described by Hamdani 
as a north-westerly extension of Ju/Adn liaymnh, standing 
between Wadi Eima' and Wadi Sahara, precisely as is 
shown in Dr. Glaser's map. The name al-'Amad (?), 1 have 
not met with elsewhere. Li'sdn, according to Dr. Glaser's 
map and as described by Hamdani, extends to the western 
slopes of Haraz. Masdr is one of the important group of 
mountains known by the name of Hardz. 

It will be seen by what follows at p. 44, that most of the 
strongholds above mentioned, were held at a subsequent 
peiiod by the family of Muzaii'ar the Sulayhites. Among 
other places there mentioned are Makr, az-Zarf and J)}iu 
h'assah, touching which 1 have met with no information. 
Kawarir is referred to by Khazraji [supra, Note 5). For 
Ziifdr we may perhaps read Zajirdit, mentioned by Yakut 
as a fortress situated on the Mountain of Wusab. The 
mountain oi llayniali stood in the neighbourhood of Thau- 
man, and is consequently a different place from Jublan 
Raymah above referred to. 'Omarah speaks elsewhere 
(pp. 4 and lo2) of Ixaymat al-At<hd'ir, and al-Janadi of 
Ji'ayviat al-Handklil {sqqira, Note 6). See also Raymah in 
Hamdaui, p. 68, 4. The lortress of liaymat al-Kald' of the 
last mentioned (p. 125, 22), is referred to as separate and 
distinct from Raymah, and bespeaks also of Mount L'aynidri 
in the same locality, that is to say, next to the mountain of 
Ba'dan (p. 71, 16; 100, 21 ; 125, 6). Ba'dan and Rayman 
appear to have been the names of tribes inhabiting the pro- 
vince of Sahfd (p. 100, 7), after which the mountains were 
doubtless named. Jublan was likewise (p. 103, 17) the 
name borne by the ancestor of certain Himyarite tribes. 

The word Rayman must probably in certain cases be 
understood in its natural sense, a hill. 

Note 25 to p. 1 9.— Al-Janadi (fol. 183 obv.) and also 
al-Ahdal and al-Yafi' write ar-Batcdhy \;^jL^\ i\J^ ^ ''\J\j . 
Yakut repeats the statement in our text that az-Zawahi 



KOTE 26. Notes. 



249 



was a village in the district of Haraz, to which he adds, 
*'also in the district of an-Najm, situated where the coun- 
try of Yaman commeaces." Hamdani tells us (p. 120, 6) 
that the tinbe or family of an-Najm inhabited al-Mahjam. 
He also mentions a place named az-Zawdln (p. 100, 16), 
but it is distinctly described as situated in the district of 
Sahul and in the country of Dhu ^1-Kala^, in other words 
therefore, in Mikhhlf Ja'far. I feel quite at a loss to sug- 
gest how these various statements are to be reconciled with 
one another. 

Note 26 to p. 19. — This book is spoken of under the 
same title by al-Janadi and Khazraji, Kitdb as-Suwar. It 
is mentioned in the Bibliographical Dictionary, the Kashf 
az-Zuniin, in which it is stated that if the book ever existed, 
it consisted of three (astrological) treatises written by 
Aristotle. 

It will be seen that Ibn Khaldun gives the book in the 
possession of 'Amir the name of Kitdh al-Jafr. In his 
Prolegomena (translated by Baron de Slane), Ibn Khaldun 
enters into considerable detail on the subject. The book, he 
tells us, was said to have been originally in the posses- 
sion of Ja'far as-Sadik (the sixth Imam) and it coutaiued 
particulars relating to the descendants of 'Aly, revealed by 
divine grace to Ja'far and other leading members of the 
family of 'Aly. Ja'far as-Sadik was said to have communi- 
cated its contents to a certain chief of the sect of the Zayd- 
ites, who committed them to writing. The book was 
named after the original copy Kitdb al-Jafr, because it was 
Written upon sheets of kid-skin or vellum.* 

Ibn Khaldun remarks that the chain of tradition, whereby 
it is sought to vindicate the authority of the book, is faulty. 
What became of the original volume, he further states, is 
not known. But the Fatimites asserted that 'Obayd Allah 
was acquainted with its contents, and they cite examples 
in proof of the knowledge he and his associates had acquired 
of the future, as showu, for instance, in the case of Ibn 
Haushab (Mansur al-Yaman), who, when he sent Abu 'Abd 
Allah ash-Shiya'y to North Africa, knew that there the 
destinies of the family of 'Aly were to be fulfilled, and the 
foundations of their empire to be laid, Abu 'Abd Allah 
himself, on his arrival in Africa, announced to the men of 

* See also Kashf ajj-Zunun, s.v. al-Jafr. 



250 Notes. NOTES 27-29. 

tlie Berber tribe of Katdmah that tliey were the people, 
bearing a name derived from onyatery (al-Kitman), wLo 
were destined to be champions of the Mabdy. (Ibu al-Athir, 
viii. 24, MakrTzi, i. 350.) 

In a curious extract from the Dadfir al-Munajjhmii 
printed by Professor de Goeje, one of the appendices to 
his work on the Karmathians of Bahrayn, it is stated that 
'Obayd Allah, on starting from Kgypt for North Africa, 
Avas attacked by robbers at a place called nt-TuhPiinh. 
They plundered him of a large portion of his possessions ; 
but his heaviest loss was that of certain books, in which the 
occult sciences of the Imams, his forefathers, were contained. 
When 'Obayd Allah's son al-Ka'im, continues the writer, 
was sent forth on his first invasion of Eerypt (a.h. 301), he 
succeeded in capturing the robbers, and he recovered 
possession of the books. On hearing thereof, the Mahdy 
rejoiced with exceeding joy. "The recovery of the^-e 
books/^ he exclaimed, "is of itself a sufficient conquest." 
The anecdote, somewhat more briefly told, is to be i'otmd 
also in Ibu al-Athlr. 

Note 27 to p. 21. — See Dieterici's Mutanabbi, p. U05, 
where the line quoted stands as follows : — 



all jjM (•! 11^^^ (Leljsl i^JLi, j^aS^ ij--Vl J^ 



Note 28 to p. 22. — The first of these two lines of verse 
is not given by al-Janadi, nor have I found it elsewhere. 
The name Asmcl is regarded as derived from the verb 
wasama, with which the first line begins, and which signi- 
fies to marh, but it is also connected with the verb xama 
to be lofty, samd'u the sky, and with ism a name. Queen 
Bilkis is mentioned in Note 41. 

Note 29 to p. 24. — This, according to both al-Khazraji 
and Ibn Khallikan, was in a.h. 453. Al-Jauadi adds (p. 183 
obv.) that as-Sulayhi's envoys were Ahmad ibn Muham- 
mad, father of Sayyidah, who was killed at Aden by the 
falling in of a house at a time when his daughter was still 
in her childhood (Ah., p. 268), and that the other was 
Abu Saba Ahmad ibn al-Muzaffar, father of Sultan Saba 
ibn Ahmad. He furthur mentions that as-Sulayhi sent the 
Fatiuiite Khalifah valuable presents, comprismg seventy 
swords with cornelian handles. Al-Khazraji, after mention- 



NOTE 29. A^ofes. 251 

iug that as-Sulayhi proclaimed tlie supreme authority of 
the Fatimite Khalifah al-Mustansir, proceeds as ibllows : — 

When as-Sulayhi raised his standard on the mountain of Masar, 
where he was supported by a number of people of the tribes of 
Sinhan, of Yam, of Jusham and of Habrah, a large army advanced 
against liim led by (Ja'far) son of the Imam al-Kasim ibn 'Aly, 
hereinbefore mentioned,* and by a man named Ja'far ibn al- 
'Abbas, who was a Shafi'ite and greatly respected in the western 
districts of Upper Yaman. He marched along with Ja'far son of 
al-Kasim at the head of 30,000 men, but was attacked in his 
encampment by as-Sulayhi in the month of Sha'brm of the year 
above mentioned. He was killed along with a large number of 
his followers and his army dispersed. As-Sulayhi then ascended 
the mountain of Hadur, took possession of it, and seized the 
fortress of Yana'.f Ibn Abi Hashid collected an army, and an 
engagement took place between them at Sauf, a village between 
Hadur and Bir Bani Shihab. Ibn Abi Hashid was killed to- 
gether with one thousand of his followers. The name of the place 
has become proverbial in Yaman, in the phrase Slaughter of Sauf 
(i.e. great carnage). As-Sulayhi then proceeded to San'a and 
captured it. The whole of Yaman submitted to him, its hills and 
its plains (etc. as in 'Omarah). 

At p. 48, 1. 16, al-Khazraji says that as-Sulayhi subdued 
the whole country, from Mecca to Hadraraaut, but that 
Sa'dah. held out against him for a time, under tbe descen- 
dants of an-Nasir (Ahmad). He liowever succeeded in slay- 
ing their chief and captured the city. 



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* See supra, Xote 8. 

t Al-Hamdani mentions Yana' (p. 106, 1. 12) as one of the 
places situated at the foot or on the lower slopes of Jabal Hadiir, 
which, he says, is so named after the ancestor of the rro[ihet 
Shu'ayb. Hadur is one of the mountains of the Sarat of Alhan, 
which extends from NakU as-Sai.d to Haraz, and it must nut be 
confounded with Hadur Baui Azd (flamdiTni, p. G8j, farther 
north, one of the mountains of al-Mataui'. (Sec Glaser, p. 42-43.) 



252 Notes, NOTES 30, 31. 

j^l J isJ^'-'li ^j^a. J.> xlL ^ a;^ jj-Ul ,_^yii9 J^-i-S lx*a. ifUr^l ^^* 

IjCw^ Jl ^_^ ^^ J' «— ij-j aU J'JLi ^^^!' (^9 Jill Si/-^. "^^I "^4? j 

• »;fij j Aid*** W'* c.'*:'' l5j^ U*^^ 

Note 30 to p. 29. — All these places, az-Zaraib, JahaJd 
*Akdd (rhe two mountains of 'Akdd) and al-'Ukwafdni 
(the two *Ukwas) are mentioned by Yakut, who quotes the 
lines given in our text, but again adds nothing to what we 
are told by 'Omarah, excepting a statement that the moun- 
tains overlook Zabld, which is manifestly wrong. 'Omfirah 
tells us that they stood in the country of Ibn Tarf, or in 
other Avords in that of the Banu Hakam, the tribe to which 
'Oraarah belonged. Yakut, instead of 'Akdd as in the 
Kamus and Taj al-'ArCis, writes 'Ukkad. 

Note 31 to p. 30. — a.h. 459 is the year given by Khaz- 
raji (p. 83) and also by Ibn al-AthIr (vol. x. p. 38). A 
comparison of dates shows that the death of as-Sulayhi 
must have occurred in a.h. 473, as stated by 'Omarah else- 
where (stipra, p. 82), as well as in this passage, and also by 
Ibn Khallikfm and by al-Janadi (fol. 183 obv. and rev.). 
It seems exceedingly probable that the words in our text, 
to the effect that the date 459 is assigned to the event and 
that it is to be preferred to the other, are an interpolation ; 
but the error, it may be, proceeds from the confusion of an 
earlier expedition to Mecca with that projected in 473. 

Ibn Khaldun, in his chapter on the history of the Hashim- 
ite Amirs of Mecca (Bui. ed. iv. p. 103) says, as in his 
history of Yamau {supra, pp. 147 and 152), that the expedi- 
tion of 473 was undertaken by command of the Fatimite 
Khalifah, and that its purpose was the reinstatement of the 
Sulaymanites, in the place of Abu Hashim Muhammad 
sou of Ja'far, who had renounced the Fatimite supi*emacy, 
and proclaimed that of the Abba sides. 

Ibn al-Athir mentions in his Chronicles (vol. x. pp. 19 
and 38) that as-Sulayhi made himself master of ])Iecca in 
A.H. 455, and won praise by establishing order in the city, 
by adopting measures for the importation of food, and by 
extending protection to the pilgrims. He draped the 



NOTES 82-36. Notes. 



253 



Ka'bah with a covering of white cliina silk * and restored 
its treasures. These, continues the historian, had been 
carried to Yamau by the Hasanites, from whom they were 
repurchased by as-Sulayhi. See Dr, Snouck Hurgronje^s 
Mekka, pp. 62 and 63-4. It will l)e noticed that Abu 
Hashim Muhammad was raised to the rulership of Mecca 
by as-Sulayhi. 

Note 32 to p. 32. — The word al-Ahwal may also be trans- 
lated the Ai^tutc, and the latter is probably the sense in 
which it was applied to Sa'id by his people. 

Note 33 to p. 36. — Khazraji supplies us here with speci- 
mens of 'Aly the Sulayhite's talents as a poet. They will 
be found in Baron de Slane^s translation of Ibn Khallikan, 
vol. ii, p. 348. 

Note 34 to p. 37. — See the description of a dinar of 
'Imran ibn Muhammad, by Mj\ S. Lane- Poole, in the cata- 
logue of coins at the British Museum. The defaced and 
illegible word is probably Maliki. 

Note 35 to p. 38. — 'Omarah tells us (supra, pp. 41 and 
42) that when al-Mukarram adopted Dhu Jiblah as his 
place of residence, he appointed As^ad ibn Shihab over 
San'a together with 'Imran ibn al-Fadl. We learn from 
al-Janadi (fob 184 obv.) that As'ad, upon the death of 
Sa'id (in 482)^ was transferred from San'a to Zabid. His 
expulsion by Jayyash occurred the same year. It is some- 
what difficult to understand at what time As'ad ibn 'Arraf 
can have ruled over the city ; but it will be observed that 
our text is again in a very unsatisfactory condition at this 
particular point. 

Note 36 to p. 40. — Yakuts in his Geographical Dic- 
tionary, reproduces 'Omarah's derivation of the name Dhu 
Jiblah. But, as appears from Wiistenfeld's printed edition, 
an error has been committed by the author or by his tran- 
scribers, whereby the sense of the passage is singularly 
misrendered. It reads as follows : — 



* See Note 18, footnote. 



254 Azotes. NOTES 37, 38. 

The words Ddr al-Izz iva Lihi being misread, it becomes 
obvious that the sentence could not end with the word 
Summiijat. The writer has accordingly taken upon him- 
self, according to a practice unhappily far too common, to 
add on his own authority the word b'isiniJia, besides intro- 
ducing a conjunction after hihi, and thus, whilst escaping 
one difficulty, he has plunged, without perceiving it, into 
another. 

Yakut says that Dim Jiblah stood at the foot of Mount 
Sabir, an error which appears also in Ibn tSa'Td's Geogra- 
phy. It is in point of fact none other but the place shown 
in Niebuhr's and subsequent maps south-west of Ibb. 

Note 37 to p. 42.— Al-Janadi says (fol. 184 obv.) that 
al-Mukarram died at Bayt Yfinis, or at the fortress of 
Ashy ah, in a.h. 484 or in 480 or in 479. The context here 
and elsewhere {s'upra, p. 88) shows that al-Mukarram was 
livinsr in 481. The same writer mentions that although 
Saba succeeded to the office of Da'y (which could not be 
held by a woman), Sayyidah retained in her own hands 
full sovereignty or temporal power over her husband's 
dominions. 

Note 38 to p. 43.— Al-Janadi (fol. 184 obv.) adds the 
following (see also al-Khazraji, p. 53j — whence it would 
appear that a passage is here omitted from our text. 

'Omarah relates that Ibu al-Kumm, standino^ before Saba, 
recited the ode in "wliich these lines occur. The Prince, on hear- 
ing the verses, forbade him to stand, and casting a cushion at his 
his feet, commanded him to be ?eatod. This he did for the pur- 
pose of showing him honour and of exalting him over all that were 
present. When the poet ended his recitation, Saba exclaimed : 
" Thou art mito us, Abu 'Abd Allah, such as is described by 
al-Mutanabbi : 

My heart is that of Kings, though — it be perceived that my tongue 
is that of a poet.* 



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See Dieterici's Mutanabbi, p. 633. 



NOTE 39. Notes. 255 

Nope 39 to p. 45. — The omissions^ tliat are here evident 
in the text, render it impossible to interpret the author's 
meaning with auy degree of certainty. Those omissions 
I apprehend to be three in number, as shown by the 
lacunte I have left in the translation. In the first, we may 
infer it to have been related that Khalf's plot was dis- 
covered and that he was imprisoned. In the second, that 
Saba made certain demands, which Jayyash, by the advice 
of his wazir, met with counter offers; and in the third, that 
the Arabs refused the proffered terms and proceeded to 
attack Zabid.* 

I find no mention of these events in either al- Janadi or 
al-Khazraji ; but the former has the following passage 
(p. 188 obv.), which is copied almost verbatim by Khazraji 
(p. 88). 

Among the leading men of the Abyssinian dynastj^ was the 
"VVazir of King Jayyash, namely (Abu Sa'Id) KlialE son of Abu 't- 
Tahir the Omayyad. He was one of the most remarkable men of 
tlie day for his distinguished capacity and merits. He attached 
himself to Jayyfish when the Ziyadite Kiagdom came to an end, 
and he accompanied liim to India. Jayyash promised the wazir, 
that in the event of their success in the recovery of his kingdom, 
Khalf should share with him the royal dignity and authority. 
But when Jayyfish won the throne, he simply appointed Khalf 
WazTr and gave him the title of Kafim al-Mulk, Participator in 
the royal authority. Khalf's reward was contined to the receipt 
of that barren title, although but for his assistance, Jayyash 
had never succeeded in his enterprise. Ere long hostility arose 
between them. The Avazir fled and Jayyash wrote him in concilia- 
tory terms, inquiring after his welfare. Khalf replied in the 
followiuo' lines; — 



D 



If there be a country where I am not held in honour — though it 

call unto me, I will not answer. 
Even though its loveliness be that of the gardens of Paradise— 

and so also its sweetness. Yet an abject life therein would 

make its fragrance hateful. 
I would fly to where I may be held in honour — even though it 

be a land whose barren plains resound with the howls of 

famished wolves. 



* The statement that the Arabs, after their defeat on that 
occasion, did not again invade Tihamah is in contradiction, it 
will be observed, with what we read elsewhere. Supra, pp. 96 
and 97. 



256 Notes. NOTES 40, 41- 

^^1 ^lyi J^l ^ i_ali. J* J ij^W ^^^ J.'ji ^-^^^ ijJ u^' c^* J 

Ji.J J iXL Jlj, *|Jj». Li'-ja. t_*S^ J ^-ii J ^^jJl ol^sl ^j, ^^ ^Jy,^\ 
^j'jy^ Ciiill aJI jIc Uj »1jJ i«-*.li aJI i\s. Ijl ^Vl ^;jl -Val- j X^ll Ax* 

^^c 6 ,-ai-**i J ApWy^...!i aJI t_»;j>3 S-"^ l_p^^ cf— J ''^*^ i-i.*'^! t.:>l^>i 

^ j»Z^ ajuk'U ajU^I 

.. i -» 

Note 40 to p. 47. — Kur'au S. xxxiii. v. 36. It is ex- 
plained in the Kas/ishiif that this verse was revealed for 
the purpose of reproving Zaynab daughter of Jahsh and 
cousin of the Prophet, The latter had arranged a marriage 
between her and his freedman Zayd and had provided the 
dowry. The marriage took place, but the lady and her 
brother made no disguise of their profound dissatisfaction 
with her being the wife, as they complained, of a slave. 
She aspired, it was said, to beiug taken in marriage by the 
Prophet himself. Her wishes were eventually gratified, 
but for the particulars of that ancient piece of scandal, I 
may confine myself to referring the reader to Sir William 
Muir's Life of Muhammad. 

Note 41 to p. 47. — Kur'an xxvii. 29, 30 and 32. These 
words are those of Bilkis Queen of Sheba (Saba), on 
receiving a letter from Solomon, commanding her and her 
people to recognise his authority. Bilkis sought the advice 
of her counsellors, an example which Queen Sayyidah de- 
clares she will not follow. The .King had heard of Bilkis 
and of her splendour from the hoopoe, who said to Solo- 
mon that he came unto him from (the country of) Saba 
with truthful tidings, words which Queen Sayyidah, as will 

* Khi, ^j^ t Khi, ^y, j^Vl J Khi, ^ 

§ Khi, \^^ II Khi, cK^l t Khi, ^ 



NOTES 42-44. Notes. 



257 



be observed, turns to account in the subsequent sentence. 
The words Fesist me not, etc., are omitted by 'Omarah, but 
are inserted by Khazraji, as in the text of the Kur'an. 
The abrupt change from the singular to the phiral arises 
from strict adherence to the sacred text. The expression 
Ye have wrested the icords from their true sense is likewise 
borrowed fi'om the Kur'an, which in several passages 
applies it to the Jews. 

Note 42 to p. 48. — Al-Khazraji proceeds as follows 
(p. 54) :- 

He (Saba son of Ahmad the Sulayhite) continued to inhabit 
his castle of Ashyah until he died in the year 492. At his death, 
San'il and the surrounding country were dissevered from the 
Sulayhite Kingdom. The Queen continued to inhabit Dhu 
Jiblah, until her death in the year that will be mentioned here- 
after (a.h. 532). San'a was conquered by Sultan Hatim ibn 
al-Ghashim, whose histor}* will be found in this book. 

The same date for the death of Saba, a.h. 492, is given 
by al-Janadi; but Ibn Khaldun writes 486 [supra, p. 151). 
Al-Janadi adds the correct orthography of the name Ash- 
yah. In the British Museum MS. of 'Omarah it is written 
Ashyakh, which I have rectified in the printed text. 

Note 43 to p. 49. — Al-Afdal Shahinsbah was wazir, 
and virtually absolute ruler of the Fatimite Empire, under 
the Khalifahs al-Musta*la and al-Amir. He was assassin- 
ated by order of the latter in a.h. 515. 

Note 44 to p. 50. The words enclosed within square 
brackets are absolutely necessary to complete the sense, 
and we are able to restore them, with little short of cer- 
tainty, from the corresponding passages of other writers. 
But another and larger omission may still be suspected, 
certain particulars on the rise of the family of al-\Yalid, 
supplied at this point both by al- Jauadi and by al-Khazraji. 
The latter writes (p. 54) as follows : — 

At-Ta'kar belonged to 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad the Sulayh- 
ite, brother of 'Aly ibn Muhammad ibn as-Sulayhi. Al-Mukar- 
ram, upon tlie death of his fatlier and of his unck^ 'Abd Allah, 
api>ointed his cousin, As'ad son of 'Abd Allah, Governor of the 
city. As'ad's conduct became bad, and al-Mukavram removed 

S 



258 Notes. NOTK 4I<. 

him and placed liim in command of Raymah. He appointed 
Abu '1-Barakat son of al-Walid over at-Ta'kar and its dependen- 
cies, and Abu 'l-Barakat's brother Abu '1-Futuh son of al-Walid 
over the fortress of Ta'izz. Al-Mufaddal, then in his early youth, 
was in the service of al-Mukarram at DhuJiblah and was admitted 
into the presence of the Princess. 

Upon the death of Abu 'l-Barakfit, which occurred after that 
of al-Mukarram, the Queen contided tlie Governorship of at- 
Ta'kar to his son Khalid. The latter remained in command for a 
period of about two years, at the end of which he was slain by the 
Jurist ^Abd Allah ibn al-Masu'. This Ibn al-Masii' was a learned 
Jurist and a man of an earnestly religious disposition. He pro- 
fessed attachment to the Amir Khalid ibn Abi 'l-Barakfit, who 
was ruler over his country Dhu 's-Sufal * (Though a Sunni) he 
ran no danger of being molested and Khalid trusted him. He 
had issued orders that the Jurist should not be hindered from 
coming up to him at whatsoever time he listed. This man's 
soul nevertheless instigated him to slay the Governor, the shedding 
of whose blood he regarded as lawful, seeing that Klullid was a 
member of the Ismailite sect. He consulted no person, but per- 
suaded himself that the officials, on finding him prepared with 
money for the payment of salaries, would submit to him and do 
his bidding. He engaged the services of an oil-dealer, whose 
wont it was to go up to the castle with oil, for sale to the people 
who dwelt in the fortress. He filled his leathern oil-vessel with 
gold and silver coin and the two went up together. On finding 
himself alone with the Amir Khfdid, he slew him. In his excite- 
ment he cried aloud. The people of the castle hastened unto him, 
and finding the Amir dead, they killed the Jurist. 

Al-Janadi (Paris MS. fol. 194 rev.) proceeds in the 
corresponding passage of his history as follows : — \1 

The Queen appointed al-Mufaddal to replace (his brother 
Khalid). From the day of his arrival at at-Ta'kar he pursued the 
Jurists with his enmity. He openly manifested the hatred he 
bore them and he seized the lands both of the assassin and of his 
family, their ancient possessions situated in Dhu 's-Sufal. Most 
of the Jurists fled from the neighbourhood of at-Ta'kar in dread 
of his severities. I have mentioned what he did to the people of 
the Jurist Zayd, when relating the latter's history. 

Al-Mufaddal became the Queen's trusted adviser and adminis- 
trator of her kingdom. The Queen decided upon nothing 
without his advice. He attained great power, and his word was 

* Dhu 's-Sulal is marked on Niebuhr's and Manzoni's maps 
southwest of Dhu Jiblah. Ynkiit writes Safu] and Sifal. 



NOTE 44. Notes. 



259 



raised on high. There was not only none among the nobles of 
the land who could pretend to surpass him, but none that 
could equal him. He made incursions into Tihamah on 
several occasions, with results at times favourable and at others 
against him. He was a man distinguished by generous and noble 
qualities. But in supreme nobility and generosity of character, 
he ranked below Saba (son of Ahmad) hereinbefore mentioned. 
Al-Mufaddal was liberal and the object of praise. Poets came to 
him from all parts and eulogized him, and he rewarded them 
with surpassing rewards. His Court was visited by Mawahib ibn 
Jadid al-Maghrabi, who panegyrized him in several odes, one 
of which contains the following lines ; — 



*o 



thou that ownest the Faith and the World and their people, 

That clingest with firm grasp to the saving tenets of Islam, 

Men say, he that would riches must dwell by the sea or with a 

King. 
And tlius have I done, son of Walld, for thou art a Sea and thou 

art a King." * 



'O' 



Among the still existing memorials of al-Mufaddal's rule, is the 
watercourse he constructed^ extending from Hinwah (?) to the 
city of Janad.f It passes over places where its channel has been 
excavated in the living rock, in such wise that a description of 
the work is hard to be believed. Many such channels were 
made, and a stream of water is led through them. On reaching a 
spot between two mountains, the craftsmen provided for its 
passage by means of a wall, about two hundred cubits of the 
new measure in length from one mountain to the other, its height 
from the ground about fifty cubits and its width about ten cubits. 
These are the dimensions according to my own measurements and 
estimates. A person contemplating that great work, feels convinced 
that it can have been executed only by the Jinn, and but for 
absolute certainty of its visible existence, it were impossible to 
believe in it. 

Another great work of al-Mufaddal was the reconstruction of 

* See Note 74. 

t Al-Ahdal (fol. 280 rev.), when mentioning the foundation of 
the city of Mansurah by Sayf al-Islam Tnghtakin in a.h. 592, 
states that it was built at the distance of a quarter of a day's march 
south of Janad. He adds that the Sultan revived the prosperity 
of its valley, known by the name of Khanwah iy-*., which had 
become the abode of wild beasts, and that in the village of 
Hinwah C?) ly:^'^ he built a hospital for the entertainment of 
strangers. Tlio village in question must liave stood near the 
Castle of Dumluwah. 

s 2 



26o Notes. NOTE 44. 

the mosque of Janad. The portions lie Iniilt are the front and the 
two aisles. The rear was built by a Kitdi, one of the Jurists 
attached to the mosque. The portion erected by al-Mufa(Jdalj 
may be distinguished through its being built of stone. He roofed! 
it and it continued in existence until i^Fahdy son of 'Aly ibn 
Mahdy captured the city. He demolished the mosque and li)urntj 
it with fire, as will be related hereafter, if it please God. It re- 
mained a ruin until the Ghuzz (the Turkish and ^'orthern soldiery 
under the Ayyubites) arrived in Yaman. The power of the family 
of Mahdy did not long endure after the destruction of the mosque, 
nor had it been long in existence before. When Sayf al-Lslain 
reached the city, he restored the mosque and added to its height i 
the existing portion, built of brick. This will be mentioned here- 
after, when the history of the Ayyubite conquest is related. 

The Kadi Abu Bakr al-Yaf'y mentions the story of the water- 
channels, in the verses he composed in praise of Mansur son ot 
al-Mufaddal, wherein he eulogized the father as well as the son,! 
extolling al-Mufeddal as the constructor of that great work. Ij 
doubted to whom it was to be rightly attributed, until I found 
the passage in question in the Kadi's poem. I have already, wlien 
giving an account of al-Yaf'y's life, said enough to render it un- 
necessary to recur to the subject here, but I desire to add the lines 
in which he refers to the artificial watercourse, and to its author 
al-Mufaddal, as follows: — 

I say, rendering honour unto him and of his noble work — in leading 

the waters along their rocky bed, 
He cleft the lofty mountains and their streams became — as heaven's 

rains, flowing over a level plain. 

The Avords lie cleft the lofty mountains are sure evidence to the 
truth of what we have said. 

Al-Janadi's doubts as to the authorship of the rock-cut 
water-channels and aqueduct, suggest the question whether 
the work were not of far more ancient date than he sup- 
poses, and whether al-Mufaddal's share in it may not have 
been confined to its restoration. It would be interesting 
to learn from modern travellers the present condition of a 
monument, of which important remains or traces can 
hardly fail to be still in existence. 

jjaJ J j^j\Sc. j^\ J l^flalU JisJ A«lla >^j ^j^ ii^* J^all 8 J — 11 t— -Ij^? 
Ijiflll i_J\£. i_yfc J Jla-Jl jjj (3 i*Uflll d^Vl A J A*ji J Jj'ill i^\} 
AjJ i^all (_jlsr*l «,« Js9 U. Cj^i Sa j AJ^kwj ^j* Isji- j5sjlJ1 i,jls^ ^J^ 
JkJ Jj a:j: (9 oljjl dUl ^S* J i:>Jl Js^ J^ail ^U j »/S X.C 



NOTE 44. Notes. 261 



^li. J p^K* i) 100^ J ijlc J i) 1^1^* ial^J ]^ ^ iij^. Vj ii*l~.i ^^ 
(^ l^ill 5j.-aflJ li»J.«-o '"^l^*" J-^oil ^jO J 5;) J *jiil U-< f*)^ iJJ"* V*^^ 
JjJ^ ^^ *^_A-al^* j,ji aJl J L;i« \)\y l!iUj j^ -«-:^ AJja.J^ j UVl 

cU.Jl jCs>S \^-^^ r;i> '^U. U. J I4-9 'Ul (^^a-l J sjjJii Kfla. li^n i ^i 

^Aj (j^ Ljj.4* Jji J J '^ill 'l^ c)' (JW ^ (^ ^i'*'' J At'*"^ li'H* {ji 

JV" J ^^^ U^^ iJ-r* J* ^ J-s.-*' laU^ {J ■^\j J ^^ {S~^^ *^VI 
a:jV da-j.* ^J J-ill i^9 ^_^yl ^5G jjl ,j^^' ^-i ^ j *'y i J^^ dli ^Juj 

■^ J L^' (C^ ^ i^'^ ^ J ^'} r"^ As-Xe il<^ ^^ Jssy i*.J^ \Xjyi:^ 

IJ ijl ciJJii J J-;i]l ^9 aJU L^Si L_*a^l ^jCJ 4j:»Ic1 ^^ ^ajij U »/i >i* 

* Kbi, ^^\j* t Kbi, ^^iil X il^J § Khi, Bj,yo 

II Klii, ^^il) ^jU 1[ Kbi, dill J ^5t'* jJ^l ^^,li c>il J 

** Kbi, elJj^^JjJ jLi tt Kead ^JJ^*1 



2 62 A^O/cS. NOTES 45-47. 

jUj *<_;l«; c>il^^ Wl^=.j ^S2r*U oli^Ul jCU ^-1 

Ij/l L is:^ ^ JJi oli-Ul jQl ji Jy Jj 

Note 45 to p. 52. — Kbazraji has ,j\V»J and Yakut 
Kayzaii cjliM, in tbe neighbourliood, be says, of L)hu 
Jiblab. Tbe tribe of Janb, also called Muuabbib (Haru- 
daui, p. 115), and tliose of Sinhan, 'Ans and Zubayd were 
sub-tribes of the Banu Madhhij. 

Note 46 to p. 53. — Al-Janadi (p. 185 obv.) says that 
this man was son of al-^lufaddnl's uncle, and such, he adds, 
is the statement of Ibn Samurrah, whilst 'Omilrah, he 
continues, attributes the capture of the fortress to certain 
men among whom was a cousin of his own. Al-Jauadi 
himself is of opiui'm that both versions may be adopted, 
to the effect, that is to say, that the insurgents were aided 
by the co-operation of a person who was kinsman of al- 
Mufaddal, and by that of 'Omarah's cousin. He mentions 
also that al-Mufaddal was buried at 'Azzfin at-Ta'kar (the 
slopes of Ta'kar ?) 

Note 47 to p. 54. — Hamdrmi speaks of tbe Banu Bahr 
as derived from Rabi'ah (p. 114, 1. 20), a name borne by, 
amongst others, a sub-tribe of Kbaulan (Rabl'ah son of Sa'd 
al-Akbar son of Khaulan [ib. 1, 13). Eabi'ah was also the 
name of a sub-tribe of the Banu Janb (Hamdani, p. 93, 1. 9, 
33). Bahr was, moreover, according to Hamdani, a sub- 
division of the Sadif, a sub-tribe of the Banu Kindah, 
inhabitants of Hadramaut and descendants of Murrah and 
of 'Arib. And, at p. 112, 1. 23, he mentions a tribe or 
family of the name of Buhr, descendants of Himyar. 

The Banu Dinnah he mentions as a sub-tribe of the Banu 
'Udhrah, derived fi'om Kuda'ah, and elsewhere as descen- 
dants of the Banu Numayr, an Ishmaelite tribe (p. 116, 
1. 17, and p. 165, 1. 1). 

The Banu Marran are described as a subdivision of Ham- 
dan (p. 107, 1. 9), but also (p. 113, I. 15) as Himyarites. 
The Banu Zarr, we are told, belonged to the tribe of Jabar 
(descendants of Yafi') and consequently Himyarites like- 

* Khi, ^l* 



NOTES 4S-50. Azotes. 263 

wise, but iu speaking of a member of the family {mipra, 
p. 57) it is said that he was a Khaiilanite. 

The Banu Razih and Banu Juma'ah are stated by Ham- 
dani to have been Khaulauites (p. 73, 1. 18, and p. 114, 
1. 18, 20). 

The tribes of Sha'b and Sha'b-Hay, he tells us, dwelt in 
the Sarat of Khaulan (p 69, 1. 24), and the Banu Hay he 
describes as Khaulanites (p. 114, 1. 26). 

Note 48 to p. 55. — The Queen, says al-Janadi (fol. 185 
obv.) appointed in the place of al-Muf\ic]dal the son of his 
uncle, As'ad son of Abu '1-Futuh, as administrator and 
guardian of her kingdom. He was the sonof Abu^l-Futuh, 
son of al-'Ala son ofal-Walid. He resided at the fortresses 
of Sabir and Ta'izz, over which his father had ruled before 
him. He continued to exercise the authority formerly 
held by al-Mufaddal, until the year 514, when he was 
assassinated at Ta'izz by two of his retainers.* This event, 
continues al-Janadi, occurred after the arrival of Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah. 

Note 49 to p. 56. — Al-Kliazraji, speaking elsewhere of 
the Banu Janb (fol. 105), says that when about to march, it 
was their custom to shout the words mentioned in the text. 

Note 50 to p. 57. — The Hujarlijah were a body of men 
in the service of the Fatimite Khalifahs. They were so 
named because they occupied barracks, known by the name 
of al-Hnjar, the Chambers, situated between the great 
palace at Cairo and Bab an-Nasr. They were originally a 
body of skilled craftsmen, first selected by the Khalifah al- 
Mu'izz, but they were subsequently made use of in a 
military capacity. Being led by al-Afdal Shahinshah 
against the Franks at Ascalon, they deserted their leader, 
who was compelled to retreat, alter setting fire to his stores. 
The body was re-organized by al-Afdal. He fixed their 
numbers at 8000 men and placed them under the command 
of an Amir who received the title of al-Mawaffuk. Pre- 
vious to that time, the Hujariyahs consisted, partly if not 
wholly, of native Egyptians. . They were selected with the 
greatest care by the provincial governors, from among the 

* Khazraji mentions the same date, 514 ; but As'ad^ according 
to 'Omarah, must have lived to a later period. See pp. 60 and 97, 



264 Notes. NOTES 51, 52. 

most promising youths or cliildren to be found in each dis- 
trict, special regard being paid to both physical aud intel- 
lectual capacity. The native element was eliminated by al- 
Afdal, who replaced it by a selection of youths from among 
the families of the foreign soldiery. (Makrizi's Khitat, vol. 
i. p. 443.) Makrizi's words, I may add, are that the new 
levies were selected from among the children of the Ajnad, 
a word which properly signifies simply soldiers. The 
singular is Juiuhj, which in Egypt is vulgarly pronounced 
Gincly, and is used to denote a Turkish soldier, and also 
generally a Turk of the poorer class. 

So far as I am aware, al-Afdal's experiment is the only 
serious attempt ever made to utilize the native population 
of Egypt in a military capacity, from the time of the Arab 
conquest down to the days of Muhammad *Aly, in the 
early part of the present century. The fact is all the more 
curious, considering the incessant struggles there have 
been for the acquisition of military power. The supremacy 
of any one of the ever contending factions has invariably 
depended upon the numbers and bravery of its followers. 
Muhammad 'Aly was the first to depart from ancient tradi- 
tion, and to form an army composed of native levies, but to 
the end of his life he retained also in his service foreign 
troops, a policy fi^nally abandoned by his successors some 
five and twenty years ago. Negro troops have at various 
times played an important part in the military history of 
Egypt, and they were especially numerous under the 
Tulunites and under the Fatimite Khalifah al-Mustansir, 
whose mother was indeed a negress. 

Note 51 to p. 57. — The IsmaiHte Da'ys taught their 
neophytes that mystical and spiritual significations attached, 
not only to passages and single words of the Kur'an, but 
also to numberless particulars observable in the natural 
world, and especially in the structure of the human body. 
It would appear from the text, either that they extended 
similar occult meanings to accidental marks and blemishes, 
or that Ibn NajTb ad-Daulah did so, on the occasion in 
question, on his own authority, for the purpose of impressing 
upon the people a belief in his supernatural knowledge. 
See Makrizi^s Khitat, vol. i. p. 392, and de Sacy's Expose 
de la religion des Druzes. 

Note 52 to p. 58. — Maytam was, according to Hamdani, 



NOTES 53-55. Notes. 265 

the name of a mountain and of a mikhldf or district. The 
river was probably one of the affluents of the Wadi Ragha- 
dah. If I rightly understand Hamdani's explanations 
(pp. 75, 1. 22; 92, 16; 101, 19, 21), Maytam was south or 
south-east of Dhamar and probably at no great distance 
from Jabal Khubban. 

The Banu Himas, spoken of a few lines farther on, are 
mentioned by Ibn Kutaybah as a sub-tribe of Madhhij. 
(Eichhorn, p. 143.) 

Note 53 to p. 60. — The allusion is to a verse in the 
Kur'an : Say, flight will not serve you, if ye flee from death 
or from slaughter (S. xxxiii. v. 16). 

Note 54 to p. 61. — There can be little doubt that a tran- 
scriber's omission occurs here, andindeedif the word /mti/ia, 
this, be not an interpolation, the fact of such an omission 
may be regarded as absolutely certain. The words I have 
placed in the translation within square brackets may, I 
think, be supplied with little or no hesitation, for the pur- 
pose of conveying the sense that the story that follows was 
derived from Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn, the same who 
has figured before as one of ^Omarah's authorities. The 
subsequent sentence, which I translate "they whom I smite 
with my hand," etc., has without doubt been incorrectly 
transcribed. 

Note 55 to p. 62. — Al-Ma'mun al-Bata'ihy was arrested 
by the Khalifah al-Amir on the fourth of Eamadan 519, 
and was put to death in 522. Al-Makrizi says (Khitat, 
vol. i. p. 463), that al-Ma'mun was accused of having sent 
(Ibn) NajTb ad-Daulah Abu '1-Hasan to Yaman, with orders 
to strike coins bearing the name of the Imam al-Mukhtar 
Muhammad son of Nizar. 

Nizar was son of the Khalifah al-Mustansir. Upon the 
latter's death in a.h. 487, Ahmad, a younger brother, was 
raised to the throne by the Wazir al-Afdal Shahiushah, 
under the title of al-Musta'la billah. Nizar fled to Alex- 
andria, where he caused himself to be proclaimed Khalifah 
and assumed the title of al-Mustafa li-cUn Illah. He was 
soon compelled to surrender himself to al-Afdal, by whom 
he was conveyed to Cairo and put to death. The Eastern 
Ismail ites embraced the cause of Nizar, who, as they pro- 
bably with truth asserted, had been appointed by his father 



266 Notes. NOTE 50. 

heir to the Empire. They renounced the supremacy of al- 
Musta'la and of his successors, whom tliey denounced as 
usurpers. Hence they are commonly known in Eastei-n 
history by the designation Nizd rites. They were also styled 
by their enemies al-Muldhidah, the Impious, and in the 
popular traditions still current in Egypt, they are remem- 
bered under the name of nl-Fidawlijah, because in the 
perilous adventures they were in the habit of uudertaking, 
they devoted their lives as a ransom {fida) for the libera- 
tion and propagation of their Faith. By western historians 
they are best known under the designation of the Assassins. 
Their Chiefs, now represented by an Imftm who resides at 
Bombay, claim to be descendants of Nizar. 

As a curiosity of history, I may add that not many years 
since certain claims advanced by Indian Dodekite Sln'ahs, 
which practically involved the right of existence of the Bom- 
bay Ismailites as a separate body, had to be investigated 
by an Eno'lish Court of Justice. Sir Joseph Arnould, 
before whom the case was tried, delivered an elaborate 
judgment, in which he reviewed the history of the Alides 
from the days of the Prophet down to the present time, 
arriving at the conclusion, that a small and obscure sect at 
Bombay was able to prove its right to be recognised as re- 
presentatives of the erewhile formidable Karmathians, of tho 
no less dreaded Assassins, and of the once powerful Empire 
of the Fatimites. 

Note 56 to p. G4. — According to Ibn Khaldun (supra, 
p. 169), Ibn NujTb ad-Daulah was drowned at sea, a state- 
ment which is probably correct, but for which no authority 
is given. Al-Khazraji's account of the end of Ibn Najib ad- 
Daulah's career is copied from 'Omarah, and corresponds in 
every particular with that supplied by our author, saving 
only certain verbal distinctions, most of which are shown 
in the notes I have appended to the printed text. Al-Janadi 
makes the following remarks (fol. 185 rev ), which clearly 
prove that if we have not the words of 'Umarah in their 
original purity, their corruption is of ancient date : — 

The Queen then delivered up Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, but she 
sent along with him one of her secretaries. On reaching Aden, 
the envoy departed with Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, and the secretary's 
journey was delayed for some days. Then he was sent off in a 
ship, the captain of which received orders to drown him, which 
he did, at Bab abMandab. I am in ignorance of the fate of Ibn 



NOTE 57. Notes. 267 

Najib ad-Daiilah^ seeing that 'Omarali does not mention it. The 
Queen repented of having surrendered Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, and 
of having sent avi^ay her secretary, whose presence with her she 
esteemed of happy augury. 

Al-Janadi's account of the Sulayhite dynasty ends at 
fol. 185 rev. with the following passage, which al-Khazraji 
incorporates almost verbatim in his history (p. 58-9). 

Upon the death of the Queen, at the date I have mentioned 
when relating the end of her career,* Mansiir son of al-Mufaddal 
succeeded, by her bequest, to the kingdom of the Sulayhites. 
He sold Ta'kar and Habb and the fortresses (I read L^t^ for (J^aa. 
i__i!iU.*'^) of the Mikhlaf (Ja'far) and dependencies to the Da'y 
Muhammad ibn Saba ibn Abi Su'ud. This was in the year 547, 
fifteen years after the Queen's death. The sovereignty of the 
Sulayliite dynasty, reckoning it from the year 429, endured there- 
fore 119 years. . . 

Mansiir continued to inhabit the fortress of Ta'izz until he 
died. He was the first to adopt Tha'bat f as a place of recreation. 
He was wont to go down and spend there several days. His death 
occurred in the year 540 and odd. He left a son Ahmad, who 
succeeded him, and who followed the same course ol life as his 
father until the year 558. Mahdy son of 'Aiy ibn Mahdy then 
came up from Tihamah and purchased of him Sabir and Ta'izz. 
Ahmad then inhabited Janad until the year 563, when he died. 

Note 57 to p. 65. — An obvious omission here occurs in 
our text, which is indeed, in this chapter, more than usually 
mutilated. The general import of the missing passage is 
not difficult to conjecture, but its sense and doubtless almost 
its precise words are supplied by Khazraji. I have not 
hesitated therefore to incorporate the passage in my trans- 
lation. 

This and other amendments are distinguished by being 
enclosed within square brackets. 

* At fol. 184 rev., al-Janadi says that the Queen died at Dhu 
Jiblah in a.h. 532. So also in Khazraji. The latter adds that 
she had attained the age of eighty- eight years, and Dayba' says 
that she was buried in the mosque she had built at iJhu Jiblah, 
in the foremost part of the building and on its western side. 
Her reign, he continues, extended over a period of thirty-one 
years. 

t Niebuhr marks upon his map Tlwhad close to Ta'izz, pre- 
sumably the place here mentioned. On Manzoni's map the name 
is written Thabud. 



268 Notes. NOTE 57. 

The following is Khazraji's version of the early history 
of the Zurayite dynasty (Leiden MS. pp. 58 and 59), which 
the reader will be able to compare with the corresponding 
passages in 'Omfirah. The only actual addition to the 
information given by the latter, is Khazraji's state- 
ment that Zuray' gained possession of Dumluwah in 
A.H. 480. 



ml 

j_sj JjJ-i .x-ij jUjj (__ftJl ijl» i;-j jS k o^l ]| J.^ ^jjx $i^l 

aJc U J^ L*.^ J>|^ J> J 5jj «i*s: L ^^ .Sjx..,.^ 5j J J'i_j\j . j5GtJI 
j^-iW dJuy^ (j^*^ (J* vj>ls» ilJ i^;.lc u>-J 'liliJI j»j> BjUjll «j .J eiL J 

Ax« ^"U J jUii ^ij Jl slJlj ^Jl (V^' c^ Jj3t~-« 4^ Jl J (j-Ua)l j^ 



NOTE 57. Notes. 269 

jll (j) J-aftJ! U^Jl e:*i3us Lajl »^U ^^C Llii Jjx-** ^^ *Cj1,U11 ^1 J 

^1 ^^ j^s:* ^9jj J ol^Ull (_^1 ^^ J^s:* »J.)j a::^^. ^_j!j j ol^Ull jjI 

It "will be observed that the name borne by the ancestor 
of the Hamdanite Princes of Aden, stands in our text 

j«j_CJ1 . In the Leiden MS. of Khazra ji and in the Paris MS. 

of Janadi the name is for the most part written j»^\JI . But 

not invariably so. Thus in Janadi, at p. 186 rev. {seeinfra^ 

Note 69), it is distinctly written ^jSil\ and so also in the 

corresponding passage in Khazraji, p. 77. 

The surname of 'Aly son of Saba is in our text and in 
Khazraji generally written^ VI . But in some instances the 
diacritical point is absent. In others it is not quite clear to 
which letter the point is intended to apply. In Janadi the 
name is distinctly writtenjcVI al-A'azz. So also in al-Ahdal. 
In the British Museum text of Ibn Khaldun the two names 

are invariably written -yWl and^VI. 

* Written here and elsewhere ol^UJI 



2 70 Notes. NOTES 58-00. 

Note 58 to p. 05. — The authoi' of the Taj al-'Arus sajs 
that Ta^kar is one of the mouDtains of Aden, on the left- 
hand side of a person proceeding from the gate to the 
mainland. 'Onuirah, as will be seen (p. 73), spe.iks of it as 
within the city, but we may perhaps understand him to 
mean within the peninsula. It may perhaps be identified 
with the spot I find marked on Colonel F. M. Hunter's 
plan of Aden, under the name of Orrus al Hosn, near the 
"Main Pass Gate." Colonel Hunter mentions the fort of 
Ta'kar (Statistical Account, p. 184) and also the Castle 
(Hisn) al-Akhdar (pp. 190 and 191), but without giving an 
indication of their position. The latter, I presume, must 
have stood at no great distance from the Island of Seerah. 

Note 59 to p. 07. — The name of Muhammad son of Saba 
is followed in the text by the words, '* and he was the last 
of the Banu Zuray'." They are clearly erroneous, and I 
omit them in the translation. Al Janadi confines himself 
to saying that *Aly ibn Abi '1-Gharat was the last of the 
family of MasTid. 

The subsequent sentence, in which the conquest of 
Yam an by Turan Shah is mentioned, is evidently an inter- 
poliition. 'Omarah tells us (p. 79) that he wrote his history 
in 504, and he was executed at Cairo on the 2nd Ramadan 
609, more than two months before the capture of Aden by 
the Ayyubites, on the 20th Dhu T-Ka'dah according to Ibu 
Hatim. 

Note 60 to p. 08. — Al- Janadi adds that 'Aly ibn Abi '1- 
Gharat possessed in Lahj the city of Za'azi^ ijj^ J' li ^ 

c^lcpl . In enumerating the possessions of Saba ibn Abi 
's-Su'iid, al-Janadi, like Khazraji, omits the name U>11 . He 
writes as follows : — ^J-^'^j j^ j ol^ j ^^ j »ji*^5' Ja>w J j 

The name of the place that follows after ij^jo.* looks in 
Khazraji (p. 69 ; see Note 57), and also at p. 108 (see 
foot-note 5 to p. 98 of the printed text of 'Omarah), like 
^J4^i or ^r^ . But both Janadi, as quoted above, and Ibn 
Hatim (see Note 101) have^:j»j which it may be presumed 
stands for Numayr. For the mountain of Sami', see Ham- 
dani, p. 74, 14 ; 76, 6 ; 77, 1 ; and 78, 6. Instead of Za'azi' 



NOTES 61-65. N'otes. 271 

tlie name in Miiller's edition of Haindani and also in 
Sprenger's Eeise-routen is written Ea'ari'. 

Note 61 to p. 69. — The name of this village is written 
in the text without the diacritical points. But al-Janadi 
mentions it when speaking of the learned men of Lahj (fol. 
69 rev.). There, as well as at fol. 186 obv., he calls itBani 
Abbah al-'Ulya. He supplies the vocalization of the word, 
and tells us that it was vulgarly pronounced Manyahbah. 
See also Hamdani, p. 98, 1., 

ikj^ ^^ J*j l^-ilj J^l ^)V JjVl (.-Vlj t:i»-«.-u _j Il^sLj »la JiUjjj-ij 

Note 62 to p. 69. — The line quoted in the text is from 
the Mu'^allakah of Tarafah ibn al-'Abd^ al-Bakri. 

Note 63 to p. 70. — The family of ZurayS as has been 
seen, were members of the Banu Jusham, a sub-tribe of 
the Banu Yam, themselves a subdivision of the great Sept 
of Hamdan. 

Note 64 to p. 70. — See Dieterici's Mutanabbi, p. 402. 
The entire verse, of which, for obvious reasons, only the 
second hemistich was quoted, and which, as will be noticed, 
is inaccurately rendered, is as follows : — 

The noblest of Empires are built up with the sword — and to those 
that love (desire to win) them, lance-thrusts are as kisses. 

The affixed pronoun, rendered by^/^em, is in the feminine, 
the word mamdlilc, kingdoms, to which it refers, being a 
feminine plural. 

Note 65 to p. 73. — As-Suhayb, according to Ilamdani 



272 Notes. NOTE 65 

(p. 54, 24), was inhabited by a people descended from Saba, 
and they were known by the desiguatiou of Saba-Sahayb. 
Elsewhere (p. 189) he mentions Suhayb as on the pilgrim 
route from Aden, next afcer Lahj. Manzoni marks Jabal 
** Menif ^' on his map, about twelve miles north of Lahj, as 
also a stream of the same name flowing thence into the 
Wadi " Saib/' Yakut mentions Munlf as the name of a 
fortress situated on Mount Sabir, which, it seems to me, 
requires confirmation. 

The following are the corresponding passages in al- 
Janadi (fol. 186 obv.). The words of al-Khazraji (p. 70), 
who indeed cites al- Janadi as his authority, are substantially 
the same : 

'' War continued to rage between the two parties and many 
battles were fought between them, ending eventually in the victory 
of Saba over his kinsman. 'Aly son of Abu '1-Gharat fled to 
Saba-Suhayb, where he and his friends entrenched themselves in 
two fortresses, Muiilf and al-Jabalah (?). A wonderful thing was, 
that on the day upon which Aly was defeated, Bilfd the freedmaii 
of Saba captured the fortress of al-Ivhadra. He sent a messenger 
with the glad tidings. . . . 

" Bilal brought down the Honourable Lady Bahjah (from al- 
Khadra) into the city (of Aden), where she continued to reside 
until her death. I believe that the mosque known under the 
name of Masjid al-TIurrah (the Lady's Mosque), situated near the 
principal mosque of Aden, is named after her. 

" On the termination of the war, the Da'y Saba entered Aden, 
where he abode for seven months and then died,* He was 
buried at the foot of at-Ta'kar, in the year 533. After the year 
700, signs of excavation in a mound at the foot of at-Ta'kar 
became visible through the action of the rains. It was surmised 
that treasure was concealed on the spot, and information was 
carried to the Governor of the city. He went up and stood by 
whilst the workmen uncovered a large chest, closely fastened with 
nails. It was opened and found to contain the body of a man, 
wound in sheets, but upon being touched the body crumbled into 
dust. The chest and remains were restored to their original place, 
as was also the earth that had been dug out. It may be that this 
was the body of the Da'y, but God is all- knowing.! 

* Khazraji (p. 70) quotes Janadi to the effect that Saba died in 
533, the same year as stated in 'Omarali ; but the event occurred, 
he adds, in 532, " the year in which Queen Sayyidah also died." 

t The practice of burying the dead enclosed in coffins is, so far 
as I am aware, altogether unknown in Muhammadan coimtries at 



NOTE 65. Notes. 273 

" The Da,''y Saba died after having appointed his son 'Aly al- 
A^azz to succeed him. The latter did not long survive, and died 
of consumption.* He had four sons of tender age, Avhom he 
placed under the guardianship of an [Abyssinian] eunuch named 
Anis [al-A^azzi], the same name, Anis, as that of the man who 
slew the last Prince of the Banu Ziyad." 

A_p 1^1 (W l?-* (^IjJl jI-^j:Ji ^i 0^1 \;t'--^ ^5j^ ^<r-i-A '^^V*-' 

i_iJiJ-Jl ^1 is.^ i^i* J^-JI J 1^^-* (ji*R-i U^Jy rj"^*- t-*< 

§ ^«U ^^ t_j/ ^^c »^' jsT**^ v_J,3u ^_JjJl j.sr*^' J ti^tJ^' ,&i»- U? exiii 
dil (j-Ull f.'^j^ .WJl s^A-tl IJ ^n*- ^-X«uJ 1 i-^o ^A_^l (^c Jl^jjlJI^^ 

-iJ Ul J *^-Cl "^ll^ J (jf'-^^' ^''^ J "H/T^* J A9jw).:.af alia. ^_^£ Uj^lcU 



the present day. But it would seem to have been otherwise in 
former times. Ivhazraji (fol. 73) tells a story not unlike the 
above, to the effect that a coffin made of ebony was found, in the 
days of Sultan al-Mansur 'Omar ibn Easul (a.if. 626 — 647), in 
a graveyard at Mansiirah, that upon its being opened it Avas 
found to contain remains, believed to be those of the D'l'y 
Muhammad son of Saba (who died at Dumluwah). See also Ibn 
al-Athir, vol. xii. p. 269, where it is related that on the grave of 
Katadah Amir and Sharif of Mecca being opened in a.h. 620, the 
coffin it contained was found to be empty. 

* At Dumluwah in a.h. 534, according to Khazraji. He goes 
on to say that 'Aly's sons were Jabir, 'Abbas and Mansur. The 
name of the fourth he did not remember. He adds, immediately 
after, that al-A'azz bequeathed the kingdom to his son Hatim. 

t Khi, i,:.U : Khi, Ai^Jl 

§ Khi, L^V II ^IJll ? ^ ■iS\? Khi, Jol J 

T 



2 74 Notes. NOTES 66-69, 

^_^ *o*^ i-r^' **^' C^^ J' *^^^ J«-^^ ^^j)^ '^'^.^ ^ 3 J— ^' 

. iljj (C^ ^^ *:J'>» ij*-* kS^ X^\ f^\ 

Note 66 to p. 74. — A Musalla is an enclosed place in 
tlie open air, set aside for the performance of prayer. 
Under the Fatimites, the Khalifah resorted to the Musalla 
in state, on the occasion of the two great festivals of the 
year. Makrizi says that the Musalla of Cairo was enclosed 
by Jauhar outside the walls in a.h. 358, and he describes 
the cremonies that took place on the occasion of the 
KhallFah's visits. (Khitat, vol. i. p. 451. See also de Sacy's 
Chrestomathie, note to the Life of al-Hakim.) 

Note 67 to p. 76. — The reason why Mansur divorced his 
wife is explained by Ibn Khaldun {sujJra, p. 174), and has 
perhaps been accidentally omitted from our text by the 
transcribers. 

Note 68 to p. 78. — ^Omiirah's verses in praise of the 
Da'y Muhammad ibn Saba probably contained, like those 
he afterwards wrote at Cairo, eulogistic allusions to the 
Ismailites and to their pretensions, sure to be regarded 
by the people of Zabid as doubly offensive, proceeding as 
they did, from the pen of one who professed to be an or- 
thodox Sunni. 

Al-Ahdal writes as follows : — 

'Omarah is profuse in his praise of the Dii'y 'Imriin and speaks 
in exaggerated terms of his great qualities. This is to be ex- 
plained by the kindness he received from the princes of the 
dynasty of Zuray' and by the love he bore them — nay, it is said, 
by his partiality to their religion, that is to say, to Siu'ism and 

Isnia'ilisin. Be this kno^\Ti unto you. ^::-rs:° Jl 4r« j ^^ j,4jL-*V 

The following is a passage in which 'Omarah speaks of 'Imran 
in more legitimate terms : 

They will not be contradicted, etc. (See next Note.) 

Note 69 to p. 79. — Al-Janadi has the following passage 

* l\hi. ^.w-a. il:^l j» _j fJJ^'^^ LT^^ 



NOTE 69. Notes. 



2/5 



(fol. 186 rev.), from which it may be inferred that our text 
of 'Omarah is incomplete at this point. See also Khazraji, 
p. 77. 

The following words of 'Omiirah, when relating the history of 
'Iniran, are singularly eloquent and appropriate : 

" Truly a gift from God were the qualicies of the Da'y 'Imran. 
How copious were the showers of his generosity, how abundant 
the springs of his beneficence % How greatly was he missed in the 
pathways of life by those who had daily beheld him ! How few, 
in the estimation of Kings and Princes, the occasions on which 
they enjoyed his companionship.* They will not be contradicted 
wlio declare that generosity and beneficence were the nature of 
'Imran, its necessary result, nay, its fulfihnent and seah Were 
there no other evidence of God's favour unto him, it Avere proved 
by his having been rescued from the tyranny of Ibn Mahdy." 

He died in the year 560. The learned scholar, Abu Bakr, car- 
ried his remains to Mecca and buried them in one of its ceme- 
teries. The mercy of Godf for the mightiest of Kings 

ardently desire to be buried at Mecca, and though striving, at the 
cost of heavy expenditure to compensate themselves for that of 
whicli they are deprived, their efforts are vain. We have here, 
therefore, another proof of the divine favour, of which 'Imriin was 
the object. Among the enduring memorials of him in existence 
at Aden, is the pulpit in the principal mosque. His name is 
inscribed upon it, and it is a monument comforting to the soul and 
beautiful to the eye. 

'Imran left three sons, Muhammad, Abu 's-Su'ud and Mansur, all 
in their early youth and under the care of the Chamberlain Abu 
Durr Janhar al-Mu'azzami, in the fortress of Dumluwah. The 
administrator at Aden of the affairs of the kingdom was the Chief 
Yasir son of Bilal, hereinbefore mentioned. In that condition 
matters remained imtil the arrival of Sultan Shams ad-Daulah 
Turan Shah son of Ayyiib (in Dhu '1-Ka'dah 569). He con- 
quered Aden, and Yasir fled to the fortress of Diimluwah, where 
Jauhar was. I have already related what happened to him. The 
family of Zuray' lost their sovereignty over Aden and its depen- 
dencies, and naught remained to them but the fortress of Dum- 
luwah, in the hands of Abu Durr, until he sold it to Sayf al- 
Islam (read to Turan Shah — see Xote 101), shortly after the 
year 570. 



* I translate the foregoing sentence with much hesitation. It 
is omitted l)y Khazraji. 

t I cannot attempt to translate tlie words that follow. Tlie 
sentence has no doubt been corrupted and Khazraji omits it. 

T 2 



2 76 Notes. NOTE G9. 

It now only remains for me to speak of the chief nobles of the 
Zuray'ite dynasty. The first was the auspicious chief Bilal, 
already mentioned. He died in the year 546 or 547. It Avas he 
who was eulogised by the accomplished scholar al-'Abdy, as I 
have hereinbefore stated, when mentioning him. Sultan ^lu- 
hammad son of Saba appointed ]\Iudafi' to succeed his father, and 
then the brother of Mudafi', Abu ']-Faraj Yasir son of Bilfd. Yasir 
held his office under Sultan Muhammad and under Muhammad's 
son ('Imrau). He exercised great power and enjoyed a wide 
celebrity. He was greatly praised and liberally rewarded his 
eulogists, nor did he disappoint any one that came to his court. 
'Omarah has given a brief account of Yasir's life in his memoirs 
of the Poets (?) He built the mosque at Aden, known as the 
mosque of Ibn al-Basri, the name of one who made it his place of 
resort lor prayer and holy living. 

When Yasir left Dumluwah he proceeded to Dhu 'Udaynah, in 
dipguise, accompanied by his mamluk Miftah who was surnamed 
as-Sudiisy. A person gave information against him, to the officials 
of the Government. He was arrested, and notice of his capture 
Avas sent to Shams ad-Daidah, who commanded him to be 
strangled. The order was carried into execution, and his slave 
(Miftah) shared his fate. It is also said that Shams ad-Daulah 
ordered them to be bisected. Yasir's death took place in the year 
571, and he was the last of the Zuray'ite wazirs. 

'Omarah says that the descendants of al-Karam, father of al- 
'Abbas and Mas'ud, whom al-Mukarram appointed (over Ailen), 
are known under the designation family of adh-Dhi'li, and that 
next to the Sulayhites^ they were the most distinguished Arabs in 
Yaman. 

I have mentioned, in speaking of Jauhar, how he parted Avith 
the castle of Dumluwah, and there now only remains to me 
to give an account of the Abyssinian kings (of Zabid). 

^Ji Xi^sf ^ u!/*^ (^^"^^ J J ill jyi i^jl ^j^ aJ ij^ Jj9 (j—jfci L J 

u' Jli ^^v* i_jA_Xj V J ^jj^\ J djU! ^J* l^t^i A-Jlj* J-il j ^\Ja:J^\ 

Jl * jS>.-i^ y\ v—^-i^l ilii 01. i;^ AJ'Uj ic^ili 5 l^J'^ r^l rj^ AIj>jL» 

* Kill, ^^J>-xll ^^ ^ 



NOTE 69. Notes. 277 

Vlj*l ellj iljlio j_j9 ijJJ>.--i u^ J A^=i»j ^^9>ll [ji^-i djUl ^^l ^jLs 

W til uJ 

JjI^jjU (_Jjil ^^1 sUi (j|^y jJjjJI (j-.»i (jUaLJl j,ji ^» (ill jj 'j'|/-i jJ-9 
^^^j-3u^ J 0^ L«ji us j»^Vl I a-i*. ^^ l^clj ^:» .jJI ^ j^ ijl^jJl 

t_^s:V J vy^jfcjljl L_*-ii Uj** Lwl Ji'^\ j^ jS^\ jt^^sa "^s^-j J^ J 
8j-C As* (3*^ J AO-'-J ••eW A_)jjJl (j*»*i AJ Ac\ j ijAM iJjjJi Jil aJiC 

^^0 J ov| i;^ jr.J^. "^'^ J W^ "^^^ J^^ U^W^-^j ^' Jj J^9 J 
^lU t-i;3tJl A;iu ^.si;*'^' (jJ Jjw *a J k_*jJJl Jlj c)iV^ r^^*^' ^X> 



* 5L1JI ? or aJic ^)I ? 



t ^1 ? Khi, J^\ A^lc ^ X'j^ss-i r 



P 



278 Notes. NOTES 70-72. 

Janadi's statement that tlie children of 'Imran were 
placed under the guardianship of Abu Durr Jauhar is con- 
firmed by Khazraji, who reproduces the preceding passages 
almost verbatim, and the statement is indirectly confirmed 
by Ibn Hatim. See Note 101. The corresponding pas- 
sage in our MS. of 'Omarah (supra, p. 80, footnote) is 
hopelessly mutilated, and the sense that can with difficulty 
be extracted is undoubtedly incorrect. There are, so far as 
I am aware, no means to attempt a textual restoration, and 
a restoration of the sense, as no doubt originally conveyed 
by our author, would require far more thorough amend- 
ments than those offered in the footnotes to the printed 
text. 

Note 70 to p. 79. — So also in Janadi, a.h. 546 or 547, as 
in the preceding note. Khazraji says that Bilal died in 
545. Fi'om Omfirah's own words, on the ensuing page, it 
would appear that Muhammad ibn Saba, who he has told 
us died in 548, survived Bilal at least two years. But 
al-Janadi, on the other hand, casts doubt over the 
precise year of Muhammad ibn Saba's death, which 
he says occurred in a.h. 548, or in 549, or in 550. He 
adds that 'Imran received, on his accession, the title of al- 
Mukarram. 

Note 71 to p. 80. — The Buhdr fpl. abhirah) is a weight 
variously described as 300 or 400 or 600 or 1000 rati or 
pounds, also as the proper load of a camel. Our author, 
it will be seen {xupra, p. 109), describes it as equal to 
three kantiirs. 



Note 72 to p. 85. — See Baron de Slane^s ed. of 'Imru '1- 
Kays, p. 23, Ahlwardt, p. 117. 

The death of as-Sulayhi occurred, according to Janadi 
(fol. 183 rev.), on the 12th of the month of Dhu'l-Ka'dah 
473. Khazraji adds that thi'ee men were spared in the 
massacre that followed, Wa'il ibn 'Isa Prince of Wuhazah, 
*Aly ibn Ma'n Prince of Aden and Ibn al-Kuraudi Prince 
of al-Ma'afir. 



NOTES 73-75. Notes. 279 

Note 73 to p. 90. — The person here referred to is pro- 
bably the Khalifah 'Omar ibu ''Abd al-AzIz. See supra, 
p. 9. 

Note 74 to p, 90. — The word Bahr, the Sea, is in con- 
stant use among Arabs, as a figure of speech implying 
infinity, boundless, that is to say, in generosity, learning, 
etc. (see supra, Note 44, p. 259). Abu *t-Tami signifies 
Exalted. 

Note 75 to p. 93. — Literally, who made himself neither 
sweet nor bitter. There is a favourite Arab proverb, by 
which men are warned not to make themselves too sweet or 
they will be swallowed, nor too bitter or they will be spat 
forth. 

There seems again reason to suspect an omission in this 
portion of the MS. Al-Janadi and, following him, Khaz- 
raji, al-Ahdal and Dayba', enter into particulars touching 
Jayyash's literary acquirements. His poetical works, they 
say, on the authority of 'Omarah, filled a large volume. 
They quote a long epistle in rhymed prose, which he is said 
to have addressed to his son's tutor. They speak also in 
laudatory terms of his history of Zabid. Khazraji adds 
that the book had become excessively rai^e aud could with 
difficulty be found in any of the libraries of the country. 
Al-Janadi mentions that according to 'Omarah, Jayyash 
bore the title of al-'Jdil Ahu 'f-Tdini. Among the verses 
composed by Jayyash, he quotes the following : — 

If a man's lenity be a help unto his enemy — against himself, then 
is sternness, of a certainty preferable and more conducive 
to tranquillity. 

In severity is strength. In thy clemency is weakness — if thou 
extend it to the ungrateful. 



J . - 



'Omarah, continues al-Janadi, ranks the following line 
among the most remarkable of Jayyash's compositions. 



Jr\ ? t Khi, Jjl : Khi, J,U 



28o 



Notes. 



NOTE 75. 



A mound of the fairest sand, the graceful stem of the bfin-tree. — 
Over all, the beauteous moon. And its gift a night of watch- 
fulness. 



J 



it ^ 



'Omarah's praise seems at first sight somewhat puzzling, 
but he reckons upon his Eastern reader's quickness to ap- 
prehend that the poet is not simply describing a desert 
moon-lit scene, that he is on the contrary descanting upon 
the charms of his mistress, her rounded form, her figure 
flexible and graceful as the bdn-trcc, and her face resplendent 
with beauty as the full moon. 

Khrazraji relates the circumstances that led to the death 
of Ibn Abi ^Akamah. Jayyash sought the hand of a woman, 
of whose extreme beauty he had been informed. She was 
daughter of an Arab tribe, descended from E.abi'ah son of 
Nizar, inhabiting the valley of Mauza'.f There was a 
division of opinion among her people, on the question 
whether the demand should be complied with. The Kacji, 
who as a Taghlibite was akin to the tribe, advised them not 
to consent unless all were agreed. Jayyash, by a liberal 
expenditure of money, eventually gained his ends, and the 
woman, when she joined her husband, acquainted him with 
the part played by the' Kadi in the matter. 

The same writer gives three, instead of one line only, 
of the verses composed by Husayn ibn al-Kumm, as 
follows : — 

Thou hast dealt unrighteously, Jayj^ash, in slaying al-Hasan — 
Thou hast darkened, by his destruction, the glory of his age. 



* aJjj ? Khi, diy 

t Hamdani says that the country in the neighbourhood of 
Mauza', Mukha and Bab al-Mandab, which was occupied by the 
Banu INIusili (a tribe derived from the Eanu Majid, themselves a 
subdivision of the Banu Hay dan), was inhabitecl also by the Banu 
Farasan, descendants of the Banu Taghlib. The Himyarite genea- 
logists, he adds, claimed them as descendants of Himyar. 

The Farasan Islands, he further says, were named after the 
tribe, who, he also tells us, were originally Christians and at one 
time possessed churches in the islands. The Banu Farasan are 
described as enterprising merchants, Avho conducted a large trade 
with Abvssinia and protected commerce. (Midler's Hamdani, 
p. 53, 1. 20 sqq. and p. 98, 1. 22 sqq ) 



NOTES 76-78. Notes. 281 

He sought not the accumulation of riches. — Pure and free from 

evil, 
His reward for raising thee to the throne of Yaman, — is his 

slaughter at thy hands and a dishonoured grave. 

P If *4 P 

^_j-fl_i % 4_1J.J J d_AjL:Li ^-e^l '^'^j \J^^ *!)-*• u^ ^^— 

Note 76 to p. 94, — Jurayb is described by Hamdaui 
(pp. 69 and 113) as a place where an important market was 
held, largely frequented by the people of Tihamah and 
by the Arab inhabitants of the country of the Banu Ham- 
dan. 

The Banu Jurayb are said to be descendants of Huzayl 
son of Sharahbil, one of the contemporaries and successors 
{tdhi') of the Prophet's Companions^ mentioned in Ibn al- 
Athlr's Usd al-Ghdhah. (Bui. ed. v. p. 60.) Khazraji 
writes al-Hdrith instead of Jurayb. The town of Jurayb 
is described by Hamdani (p. 113, 1. 6) as situated in the 
district of Hajur. The latter is marked in Dr. Glaser's 
map. 

Note 77 to p. 98. — Al-Janadi, like 'Omarah, does not 
mention the date at which Mansur son of Fatik died, and 
Khazraji remarks that he had not been able to ascertain it. 
But 'Omarah's words may be held to imply that the death 
of MansLir followed immediately after the accession of Mann 
Allah as Wazir. 

Note 78 to p. 98. — It is difficult to extract a consistent 
meaning from this passage, and hardly less so from the ver- 
sion given by al-Khazraji, shown in a footnote to the 
printed text. His words must signify that the lady received 
the title oi Hurrah (free, virtuous, honourable, etc.) because 
she had borne a child to Mansur, an explanation which in 
her case in particular — that of a native of the country — is 
hardly satisfactory. I have preferred to read to^ as in 
Khazraji, instead of e>:^j, but iJ^JJ as in our text in the 
next line, instead of *.::-^ , repeated in Khazraji. The pas- 
sage, however, remains very doubtful. 

The surname Ahii H-Jayxh is best known through its 



282 Notes. NOTES 79-82. 

having been borne by one of the Princes of the Egyptian 
dynasty of TuluOj and may be translated the Possessor of 
the great Armij. But the word Jai/sh may also be trans- 
lated agitation, turmoil, ia which sense it is perhaps 
used in the text. I may add that the name Jayyash, de- 
rived from the same root, may be translated high-spirited, 
fiery. 

Note 79 to p. 100. — Al-Khazraji adds that, according to 
statements made to him by several persons, Mann Allah 
was buried in a mosque at Zabid, which stood on a spot called 
al-Hadd. In Khazraji's own day it bore the name Mosque I 
oflhn ar-Ruddd, after one who, when the building threatened ■ 
ruin, repaired it. In earlier times, he continues, the mosque ^ 
was universally known under the name of Mosque of the son 
of Mann Allah. 

Note 80 to p. 102. — Abu '1-TIasan Ibn al-Labban al- 
Fai-adi, an eminent Jurist and authority on the laws of in- 
heritance, died at Baghdad in a.h. 402. 

Note 81 to p. 102. — Abu 'Amru ibn al-'Ala, one of the 
seven principal readers, that is to say, recensiouists of the 
Kuranic text, died in a.h. 153 or 157, aged eighty-six years. 
Of the other six, the earliest died about a.h. 118 and the 
latest about a.h. 181. 

The differences between the several readings are of so 
slight a character that it would be misleading to speak of 
them as so many versions of the Kur'an. 

Note 82 to p. 105. — The copyist must be suspected of 
being again at fault in this passage. It is difficult to 
make sense of the words JlpVl ^^j , as they stand in the text, 

and they are not to be found in the corresponding passage 
in Khazraji. He writes as follows (p. 89) : — 

Yakiit mentions a village named Waste' in the district of 
'Aththar, a place which, if it is correctly described, is far too 
distant to be hei'e in question. 



NOTES 83-87. Notes. 283 

Note 83 to p. 107. — It is hardly necessary to remind the 
reader that^ in Muhammadan countries, a slave who bears a 
child to her master, thereby becomes free. 

Note 84 to p. 109. — Al-Khazraji supplies us at this point 
■with a short passage, omitted by the ti'anscriber of our 
text, but which I include in the translation. The words are 

as follows : — 

. Jl ^jUUl ii*Lii l^.a;l \^j\^ Ui \jya>- r^„JJI i »HA 

Note 85 to p. 110. — My translation here again follows 
al-Khazraji : — 

A«o (jO (^jJl ^Uji i__a!Vl aJI oj^cU jj\<ic Jl oJ£ -.LJl ^ol Lii 

Khazraji proceeds with the words l^ jj aSjJ . Reading 

the verb in the passive, the general sense agrees with 
^Omarah. 

Note 86 to p. 111. — Some words, omitted in the text, I 
have supplied in the translation, from al-Khazraji's version, 
as follows ; — 

Note 87 to p. 113. — It will be observed that further 

on, 'Omarah gives this place the alternative name of ^J>/-J\ . 
Al-Hamdani has the same, but for a totally different place, 
namely between Mount Sabir and Aden (p. 77, 6-9). 
Khazraji vocalizes the name al-Karish. Yakut writes al- 
Kirsh and says it is a castle in the district of al-Mahjam, 
but his information, such as it is, is probably nothing more 
than what he has gathered from 'Omarah. Al- Janadi writes : 

^J-^J1 a) JUj q.J> J-a. ^J^ Las. ^^^ J (fol. 187 rev.), intima- 
ting in plain words, that the castle stood upon Mount Bura'. 
The name of the castle of Dabsdn, mentioned in our text 



284 Notes. NOTE 88. 

a few lines further orij is thus likewise given by Khazraji, 
but I have nowhere else met with it. 

Note 88 to p. 113. — Ibn Kbaldfm says (.swp-a, p. 166-7) 
that Ghanim ibu Yahya was a descendant of the Suley- 
manite Sharifs of Mecca, who, he tells us, not only here, 
but also in his chapter on the history of the Suleyniiinites 
of Mecca, sought refuge in Yaman upon their expulsion by 
the Banu Hashim. But Ibn Khaldun^s statements, in cer- 
tain portions of his general history require to be received 
with some caution. Thus he tells us, on the authority of 
Ibn Sa'Id, that the Suleymauite refugees conquered 
Sa'dah from the Rassites, that they and their descendants 
were the recognized Imaras of Yaman throughout a period 
of at least a century and a half, that the Inifiin Ahmad (al- 
Mutawakkil) who brought about the assassination of Fatik 
ibn Muhammad in a.h. 553, and even the celebrated Imam 
al-Mansur 'Abd Allah, were members of the Suleymauite 
family. All these statements we know to be absolutely 
incorrect, as I shall yet have occasion to show.* 

It must, however, be observed that not only 'Omarah, 
but also every writer on the history of Yaman, including 
the authors of the Hadu i k and of the Yaioalftt (Brit. Mus. 
Or. 3786 and 3771) invariably speak of the Hasanite family, 
to which Ghfinim ibn Yahya belonged, under the designa- 
tion of the Suleymanites . I was for a moment inclined to 
think that the circumstance simply pointed to the fact of 
their having obtained possession of the district, commonly 
known, at that time, as the Province of Suleyman ibn Tarf. 
But the explanation was one which I soon found reason to 
abandon. 

With the exception of Ibn Klialdun, none of the writers 
I have referred to, so far as I have been able to discover, 
explain who these people were, nor whence they came. I 
have nowhere found any allusion to kinship between them 
and the Imams of Sa'dah, some trace of which could hardly 
fail to appear, if it had existed. Ibn Khaldun, I am much 
inclined to think, is right so far as the origin of the family 
of Ghauim ibn Yahya is concerned. Khazraji gives us a 
fuller pedigree of the Sharif than any I have found else- 
where, and calls him Ghanim son of Yahya son of Hamzah 

* See Is^te 130. 



NOTES 89, 90. Notes. 285 

son of Wahlias {infra, Note 101). It seems not improbable 
that Ghanim's grandfather Hamzah ibn Wahhas was the 
identical Suleymauite Prince, who unsuccessfully disputed 
the sovereignty over Mecca with the Banu Hashim, as may 
be read in the history of Mecca by Dr. Snouck-Hurgronje.* 

I may add that I find mention in the Hadd'ik of two 
other members of the Saleymanite family, namely, at fol. 
128 obv., 'Aly son of 'Isa son of Hamzah son of Wahhas, 
living in a.h. 540, and at fol. 168 obv., Nizam ad-din Yahya 
son of 'Aly (son of the preceding ?), ruler over the old pro- 
vince of Suleyman ibn Tarf in a.h. 594-5, in the days, that 
is to say, of the Ayyubite dynasty. 

I have made no attempt to trace the subsequent history 
of the Suleymauites, but I find them mentioned in the life 
of the Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya (Brit. Mus. Or. 3731). 
The author says (fob 59 obv.) that in a.h. 963 (a.d. 1556), 
the Imam received letters from the Sulaymanite Sharifs in- 
forrLiing him of the success with which they had resisted 
the troops brought by the Turks from Egypt. 

Al-Mutawakkil, a descendant of Yusuf the Da'y, died in 
A.H. 965. 

Note 89 to p. 115.— The death of Fatik son of Mansur 
occurred, according to both al-Janadi and Khazraji in the 
month of Sha'ban of the year 531. The omission of the 
year from our text is probably an accident. Neither al- 
Janadi nor Khazraji give us particulars of the circumstances 
under which al-Fatik ibn Muhammad, the successor of al- 
Fatik ibn Mansur, was raised to the throne. Al-Janadi 
merely repeats (fol. 187 rev.) what we have been told by 
'Omarah, with the addition, as in Khazraji, that the Prince 
died leaving no issue. {Supra, p. 95.) The sentences I 
have enclosed in square brackets are wanting in the text 
and are supplied from Khazraji. 

Note 90 to p. 118. — I have not found to what Arab stems 
these tribes, the Banu Mash'al, Zi'l and 'Imran are to be 
assigned. But it is probable that like the Hakamites 
they were subdivisions of the Banu Madhhij. The Banu 



* See also the passage from Ibn al-Athir (siipra, Note 31), in 
which certain Hasanites are spoken of as having removed lo 
Yainan, at some time previous to AM. 455. 



286 Notes. NOTES 91-94. 

Hanim are mentioned by Hamdani (p. 116) as the principal 
subdivision of the Banu Nahd. 

Note 91 to p. 121. — It has been sufficiently shown in the 
course of 'Omarah's narrative, that at least some ladies of 
exalted rank in Yaman, were by no means rigorous in their 
observance of the strict rules, that exclude Eastern women 
from personal intercourse with men. But in regard to this 
particular instance, it must be borne in mind, that Surur 
was technically the slave of the Lady 'Alam. His admission 
into her presence was consequently no violation of Muham- 
madan law. 

Note 92 to p. 121. — To stand, or even to sit before, that 
is to say facing a person, is; a mark of respect to one superior 
in rank. (See siqjra, p. 122.) 

Note 93 to p. 123. — Our text is manifestly corrupt at this 
point, and the portion of the translatiou euclosed within 
square brackets is from al-Janadi^s version, which, through- 
out the description of Surur's character and habits is, as is 
likewise that of al-Khazraji, an almost verbatim copy of 
'Omarah. The following is the passage as it stands in the 
Paris MS. (p. 188. obv.). 



. Jl J^^ Jl ^jsi ^ vj>^' J^ '^'k »;'•> J^"^- J ^^* 

The words in the translation, placed within ox'dinary 
brackets, are taken, as will be seen, from 'Omarah. 

Note 94 to p. 123. — Al-Janadi continues at this point as 

follows : — 

* Khi, \j/i US^ijUl J l)\ijl\ t Khi, J^i 

: Khi, >j.,^ § Khi, JkH Jlj; J^l J II Khi, ^l^. 



NOTE 94. Notes. 287 

His mosqvie is known to the present day under the name of 
Mosque of Suriir. It is situated in the city of Zabid, on the 
western side of Marta'' al-'AJuz (the Old Woman's Pasturage). 
Hardly any of the inhabitants of the town, saving a few of the 
best informed class, know who Surur was. The vulgar only know 
that it is one of the mosques, the erection of which is ascribed to 
the Abyssinians. 

Al-Janadi admits that his history of the early dynasties 
is much abridged. " If," he says to his readers^ after re- 
cording the death of Mann Allah, — 

If you desire fuller information, you will find it in the Mufid of 
'Omarah. I have abridged much of his history, but always in 
such wise, that in what I mention there shall be, either in ex- 
press terms or by implication, something that points to what I 
have omitted. 

^JxJ 8^Li.1 ^JA \jJi^=a O^-aii-l (jjU ij^ J.-io ySaJls IsUi ^^Jud OJ.I Ul 

In treating of the life and character of Surur, al-Janadi 
departs from his rule, and introduces into his pages an 
almost verbatim copy of 'Omarah's account of the celebrated 
Wazir. The examples afforded by the life and conduct of 
a pious Muslim furnish, in the eyes of an Arab writer, a far 
worthier theme for the historian's pen, than the record of 
the rise and fall of dynasties or of any merely secular events. 
Here are al-Janadi's own words on the subject : — 

A full account of Surur's qualities, of his nobility of character, 
of his bravery and of his righteousness, would be of great length. 
What 'Omarah has recorded on the subject is widely known. 
Let hirn who more would read, turn to that writer's book al- 
Mufid. The student may do so, although, in the case of Surur, I 
have written at far greater length than I have allowed myself to 
do in other instances. Thus have I done on account of Surur's 
great merits. I have studied to acquaint myself with all that to 
which 'Omarah directs attention, and I have entered into detailed 
particulars on the subject of Surur's virtues, such as justify in- 
difference to other things which I have omitted, 

aAli j^« »^l? jyl ji _j l^syi JjWj Jj«1Ij i-cls.-^' ^ p^l ^ 6^Li.l9 



288 Notes. NOTE 95. 

Note 95 to p. 124. — Al-Janadi mentions the pedigree of 
'Aly ibn Mahdy, but it is more fully given by KLazraji 
(p. 97) as follows: — A.bu '1-Hasaa 'Aly son of (Mahdy sou 
of) Muhammad, son of 'Aly son of Da-ud, son of Muhammad 
son of 'Abd Allah, son of Muhammad son of Ahmad, son 
of 'Abd al-Kahir (?) son of 'Abd Allah son of al-Aghlab 
son of Abu ^l-Fawaris son of Maimun, of the tribe of llim- 
yar and subtribe of Ru'ayn. 

Al-Jauadi's rendering of the geographical names men- 
tioned in our text is as follows : — 

The commencement of his career was at al-'Irk, the lower por- 
tion of the valley of the river Zabkl. It commences Avith the 
village of al-'Anbarah and (comprises) al-Kiujayb, al-Ahwab, al- 
Mu'tafi (?), Wasit and its neighbourhood. He acquired there a 
great reputation for piety. 

A few lines further on he supplies us with the vocaliza- 
tion of the name al-Kudayb. 

c_Aj^t!l J i^jJl iyi l^jl J^ 3 \S^3 J"-^ (J* \^ CiJ^b »^1 ^U U Jjl 

I have nowhere else met with the name ei)^Jl . Al-'Irk 
j^Jl has been mentioned at p. 15 as close to Zabid. See 
also Janadi, p. 183, and Yakut. Ibn al-Mujawir (Sprenger, 
p. 149) says that Wadi 'l-*Irk is another name for Kuwayd 
^l^ half a parasang from Wadi Rima' and four from 
Zabid. Al-Fdrah or al-'Arah, it will be noticed, is omitted 
by both Janadi and Khazraji ; but al-A'rah is described by 
Ibn al-Mujawir, who says that its inhabitants are fisher- 
men and that close to it are the ruins of a city, among 
"which the remains of two mosques could still be distin- 
guished. (Sprenger, p. 149-50.) 

To 'Omarah's description of Ibn Mahdy, al-Janadi adds 
that he was of a tender heart, quick in shedding abundant 



* o 



j/i J ? t A-i[ 



NOTE 96. Notes. 289 

tears, U^jc isi^jJl <-^_^ i_Jill ^j ,jo , an account of him which 
need not perhaps be regarded as wholly inconsistent with the 
savage cruelty he displayed. The author's meaning, how- 
ever, is that Ibn Mahdy was in the habit of lamenting with 
tears his un worthiness in the face of God. 

The words, " he bore between his eyes the traces of his 
prostrations," are an allusion to a passage in the Kur'an 
(S. xlviii. V. 29) : Thou shalt see them {the believers) 
bowing down, and prostrating themselves, winning the grace 
of God and his approbation. Their distinguishing mark is 
on their hroivs, the traces of their prostrations. 

It is related by the commentators that 'Aly Zayn al- 
'Abidin, grandson of 'Aly the Prophet's son-in-law, and 
'Aly son of 'Abd Allah son of 'Abbas, ancestor of the 
Abbasides, were surnamed Bhu 'th-thafindt, because the 
frequency of their prostrations in prayer had caused 
induration of the skin on the part of their foreheads that 
touched the ground. There is a tradition that the Prophet 
disapproved of such marks, but his disapproval is recon- 
ciled with the reverence in which the memory of the two 
*Alys is held, by an explanation that what the Prophet 
condemned were marks purposely produced, by undue 
pressure of the forehead upon the ground. Such marks 
are signs of hypocrisy and impiety, from which, adds the 
pious writer quoted by the author of the Kashshaf, we must 
pray God to deliver us. 

The word i'tazala, which occurs in Ibn Khaldiin as well as 
in 'Omarah, and which I have translated he Led a life of 
retirement, might also be taken to signify that Ibn Mahdy 
joined the sect of the Mu'tazilites. But Ibn Khaldiin 
styles him the Kharijite, and is supported therein by 
'Omarah's statement that Ibn Mahdy held the doctrine 
which treats sin as infidelity [oupra, p. 132). It deserves, 
perhaps, to be remarked that 'Omarah speaks of Ibn Mahdy 
as al-ICIidrij {supra, p. 95), which, however, simply signi- 
fies the rebel. 

Note 96 to p. 125. — See Dieterici's Mutanabbi, p. 2S0, 
where the line is given as follows : — 

Al- Janadi says that it was in the year 536 that the Queen 
'Alam relieved Ibn Mahdy and his followers from payment 

U 



290 Notes, NOTE 96. 

o£ the Khardj (land assessment), and that after the death of 
the queen (in a.h. 545), his followers greatly increased in 
numbers. 

The same writer gives us the following Ichuthah or ser- 
mon, delivered by Ibii Malidy to his followers : — 

" ' I swear by Allah, unto none but unto me and iinto you 
hath God committed the doom ot the Abyssinians. Soon, under 
liis will, ye shall know. By Allah the most great, the Lord of 
Moses and of Abraham, I shall be unto them as the sutfocating 
"wind of 'Ad and as the exterminating cry of Thamud.* Verily, I 
speak unto you and ye are not deceived, I promise and your hopes 
shall not be frustrated. Of a certainty, though now ye be few ye 
shall be many, though ye be humble ye shall be lionoured, though 
ye be lowly ye shall be exalted, and your fame shall be a proverb 
among Araljs and non- Arabs ; that God may requite them that 
do evil according to their deeds, and that nnto them that do 
good he may grant his surpassing rewards.^ The time is near. 
Await with patience. By the Divine Truth of God most great, 
charged unto every believer and maintainer of the Unity, I will of 
a certainty give unto you the daughters of tlie Abyssinians and 
their sisters, to be your servants, and I will deliver into your 
liands their riches and their children.' 

'^ Then he recited the verse: God hath promi'^ed unto such of you 
as believe and are tvcU-duint/, that they shall of a certainty inherit 
the earth, as it hath been inherited by those (the faithful) that were 
before them. Verily, he tcill establish among them the faith they 
have icillingly received, and of a certainty, for their fears he icill 
substitute safty.''^ X 

,^j-, Al3l 'Ll ^jl JJLi Cc J X J IjVl Llii 'Lj 4131 J«* U 4lll J 

Hi •'1 

Alll ^j9 aliVl slj^ls (g-~s/lj ly--*.! ^Ji.si\ (j?>?S J 1/^ ^ \jiL,\ ^^JJJI 

3 

WW .1 * W)^ op 

* The tribe of 'Ad, for its disregard of the prophet Hud, was 
destroyed by a suffocating wind. That of Thamud, for its defiance 
of the prophet Sfdih, perished at the sound of an appalling cry 
that issued from the heavens. (Kur'an, s. vii.) 

t Kur an, liii. 32. J Kur'an, xxiv. 54. 



NOTES 97, 98. Notes. 291 

4]_ji (^1 olLUl lyip J ^C* lj:^l ^^)ij.!l aJJl j^j j^ J -.ft^Vjl j *^lj-.l 

Note 97 to p. 126. — Janadi says that after the queen's 
death, a great number of people swore allegiance to Ibn 
Mahdy at the village of Kudayb. This he adds was in 
A.H. 546. Ibn Mahdy then proceeded to ad-Dashir, where 
lie remained for a time, and thence he went up to the for- 
tress of ash-Sharaf. I have substituted in our text the 
name Bdsliir for Sharaf. The latter, as is shown by the 
words that follow, cannot be correct, and Khazraji, as well 
as Janadi, writes Dashir. In the printed edition of Yakut's 
Geographical Dictionary, the name appears as Bdsir, and 
the author says it stood at the distance of a night's journey 
from Zabid. (See supra, p. 128.) Ash-Sharaf was one of 
the fortresses situated on Mount Wusab. 

Instead of Hay wan, the name of the tribe to which ash- 
Sharaf is said to have belonged, we may perhaps read 
Haydan. Hamdani mentions the Banu Haydan as sons of 
'Amru son of al-Haf (p. 53, 1. 20). They were, therefore, 
descendants of Kuda'ah, but it has been seen (see supra. 
Note 3, pp. 217 and 218), that certain Khaulanites in Yaman 
were regarded as Kuda'ites. 

Note 98 to p. 120. — By omitting the words printed in 
italics, in accordance with the amendments I have indicated 
in the footnotes to the printed text, the succession of the 
Ziyadite Princes here presented will agree with that pre- 
viously given by 'Omarah in his history of the dynasty 
[sifpra, p. 5), and after him by al-Janadi and subsequent 
writers. The present passage, it is true, may be suspected 
of being an interpolation and has, perhaps, been corrupted 
by the transcribers. But the accuracy of 'Omarah's pre- 
vious account of the succession is itself by no means free 
from doubt, and the interpolation, if it be one, is perhaps 
capable of helping us to a more correct appreciation of the 
facts. Thus Abu '1- Jaysh Ishak is here stated to have been 
grandson, instead of son of Ibrahim — Ishak, son of Muham- 
f mad son of Ibrahim. The latter, in like manner, is repre- 
sented as grandson of Muhammad ibn Ziyud — Ibrahim son 
of 'Abd Allah son of (Muhammad ibn) Ziyad. Ibrahim, we 
have been told, died in a.h. 289, eighty-six years there- 

u 2 



2 92 N'oteS. NOTE 98. 

fore after the arrival of Muhammad ibn Ziyad iu Yaman, 
and Abu '1-Jaysh Ishak iu a.h. 371, eig-hty-two years after 
the death of Ibrahim, who it is said was Ishak's father. 
(See sujjra, Note 13.) 

Al-Janadi offers some remarks which may bo taken to 
show that his mind was open to doubt as to the perfect 
accuracy of 'Omarah's account of the Zivadite succession. 
He mentions and quotes (foL 182 rev.) certain marginal 
notes he found on a copy of 'Omarah's Mnfid. As to their 
subject matter, it is sufficient to say that the writer omits 
the reign oF Ziyad son of Ibrahim, that he represents 
Husayn ibn Salfimah as having, in a.h. 371, succeeded Ishak, 
and that ho believes the latter was he who bore the surname 
Abu '1-Jaysh. Al- Janadi proceeds as follows : — 

According to the annotator, each of the Br.nu Ziyad enjoyed a 
long life, and tlie meiubers of the dynasty were few in number. 
According to 'Omarah they were many, of some the life was long, 
of others it was short. God knoweth the truth. The annotator 
.says also that Husayn ibn Salamah died in 40.'?, one year later 
than the date mentioned by 'Onulrah. Know tliat in such his- 
torical details, both truth and falsehood, amplitude and scantiness 
are to be found. This is caused by transcribers' variations, which 
give rise to diversities iu hi.itorical works. Discrepancies will be 
found even between one copy and another of the same book, 
written by the same author. The well-informed are fully aware 
of these facts. It may be that some critic will take exception to 
the matter I have extracted from the Miifld and other works, but 
the only grounds for his censure will be his own inadequate study 
of historical works, and his neglect to compare ditferent copies 
Avith one anotlier. That which clearly appears is, that the uncon- 
trolled rulership of the Banu Ziyad endured from a.u. 203 to 371, 
168 years. ... 

The substance of what follows has already been given in 
Note 13, and the following is the Arabic text of the entire 
passage : — 

Jiadl jTj j (3^b ^Icl .^ills ^Ui J JljL *aijju> j ^i^=» (,» 'ij\f- y':> U 

Ij^'j k_i-l.aJI J IjJfclj L_ft;.all ^Jy^_ J^ "r-}^^ \-^'^^r-a »__s^iLi.l J Ji J I 



NOTES 99, 100. Azotes. 293 

Mi 

ijUilj J l^*^-" J tf"^*' '*~*^ (_S ** ''" *'*^ C^"* f^- J* L^ J-P'^.».« ^4,^ (Aj 

w 
j^c (J >sJl^ 4I-9 (i^ (Jy*-' >*^ ^ aJ-''"^ ^ !»'''?^ *J.^)^ C^**** '^*-'^ r"'^ 

lji,ljJ 'ja i .i J Fir ii-j sjsii!! ^ji ^ J^j <—''' 

^joi ^yjVl jijaj Jl^l t^^i'j eilil ij/ls i^^^* ^^1 *4!V,1 j:a. elljl 

Note 99 to p. 131. — I can make no other sense of the 
"svords as they stand in the text. They have no doubt been 
inaccurately transcribed, but they have also very much 
the appearance of an interpolation, and it is to be remarked 
tljat they are not to be found in the corresponding passage 
of al-Khazrnji, We have seen that according to both al- 
Janadi and Khazraji {>^%i])Ta, Note 56), Mansur son of al- 
Mufaddal was livincr in 547 and died before a.h. 550. On 
the other hand, the present passage may be compared with 
what is said by Ibu Khaldun {supra, p. 151 and p. 174). 
But again it must be remarked that if Mansur was twenty 
years of age, or even less, when his father died in a.h. 504, 
and if he lived to the age of one hundred or even ninety, 
then he must have survived 'Omarah. And ^Oniarah^s his- 
tory, we are told, was written in a.h. 561. The word ij-j"^, 
thirti/, in our text, might be an error for ^Jr^>'■■^> 'i'jhty. But 
if, as seems probable, Mansur was in his childhood when 
his father died in 504, then it may well be that when he 
himself died, say in 548, he had been in possession of his 
inheritance for about thirty years. 

Note 100 to p. 132. — AsK-Shamahi [sic) is mentioned by 
Khazraji (fol. 103 and 108) as also the fortress of il/ajma'a/t, 

* Kead ^j^j::-. ^ ioU j liU f Read f.l 



294 Notes. NOTE 101. 

Sliartjdk and ThclUthah, and he allows it to be inferred that 
these three were situated in Mikhliif Ja'far. Yakut says 
that Majma'ah stood on Wadi Nakhlah. Jauadi has ath- 
Thdlathi [supra, p. 201), and Sharyilk is mentioned in the 
passages borrowed from Ibn Hatim in Note 101 (p. 297). 
Bamt is included in the list of places given by Khazraji. 
It is mentioned by Hamdani (p. lOO, 1. 18) as situated in 
the district of Sahiil, also by the author of the Marasid, on 
the authority of al-Janadi, from whom he adds a not very 
intelligible extract. Tahlah is not mentioned by Khazraji, 
and looks as if it might be a careless repetition of Nahldah. 

Note 101 to p. 134. — According to al-Janadi, ^Aly ibn 
Mahdy was buried in Zabid, at a spot he had himself 
selected. The mosque built over his grave was known as 
al-Mdshhad (the Mausoleum) and it stood opposite the 
college known under the name of al-Maylin (or al-Mayluu). 
The minaret was still standing in al-Janadi's days, but the 
mosque had been converted into a stable for the use of one 
of the Turkish kings. According to al-Khazraji, the 
Easulite Sultan al-Ashraf Isma'il (a.h. 778-803) laid the 
foundations of a college on the site of the tomb, but aban- 
doned his intention of building. The spot was converted 
into a halting-place for the Sultan's camels, and continued 
to be so used down to the writer's days. 

Mahdy, son and successor of 'Aly ibn Mahdy, attacked 
and massacred the inhabitants of Lahj in 556 and 557. Next 
he captured Janad, slaughtered its inhabitants and cast the 
bodies of the slain into the well of the mosque. This was 
in 558. He returned to Zabld suffering from a disease 
under the effects of which his body, after being covered 
with marks described as having the appearance of being 
the effects of fire, became a mass of open sores. Such was 
his condition that he had to be carried down from Ta'izz in 
a litter lined with carded cotton wool. He died on the first 
of Dhu '1-Ka'dah 558. 

Al Khazraji, alter quoting the above from al-Janadi, pro- 
ceeds to say that a different account of the succession is 
given by the author of the 'Ikd ath-Thamm. According, 
he says, to that writer, Ibn Mahdy was succeeded by his 
two sons, Mahdy and 'Abd an-Naby, the latter as general 
administrator of the affairs of the kingdom and the former 
as military chief. Mahdy is stated by the writer to have 
returned from his expedition to the Highlands in Muharram 



NOTE 101. Notes. 



295 



559, and to have died at Zabid on the 18tli of that month. 
*Abd an-Naby now became sole ruler, and continued his 
brother's career of conquest and devastation. In 560 he 
attacked the Sulaymanite Sharifs. A party of the enemy, 
commanded by the Amir Wahhas ibn Ghanim ibn Yahya 
ibn Hamza ibn Wahhas, was utterly destroyed, the Amir 
himself being among the slain. Khazraji says that 'Abd 
an-Naby composed on that occasion a poem of the class 
styled Musammafah, which further on (p. 106) he gives in 
full. He does so after quoting a passage from 'Omarah 
which is not to be found in the British Museum text. It is 
to the effect that 'Abd an-Naby was an excellent poet as 
well as a brave warrior, and that he was the author of a 
collection of poems in which is included the Musammatah 
in question. 

Continuing to write on the authority of the author of the 
^Ikd ath-Thamln, al-Khazraji gives us particulars of 'Abd 
an-Naby's conquests and depredations in the Highlands of 
Yaman. In 568 he laid siege to Aden, whereupon Hatira 
son of 'Aly son of the Da'y Saba son of Abu Su'ud pro- 
ceeded to SanTi and prevailed upon the Hamdauite Sultan 
Aly ibn Hatim, ancestor of the historian, to assist the 
Zuray'ites against the common enemy, 'Aly ibn Hatim, 
a member, like the Zuray'ites, of the sub-tribe of Yam, con- 
sented, on condition of his being supported by the tribes of 
Janb and Madhhij. Hatim the Zuray'ite proceeded to 
Dhamar and obtained promises from Saltau 'Abd Allah ibn 
Yahya and from Sheykh Zayd ibn 'Amru, chiefs of the two 
tribes, to join in the alliance. 'Aly ibn Htitim thereupon 
marched from San 'a, in the month of Safar 569, at the head 
of the Hamdanites, accompanied by tribesmen of Sinhau, 
Shihab, Nahd and others.* The Arabs combined their forces 
in the district of Sahul. The army of 'Abd an-Naby was 
attacked and utterly routed near Ibb, by the allies, who 
advanced successively to Dim Jiblah and to Janad, both of 
which were found to have been abandoned by the enemy. 
The Mahdyites were again attacked and dispersed at Dhu 
'Udaynah near Ta'izz. Intelligence came from Aden that 

* The Banu Shihab are mentioned by Hamdani (p. 114, 23) as 
a sub-tribe of the Banu Kindah. The Banu Nahd were a sub- 
tribe of Kuda'ah, but the name was also borne by a sub-tribe of 
Hanidan. At p. 92, 1. 18, Hamdani calls the Naliditcs sub tribe 
of the Bauu Ans. 



296 A'^otcS. NOTE 101. 

its siege vr^s raised, and that the camp formed by 'Abd an- 
Naby at Za'azi had been abandoned. The Hamdanite Sul- 
tan 'Aly ibn Hatim would have pursued the enemy into 
Tihamah, but his allies of the tribes of Janb and Madbhij 
refused, and he returned to San'a. His brilliant but brief 
campaign thus came to an end. He started from Janad on 
Saturday 19th Ribi' Awwal, reached Uhu Ashrak in the 
evening, and Dhu Jiblah on the following day. Here he 
halted for six days and ordered the dismantling of the great 
palace, then occupied by a Salayhite Princess, Arwa, 
daughter of 'Aly son of 'Abdaliah son of Muhammad. 

'Abd an-Naby returned to Zabid, where he soon after- 
wards received intelligence that Turau Shah the Avvubite 
was at Mahall Abi Turab, and that the Sharif Kasira son of 
Ghauim son of Yahya son of Hamzali son of Wahhas, easrer 
to avenge the death of his brother, had allied himself with 
the invaders. 

I have mentioned in the Introduction to this book, that 
the foregoing particulars, extracted by al-Khazraji from the 
Jkd ath-ThamJn of Ibn Hatim, are not to be found in the 
copy of the MS. by the same author preserved in the 
Library of the British Museum. The latter commences with 
a somewhat detaihd account of the conquest of Yaman by 
Turan Sbah, of which the following' is a brief summarv. 

On the arrival of Tiiran Shah, he was joined at Harad, 
also called Mnhall Abi Turab, by the Sulaymanite Amir 
Kasim ibn Ghanim, within whose domiuious Harad was 
situated. The allies marched thence at the end of Rama- 
dan A.H. 569. On the 7th Shawwal they reached Zabid, of 
which they gained possession at sunrise on the 9th. The 
town was looted, 'Abd an-Naby and his two brothers were 
taken prisoners, and the Sharif Kasim started on his return 
to his country on the 3rd (read loth?) of the month. 
Tiiran Shah remained at Zabid until the begrinningf of the 
following month of Dhu T-Ka'dah. He then marched upon 
Ta'izz, which surrendered. Xext he took possession of 
Janad, and thence he marched upon Aden, which was cap- 
tured on the 20th and looted.* The Sultan returned to 
the Mikhlaf Ja'far, possessed himself of 'la'kar, and then 
marched against the northern provinces. He started from 

* The author here says that the children of theDa'y 'Imranwere 
made prisoners at Aden, together with Tasir son of Bilal, clearly 
anerior. See next page and supra, Note 69. 



NOTE 102. Notes. 297 

Dim Jiblali and ascended Xakil Sayd on the 2Sth Dbu '\- 
Hijjali. At Darwan (?), Sultan 'Abd Allah ibn Yahya 
the Janbite tendered his submission. Al-Musannafah 
(Masna'ah ?) * ^vas captured from Shaykh Muhammad ibn 
Ziyd al-Ba'yari al-Janbi. Thence the Sultan proceeded to 
Dhamar, near which he was attacked by the Janbites and 
other Arabs. The advance of the Avyubites was severely 
contested^ but the Arabs were eventually defeated, and 
driven with heavy loss into the fortress of Hirran. 
Turan Shah reached the outskirts of San'a on the 7th 
(I7th ?) Muharram 570. 'Ah^ ibn Hatim escaped to the 
i'orrress of Birash and Turan Shah, without stopping to 
secure the city, set out on his return to Zabid. March- 
ing by way of Nakil as- Sand, he was harassed with attacks 
by the Banu Sinhan and Shihab^ and next by the people of 
Bura' but he reached his destination in safetv. In Jamadi 
1-Awwalhe returned to Janad, and thenceforward occupied 
himself in gaiuing possession of the mountain fortresses. 
He successively captured Sabir, Badly ah (?Aiilj) Sharyak, 
'Azzan-Dhakhir, Xumayr which belonged to the Amir 
Man sur (son of 'Imran ?) son of Muhammad son of Saba, 
then Munif, then Samadan. He did not attack Sawa, which 
was held by Ibn as-Saba'v. Next he besieged Dnmluwah, 
where the children of the Da ^y 'Imran were living under 
the guardianship of Jauhar. Mangonels were erected, 
wherewith to batter the walls of the fortress, but the 
missiles rebounded harmlessly from the rocks below. 
Finally, however, Jauhar surrendered the castle in ex- 
change for certain low-lying lands in the neighbourhood.f 
In Sha'ban, Turiin Shah was at Dhu Jiblah, where he re- 
ceived intelligence of disturbances in Tihamah and ordered 
'Abd an-Naby ard his two brothers Ahmad and Yahya to 
be put to death. They were executed at Zabid on the 
7ih Eajab, 570. Twelve months later, after ordering 
the execution of Yasir ibn Bilal, Turan Shah started from 
1 aman on his return to Egypt. 

KoTE 102 to p. 134-. — Our MS. omits the name of Saba 
son of Ahmad son c f al-Muzaffar, who, we have been dis- 

* Yakut mentions Masna'ah, the name of a fortress that over- 
looks Dhamar. Hirran he describes as one of the strongholds of 
Dhamiir. See also Hamdani, p. 80, 1. 20-21. 

t See a description of the fortress of Uumluwah in Note 111. 



298 Notes. NOTE 102 

tiuctly told, succeeded to the office of Da'y, on the death of 
al-Mukarram [sujyra, p. 42 and iSTote 37). Saba ibu Ahmad, 
as has been seen, died in a.h, 492. Ibn Najib ad-Daulah 
arrived in Yaman, bearing the title of Da'y, in a.h. 513. 
We have, therefore, an interval of twenty-one years during 
•which, if our MS. can be trusted, the Da'yship wassuccess- 
sively held by two men. The name of one is left in blank, 
and as to the designation of Sultdn, accorded to the other, it 
need not perhaps detain us, cousidering how indiscriminately 
the title seems to have been used. See, for instance, the 
two extracts from Ibn Ilatim in the preceding note, also 
Hamdani, p. 119, 1. 22-24. 

But there is much else calculated to cast doubt upon tlie 
accuracy of our text. Its many corruptions obscure the 
sense of several passages and the unsatisfactory manner in 
■which the edict of the Khalifah al-Ainir is introduced and 
interrupts the subject of the chapter, is of itself suspicious. 
On its being resumed, we find no mention of 'Abd 
Allah ibn 'Abd Allah, the Sulayhite, who, we have been 
told {.<!i(pra, p. 60), exercised the functions of Da'y after 
Ibn Najrb ad-Daulah ; nor any explanation of the title of 
Da'y given to a certain Muhammad ibn Abi 'l-'Arab, who 
is stated (sNj>ra, p. 57), to have met Ibn NajTb ad-Daulah 
on his arrival at Dahlak. The sentence (p. 137) beginning 
with the words. She noxt transferred — or, the office of IJd'i/ 
ivas next transferred to the family of Zuray', is probably an 
interpolation, borrowed, it may be, from al-Janadi, but any- 
how misplaced. Al-Janadi writes as follows (fol. 184 rev.): — 

"When Ibn Najib ad-Daulah departed, as will hereafter be 
related, the queen appointed in his place the Da'y Ibrahim ibn 
al-Husayn al-Hfimidi. When she received tidings of the death of 
the reigning Khalifah (al-Aniir) and of the accession of his successor 
al-Hafi? to the Egyptian Khalifate, she transferred the office of 
Du'y to the family of Zuray', as will herealter be clearly explained. 
" Sufficient," she said, " for the family of as-Sulayhi, is what they 
have done in the cause of our Lords (the Ffitimite Khalifahs), upon 
whom be the blessings of God." This occurred after the death of 
the Da'y Ibrahim, and the first of the family of Zuray' to be in- 
vested with the dignity was Saba son of Abu Su'ud. 

^j> ^j>\ (J^lj-il -ij^-* t^*^l (jW ^ vj^ iJjjJl i_*;3i ^J)\ L--Jfcj IJi 
JU1^*j kiLil p^9 J *J'ii)l iUj Ix^W iL U J [J-U\J^ ij^r-^ 

* Eead^Vl 






i.:i«9V^i 



NOTE 102. Notes. 299 

.jjxJl ,^1 j^ L- ^_^j Jl j^ l^Liil j^ Jjl ^ ^ 

Further on (fol. 185 rev,), after relating the end of Ihn 
Najib ad-Danlah's career in Yaman, al-Janadi repeats the 
above in almost the same words^ but adds that Ibrahim 
al-Hamidi did not long survive his appointment, and that 
at about the time he died, came tiding's of the death of the 
reigning Khalifah a,t Cairo, whereupon the queen trans- 
ferred the office of Da'y to the Zuray'ites. 

Al-Amir was assassinated at Cairo by the Nizarites, in Dhu 
'1-Ka'dah (the eleventh month) of the year 524. Our MS. 
of 'Omarah tells us that Ibrahim ibn al-Husayn al-Hamidi 
was appointed in the second year of the reign of al-Hafiz, 
say therefore in a.h. 526. If this were so, the presumption 
would be that the Da'y 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd Allah held 
the office from the date of the disappearance of Ibn Najib 
ad-Daulah in 520, for six years. 

But al-Janadi's version, that Ibrahim al-Hamidi was 
appointed on the departure (or not long after the depar- 
ture ?) of Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, seems the more probable one, 
and it is supported by his further statement that Ibrahim 
al-Hamidi died at about the time when intelligence of 
al-Amir's death reached Yaman, say the beginning of 
A.H. 525. 

If we now adopt 'Omarah^s statement that Ibrahim was 
succeeded by his son Hatim, we find ourselves naturally led 
to the further date mentioned in 'Omarah, namely the 
second year of the reign of al-Hafiz, which, however, 
must, in such case, be regarded as the probable date 
when the Da'^yship was finally transferred to the family of 
Zuray'. 

There is, however, another point which requires to be 
taken into consideration. Hiitim son of Ibrahim son of 
Husayn al-Hamidi is known to have been a powerful 
Hamdanite chief, who for three years disputed the throne 
of San'il with the reigning Sultan *Aly ibn Hatim, and 
this occurred between the years 561 and 564. These dates 
can only be reconciled with those given above, on the sup- 
position that Hatim son of Ibrahim received the office of 
ba'y when little more than a child. But that may pos- 



300 Notes. NOTES 103, 104. 



o 



sibly help to explain how it came to pass that he held it for 
so shoi't a time. 



Note 103 to p. 136. — The Khalifah al-A-rair died leaving 
DO male issue, six months after the birth of the child men- 
tioned in the text. The infant son, in whom such brilliant 
hopes were centred, cannot, therefore, have lived more than 
a few weeks. But at the death of the Khalifah, one of the 
ladies of his harim was found to be enceinte. Al-IIafiz was 
consequently allowed to reign only as regent until the 
birth of the child, which turned out to be a girl. This may 
perhaps explain the statement in our text, that in his first 
communication to the queeu, al-Hafiz assumed only the title 
of heir-apparent to the Khalifate. 

Note 10-i- to p. 139. — Ibn Khalduu's narrative is by no 
means clear at this point, and something has doubtless 
been omitted, either through inadvertence on the part 
of the author, or through cai-elessuess on that of the tran- 
scribers. 

Upon the death of al-Aswad the 'Ansite, Fayruz 
assumed the government of San'a, in which he was con- 
firmed by the Prophet's successor Abu Bakr, who appointed 
Dadhwayh and Kays ibn Makshnh to be his colleagues and 
assistants. But tidings of the Prophet's death having 
spread in Yaman, a rebellion again broke out. Kays 
placed himself at its head and summoned the apostate fol- 
lowers of al-Aswad to his assistance. He concealed his 
designs from his colleagues, and invited them to a feast. 
Dadhwayh was the first to arrive and was immediately 
massacred. Fayruz, when approaching the appointed spot, 
obtained information of what had occurred, through acci- 
dentally overhearing the conversation of two Arab women. 
He turned and fled, and reached the mountain of Khaulan 
in safety. Here he was joined by such as had continued 
faithful to the religion of the Prophet, and with the aid of 
the Banu 'Okayl, he marched upon San'a, attacked and 
defeated Kays and put him to flight. Kays eventually fell 
into the hands of Muhajir ibn Abi Umayyah. He was sent 
to Abu Bakr, by whom he was pardoned. 

The yvord Ahna was used to designate a mixed race, the 
naturalized descendants of the Persian troops sent to Yaman 



NOTES 105- 107. Notes. 301 

by Anushirwan, with whose assistance the Abyssinians were 
expelled from Arabia. 

Note 105 to p. 139. — Ya'la is also called son of Umayyah. 
The latter, it is explained, was the name of his father, and 
Munyah that of his mother. The Camel which gave its name 
to the sanguinary battle fought between ^Aly and his oppo- 
nents in A.H. 3G, and upon which 'A'ishah was mounted, is 
said to have been given to her by Ya'la. 

Note 106 to p. 142. — The assassination of al-Mutawakkil 
and the abdication of al-Musta'in occurred long before the 
reign of Abu '1-Jaysh. The words in the text must therefore 
be applied to his predecessors. Cf. suj^ra, p. 15 and Note 
13. 

Note 107 to p. 142. — Ibn Khaldun's account of the 
Zaydite Imams of Sa'dah, known under the designation of 
Rassites, will be found at p. 184. 

In his chapter on the Shi'ites (vol. i. p. 164), he enters 
into particulars of the principal sects into which the 
adherents of 'Aly have divided themselves, and he gives an 
account, among others, ot" the Zaydites. 

All the Shi'ites, he begins by pointing out, agree upon 
the fundamental point that 'Aly, son-in-law of the Prophet, 
was his appointed and legitimate successor. But the ques- 
tion of the principle upon which his rights are founded has 
become matter of dispute. A large section, the Imamites, 
in which are comprised the Bodekifcs * and Ismailites, con- 
tend that 'Aly's appointment to the office was absolutely 
in virtue of his personality, that his descendants and heirs 
have followed in regular succession under the same rule, 
and that no human right exists to withhold recognition of 
his or their claims. The Imamites, therefore, disown the 
authority of the "two Elders" (Abu Bakr and 'Omar). 

The Zaydites, on the other hand, whilst admitting that 
*Aly was the appointed heir of the Prophet, maintain that 
he was appointed not by reason of his individuality, but in 
virtue of his personal merits. They claim, consequently, 

■ * So named — ItJma 'ashariyyah — because they recognize twelve 
Imrmis, the last of whom was the Mahdy, whose re-appearance is 
awaited by his followers. 



302 Notes. NOTE 107. 

the nofht of selection from atnongr tlie descendants of 
Fatimah. The person to be invested with the office of 
Imam must, they contend, be learned, pious, generous and 
brave. It is further required that he shall stand forth and 
publicly claim recognition of his authority. They own the 
existence of a limitation of choice, one that prohibits the 
actual substitution of the consideration of merit for that of 
individuality, although they refrain at the same time, from 
disavowing the Imamatc of the two "elders,^' consequently 
admitting, as is remarked, the authority of the inferior 
(Abu Bakr and then 'Omar), notwithstanding the presence 
of the superior, namely 'Aly. A charge is moreover made 
against them, that they are tainted with the doctrines of 
the Mu'tazilites, and their founder Zayd, it is said, studied 
under WJisil ibu 'Ata. 

The Zaydites, as was to be expected, have separated 
themselves from the Dodekites and Ismailites, on the ques- 
tion of the rightful holders of the Imiimate. All agree in 
the recognition of 'Aly, of his two sons Hasan and Husayn 
and, according to Ibn Khaldun, of his grandson 'Aly Zayn 
al-*Abidln.* But whilst their opponents assign the succes- 
sion, next after Zayn al-'Abidin to his son Muhammad al- 
Bfikir, the Zaydites attribute it to Muhammad's brother 
Zayd, the founder of their sect, who, they say, was succeeded 
by his son Yahya. Starting from that point, the Zaydites are 
not, however, in complete accord. Some, according to Ibu 
Khaldiin, hold that Yahya was followed by his brother 
*Isa. Others assert that Yahya before his death bequeathed 
his office to Muhammad an-Xafs az-Zaklyyah, the Pure in 
Spirit, thus transferring the Imamate from the family of 
Husayn to that of Hasan. Muhammad, they further hold, 
was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim, who was killed to- 
wards the latter end of a.h. 14-5, and survived his brother 
only two months. According to others, Muhammad^s suc- 
cessor was Muhammad son of al-Kasim son of 'Aly son of 
'Omar brother of Zayd. Others again assign the succes- 
sion to Idrls, brother of an-Nafs az-Zaklyyah and originator 
of the Idrisite dynasty in Africa, where he founded the 
city of Fez. 

As a matter of fact, the Zaydites have no authentic 

* The author of the Yaivalc'it omits the name of 'Aly Zayn al- 
'Abidin, and substitutes that of Hasan son of Hasan. 



til 



NOTE 107. Notes. 30" 



o 



record of the succession of their Imams. At a subsequent 
period to that just referred to^ the two great sections, that 
of the Persian and that of the Yamanite or Arabian Zayd- 
ites, have in only a few isolated instances submitted to the 
authority of the same Imam. On both sides the absolute 
supremacy of the lawful Imam over the entire body is dis- 
tinctly admitted. But the distance that separated the two 
sections geographically from one another, and the impossi- 
bility of active co-operation between them in the political 
objects for which they respectively strove, created a 
practical difficulty, which only in a few rare instances was 
partially overcome. In Ai-abia itself, moreover, there has 
been frequent rivalry between different claimants, each of 
whom has been recognized by one party and disavowed by 
the other. It follows, consequently, that great discrepancies 
are found between the lists of Imams given by different 
writers. 

Among the books I have had the opportunity of con- 
sulting, the Yawaklt as-Siyar gives the fullest list of the 
Imams, and the author brings it down to the middle of the 
seventh century of the Hijrah. He mentions many names 
omitted by other writers, and I have included them in the 
Genealogical Table appended to this note. 

The table will enable the reader to follow more easily the 
relation which the different families bear to one another. 
The names of the Persian Imams, who successively gained 
supreme power in the provinces of Daylamand Tabaristan, 
are printed in italics. Hasan son of Zayd and his brother 
Muhammad (descendants of Hasan son of Zayd son of 
Hasan) are included, because, although they are not 
reckoned as Zaydites, they undoubtedly prepared the way 
for the Imams, who afterwards, like themselves, attained 
supreme power on the southern shores of the Caspian. 

I have added, for the sake of convenience, the succession 
of the Dodekite and of the early Ismailite Imams. The 
former are distinguished by Roman numerals and the latter 
by capital letters. The Ismailites seceded upon the death 
of the sixth Imam Ja'far as-Sfidik, His son Isma'il died 
before him, but the Ismailites hold that the latter was the 
designated seventh Imam, and that the succession passed 
on to his son, Muhammad al-Maktum, the Shrouded or 
Concealed, frcm whom 'Obayd Allah " the Mahdy,^' founder 
of the Fatimitv:) Khalifate and Imam of the Ismailites, claimed 
to be descended. 



304 Notes. NOTES 108, 109. 

Note 108 to p. 149.— In the British Museum MS. of 
Ibn Khaldun a genealogical table is added at the end of 
this chapter, according to which al-lNIansur Saba was 
descended from 'Aly the Sulayhite, father of the Kfidi 
Muhammad and grandfather of the Da'y 'AI3'. 

'Aly the Sulayhite. 



Al-Muzaffar. The Kaiji Muhammad. 

I 

I I 

Ahmad. 'Abd Allah. The Da'y 'Aly. 

{Builder of Dhu Jiblah.) I 

Al-Mansur Abu Himyar Saba. Al-Mukarram Ahmad. 

I 
'Aly. 

Note 109 to p. 153 — Ibn Khaldun seems here to con- 
fuse with one another the incidents of the expedition 
undertaken by the Da'y al-Mukarram for the rescue of his 
mother, and those of the couspiracy that brought about the 
death of Sa'id son of Najah. 

The year 497, as that in which al-Mukarram released 
his mother from captivity, is so given in both the London 
and Paris MSS. as well as in the Bulak edition. But it is 
manifestly wrong, as indeed may be judged from the date 
479, which immediately follows. We may probably read 
475. As-Sulayhi was killed at the latter end of 473 (see 
Note 31) , and his mother's captivity, we are told by 'Omarah, 
lasted an entire year. 

Ibn Khaldiin's account of Sa'id's death also requires cor- 
rection. The introduction of the name of Ya'fur, although 
it is to be found in both MSS. as well as in the printed 
edition, is quite unsustainable, and has perhaps simply 
arisen through the copyist — perhaps, indeed, the author — 
having carelessly allowed his eye to be caught with the re- 
semblance (especially in the Arabic character) between the 
verb YugJiri, which occurs in the text, and the name 
Ta'fur. The statement that Sa'Id's head was carried to 
Zabid is likewise an error. 

It will, moreover, be remarked that Ibn Khaldiin's account 
of the proceedings of Jayyash and of his wazir Khalf, on 



NOTES no, HI. Notes. 305 

their return to Zabicl^ differs considerably from that sup- 
plied by ^Omarah. All these errors, it may be suspected, 
are the result of a careless readiug of the original text, for 
which, however, Ibn Sa'^id is perhaps in the first place 
responsible. 

Note 110 to p. 159. — Bayhak is the name of a district 
near Nay sa pur, after which sev^eral persons of note have 
been named. 

One, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn 'Aly al-Bayhaki, 
is identified by Johannsen with the writer quoted by Dayba* 
in his history of Zabid. He died in a.h. 458 and his life is 
given by Ibn Khallikan (de Slane, i. 57). His son Isma'ii 
ibn Ahmad al-Bayhaki, also a distinguished man, died in 
A.H. 507. 

But the author, so frequently quoted by Ibn Khaldun, is 
one who appears to have written on the history of a much 
later period. He speaks of al-Muti, the title attributed by 
Ibn Khaldun to the Imam Ahmad ibn Husayn, who arose 
in A.H. 64-6. See supra, p. 175, and cf. the passage in Ibn 
Khaldun's enumeration of the tribes of Kahlan, vol. ii. 
p. 252 (Bulak ed.). Ibn al-Athir (vol. xi. p. 249) quotes a 
work entitled Kitdh Masdrib it-Taj drib by Abu '1-Hasan 
ibn Abi '1-Kasim al-Bayhaki, who was apparently a con- 
temporary of the historian and who may have survived 
him. If, however, this be the person referred to by Ibn 
Khaldvin, he must have lived and have continued to write 
down to a period more than twenty years subsequent to the 
death of Ibn al-Athir in a.h. 630. 

Touching the descent of the Banu Ma'n, see Notes 19 
and 20. 

Note 111 to p. 160. — A description of the fortress of 
Dumluwah is given by al-Hamdani in his Geography of 
Arabia (ed. D. H. Muller, p. 76). It was built, he says, 
upon a hill, the summit of which, measuring four hundred 
cubits in length and the same in width, comprised dwelling- 
places, a large mosque, and a tree capable of sheltering oue 
hundred men, which he calls al-KuIhumuh* The hill was 
an offshoot of Mount Silu, from which it was, however, 
completely isolated, aud which rose at a distance of one 

* See Note to Juyn boll's ed. of the Marasid, vol. v. p. 489, 
"where it is stated that the tree was a species of oak. 

X 



306 Notes. KOTE 112. 

hundred cubits on the south. On its eastern side, Khadir 
■was distant two hours' journey.* On the north was the 
market-place of Juwwah and the stream Wfidi al-Jannat. 
On the west, where the height of the hill was double that on 
the south, was a tethering-place for the horses belonging to 
the owner of the fortress. He inhabited a castle on Mount 
Silu, at the distance of a bow-shot. The gate of the fortress 
of Dumluwah was on its northern side, and access was 
obtained to the summit by means of two ladders, each of 
fourteen steps. Between the two was the prison, and 
the guard house above it. Water of excellent quality was 
abundantly supplied to the inhabitants by a stream, flow- 
ing close to the foot of the lower flight of steps. 

This stream flowed into Wadi al-Jannat, which, after re- 
ceiving numerous other streams and torrents, was joined 
by the Wadi Warazan (see Z7. Uarasan on Manzoni's map), 
and the united waters, increased on their way by other 
tributaries, flowed down to the sea in the neighbourhood of 
Aden. 

Hamdani's words as above, in speaking of Juwwah, indi- 
cate a position for that place at or very near the town, 
marked in Manzoui^s map under the name of Mania (Mawi- 
yah ?). Juwwah, as is shown by our text, stood on the 
highway i'rom Aden, and it seems very probable that it and 
Mavia are one and the same place. Ileynaud, in his trans- 
lation of Abu '1-Fada, writes : " Aldjoue, nom d'une jjetite 
ville tres-connue sur la grande route des montagues." 

Hamdani (p. 190, I. 8,) mentions the castle of Juwwah, 
which seems to be one and the same with Dumluwah. 

Note 112 to p. IGl. — The life of the poet Ibn Kalakis 
the Lakhmite is given by Ibn Khallikan (de Slaue's trans- 
lation, vol. iii. p. 537), where a continuation of the line 
quoted in the text is supplied. Ibn Kalakis, we are told, 
was born at Alexandria in 532 and died in 567. 

* In the " district of Khadir " there existed in Hamdani's days 
the vestiges of a large and ancient town-, Saluk, " now known," 
he says, " under the name of Hah'il ar-Raybah, i.j Jl J:^?=>-." (J^ 
Yakiit, who copies Hamdani, the .name is written aJjjII J—*-) 
Among its remains, adds Hamdani, iron scorise, fragments ot gold 
and silver and coins are found. Salukiyah armour and dogs, he 
further says, were so named, after the Yamanite city. This last 
statement, though in accordance Avith the commonly received deli- 
nition, I am disposed to think requires confirmation. 



NOTE 113. Notes. 307 

Note 113 to p. 161. — Ibn Khaldun, it will be observed, 
derives most of his iaformatioa touching the Zurayite 
dynasty from Ibn Sa'ld, who himself is without doubt in- 
debted, directly or indirectly, to 'Omarah. Bat Ibn Khal- 
dun seems to be misled by the ambiguity of language, be 
it his own or be it borrowed from Ibu Sa'id, which he uses 
when speaking of the rivalry between the two brothers 
'Aly and Muhammad, sons of Saba. In a genealogical 
table he appends to the chapter, he evidently confuses 'Aly 
al-A^azz wich 'Aly son of Abi '1-Gharat, and the table is so 
incorrect that I omit it altogether, 

I understand the Hamdanite Princes of Aden to have 
succeeded one another in accordance with the subjoined 
list. 

The Banu Zuray'. 

Al-Karam, of the sub-tribe of Jushani the Yamites. 



I. Mas'ud, A.H. 476. i. 'Abbiis, a.h. 476. 

I 
„ II. Zuray', his son. 

I . I 

II. Abu 'l-Ghariit, his son. iii. Abu Su'ud, his son. 



IV, Saba, his son, died 533, 



III. Muhammad, his son. 

IV. Aly, his brother, deposed 
A.H, 538 (died 545), 

v, Alv al- A'azz al-Murtada, his 
son, 533-534. 

VI. Muhammad, his brother, 534- 

548. 

VII. 'lun-iin, his son 548-560, 

VIII. The wazir Yasir son of Bilal, 
under the nominal supremacy 
of the sons of 'Imr n, until 
the Ayyubite conquest in 
A.H, 5G9. 

Of their predecessors, the Banu Ma''n, we have only a 

X 2 



3o8 Notes, note 114. 

very meaf^re account. They established their power over 
Aden, in the days of al-Ma'mun accordino- to IbuKhaldun, 
or, according' to 'Omarah, on the downfall of the Ziyadite 
dynasty, previous to which time, we are told, Aden was 
subject to the Banu Ziyad. In about a.h. 451, the Banu 
Ma'n submitted to 'Aly the Sulayhite, who imposed a tri- 
bute upon them which, in a.h. 4G1, he settled upon his 
niece and daughter-in-law Sayyidah, Upon 'Aly's death, 
in A.H. 473, the Banu Ma'n declared their independence, 
but two or three years later, their country was reconquered 
by al-Mukarram son of 'Aly. He deposed the family of 
Ma'n and placed Aden under the joint authority of the two 
brothers 'Abbas and Mas'ud sons of al-Karam, who were 
tribesmen of the Sulayhites, and to whom both 'Aly and 
his son were indebted for past services. 

Our MS. of 'Omarah represents 'Abbas and Mas'iid as 
having survived al-Mukarram the Sulayhite, who died in 
A.H. 484. But, as 1 have already had occasion to remark, 
the MS. is, at this particular point, exceediugly corrupt. 
The statement is, moreover, not confirmed by Khazraji, 
from which it can only be gathered that the tribute due to 
Queen Sayyidah was regularly paid until the death of Mas'ud 
and Zuray'. Khazraji says that Uumluwah was conquered 
by Zuray' in a.h. 480, whence it may be inferred that he 
had succeeded his father previous to that date. 

Zuray' and his uncle Mas'ud were killed at Zabid ; but 
the only clue to a date is the fact that the event occurred 
during the lifetime of al-Mufaddal, who died in A.n. 504. 

The dates of the death of Abu Su'ud and of Abu T-Gharat, 
under whose reign the payment of tribute finally ceased, 
are also wanting ; but it may perhaps be inferred Irom 
what is elsewhere stated by 'Ouiarah {suj)Ya, p. 60), that 
Abu '1-Gharat and Saba son of Abu Su'ud were both on 
the throne in 519. 

The appointment of Saba as Dfi'y was probably in 
A.H. 525, or a.h. 526. (See Note 102.) 

From and after the capttii-e of Aden by Saba in 533, 
the Banu Zuray' held undivided sway over the principality 
of Aden. 



Note 114 to p. 166. — The Banu 'Anz son of AVa'il were 
a sister tribe to the Banu Bakr and Banu Taghlib, and de- 
scendants of Eabi'ah son of Nizar. 



NOTES 115-119. Notes. 309 

Note 115 to p. 171. — Ibn Khaldun makes elsewhere 
(vol. ii. p. 6i) tlie same statement, and professes to do so 
on the authority of" as-Subayli,* to the effect, namely, that 
the ancient name of San'c\ was JJwdl (or Uwwal). Two of 
the MSS. used by JuynboU for his edition of the Mardsid 
have likewise the name in that form. It is not therefore 
through mere inadvertence that the word is so written. 
But the generality of Arab writers have Azdl, which is 
identified with the biblical Uzal. 

Note 116 to p. 172. — The Kharldat al-Kasr iva Jaridat 
alii il-'asr was written by 'Itnad ad-din al-Isfahani, who died 
in A.H, 597. His life is given by Ibn Khallikan, vol. iii. 
p. 300, de Slane's translation. Another book, the Khandat 
al-'Ajd'ih has for its author Zayn ad-din 'Omar ibn al-Wardi, 
who died in a.h. 749. 

Note 117 to p. 175. — Hamdani mentions Kutabah (p. 69) 
as the name of a village or town in the less elevated portion 
of Sarat Kudam, and it may have stood on or near a moun- 
tain of the same name. The town seems to have been 
situated not far from Hajjah, consequently almost directly 
south of Sa'dah, and at a considerable distance from it. 
Manzoni has Qataba on the road from Aden to Yarim, 
which, it is needless to say, cannot be the place here in 
question. It is probably a name of much more recent date. 

Note 118 to p. 175. — A sub-tribe of Hamdan may possibly 
have borne the name of Haraz, but it seems more likely 
that Ibn Khalduu is here in error. Al-Hamdiini says, in his 
Geography of Arabia (p. 105, Midler's ed.), that the Banu 
Haraz were a tribe descended from Himyar the elder, and 
sons of al-Ghauth son of Sa'd son of 'Auf son of 'Ady (son 
of Malik son of Zayd al-Jamhur). See also 'Omarah, p. 18. 

Note 119 to p. 179. — Both the Banu 'Ijl and the Banu 
Yarbu' were Modarite tribes. The former, stated by Ibn 
Khaldun to have become extinct, were a sister tribe of the 
Baim Hauifah and descendants, through the Banu Bakr ibn 
A\'a'il, of Rabi'ah son of Nizar. The Banu Yarbu' were, as 
stated in the text, derived from the Banu Tamim, desceu- 

* See for as-Snhayli, who died in a.h. 581, Baron de Slane's 
translation of Ibn Khallikan, vol. ii, p. 90. 



3IO Notes. NOTE 119. 

dants of Tabikhah son of al-Ya's son of Modar. But 
another tribe, of the same name, claimed to be descendants, 
through the Banu Hanifah, of the Banu Bakr ibn Wa'il, 
and were therefore closely connected with the Banu 'Ijl. 
The latter, as well as the Banu IlauTfah and other sub-tribes 
of the Banu Bakr, are mentioned by Hamdaui among the 
inhabitants of Yamiimah. 

Tasm and JadTs, grandsons, or the one grandson and the 
other great-grandson of Shem, were the ancestors of two 
great aboriginal tribes of Arabia, and their language is said 
to have been Arabic. 

Saksak, who according to our author was ancestor of the 
Banu Hizzan, was, as he tells us elsewhere (vol. ii. p. 302), 
son of Wathil (or Wa'il) son of Himyar.* But according 
to other and perhaps preferable authorities (see Hamdani, 
p. 162, and Yakut, vol. iv. p, 417), the Banu Hizzan of Ya- 
mamah were derived from the Banu 'Anazah, descendants of 
EabTah son of Nizar, and were consequently of the same 
stem as the Banu Hanifah, the Banu 'Ijl and, according to 
what is stated above, as the Banu Yarbu'. The name 
Hizzan was also borne by the ancestor of an ancient people, 
descendants of Lawadh son of Shem. (Tabari, vol. i. p. 213 ; 
Ibn Kbaldun, vol. ii. p. 7.) 

The story of 'Amllk, or 'Amluk, and Yamamah will be 
found in Mas'iidi (Barbier de Maynard, vol. iii. p. 276, 
sqq^. It tells how Hassan ibn Tubba', King of the 
Ilimyarites, marched at the head of an army against the 
Jadisites. The king was warned that a certain woman at 
Jaww, as it was then still called, possessed such marvellous 
strength of vision, that she was able to descry a horseman 
at a distance of three days' journey. He ordered his 
soldiers each to hew down a tree and to carry it before 
him. Yamamah watched the enemy's army and reported 
that she beheld a forest advancing against them, with a 
man behind each tree. She was disbelieved, the city was 
surprised and taken, and the Jadisites, who had exterminated 
the Tasmites, in revenge for the tyranny to which they were 
subjected by the Tasmite king 'Amluk, were now them- 
selves massacred to the last man.f 

* The name Hamdan, which occurs in the passage above men- 
tioned, is clearly a misprint for Hizzan. 

t YaiD amah's Avords describing what she first saw, are somewhat 
more intelligible as given by Yakut (iv. 1033) than according to 
to Tabari's and Mas'udi's versions. 



NOTES 120-122. Notes. 311 

The story is to be found not only in Mas'udi, who wrote 
in A.D. 944, but it is also told by Tabari (i. 771) who died in 
A.D. 923. And the latter relates it on the authority of Ibn 
Ishak, who died in a.h. 151, a.d. 768. 

NoTB 120 to p. 180. — The tribe of *Ad has been men- 
tioned in Note 96. The 'Adites were, like Tasm, Jadls, 
Thamud, etc., one of the aboriginal Arab tribes, all of 
whom have disappeared. The statement in the text, re- 
lating to the people conquered by the posterity of Ya'rub, 
must, I presume, be applied to the second or later 'Adites, 
descendants of those members of the tribe who escaped 
destruction in the days of the prophet Hud. 

Both Hadramaut and Ya^rub are usually described as sons 
of Kahtan. 

Note 121 to p. 182. — Zafar was conquered in a.h. 678 
by Sultan al-Muzaffar, the second king of Taman of the 
dynasty of the Banu Rasul. The Prince of Zafar was at 
that time Salim son of Idris, grandson, it is to be presumed, 
of Ahmad ibn Muhammad, the person mentioned in the 
text, and the founder of a short-lived dynasty. A full 
account of al-Muzaffar's conquest is given by Ibn Hatim 
(fol. 100 obv. sqq^.). It is also mentioned by al-Janadi 
(p. 181 obv.), and Khazraji, in his 'Vkud (fol. 115 obv.), 
follows Ibn Hatim. 

Khazraji calls the city Zafar al-Hamiidi {^yj^ sic). In 

Ibn Batutah's travels the name is written ^_/'^^ J^ which his 
translators have rendered Zhafar aiix plantcs sali)ies et 
ameres. Zafar al-Hamudi may be the correct reading, but 
whether or not, we may infer that the town was named 
after the founder of the dynasty. In Janadi he is called al^ 
Habudi ^J>J^ {sic) and in al-Ahdal (fol. 2()0 rev.), who, 
in his account of the place, simply copies al-Janadi, the 
word appears as al-Habuti ^J'^■ Sprenger (p. 144, 146) 

has ^JiJr^■ 

In saying that the seaport of Zafar was the seat of the 
Tubbas, Ibn Khaldun evidently confuses it with the ancient 
city of the Ilimyarites of the same name, which stood 
south of San'a, and of which some traces still exist (see 
6'wpra, Note 22). 

Note 122 to p. 183.— The Ka'bah of Najran is said to 



312 N'oii's. NOTES 123, 124. 

have been a Christian church, built by the family of 'Abd 
al-Madiin ibn Dayyan (Eayyan?). of whom mention will be 
made in a subsequent note (No. 126). 

For Kuss ibn Sa'idah, see Mas'udi's Golden Meadows 
(Barbier de Meynard, i. 133). He died towards the com- 
mencement of the Prophet's career, and the Tfij al-'Arus 
mentions, on the authority of the Lisan al-'Arab, that Kuss 
ibn Sa'idah was styled Bishop of Najran. 

Note 123 to p. 183. — A translation of the story of the 
sons of Nizar and of the Jurhumite Af'a of Najiau will be 
found in Mas'udi (Barbier de jNIeynard, iii. 228). 

Mushallal is the name of a place situated between Mecca 
and Mediuah. 

The Jurhumites were descended from Jarhum son of 
Kahtfin and brother of Ya'rub. The patriarch Ishmael 
married a dauf^hter of the tribe, and from them was de- 
scended 'Adnan grandfather of Nizar and ancestor of the 
Ishmaelite or insitilious Arabs. Another, a primeval tribe 
known as the jBrst Jurhumites, is mentioned by Arab writers. 
They were contemporaries of the 'Adites, and like them 
they perished and utterly disappeared. I do not know 
•whence Ibn Khaldun derives his authority for the name 
and pedigree given in the text to the Af'a, but he men- 
tions both name and pedigree elsewhere likewise (vol. ii. 
p. 255). 

Note 1 24 to p. 1 83. — Faymiyyun was a Syrian Chris- 
tian, but a follower of the true faith afterwards re-estab- 
lished by the Arabian Prophet. Having been captured by 
a band of wandering Arabs, he was brought to Najran and 
there sold into slavery. Through the example of his piety, 
and through the influence of the miracles he wrought in the 
name of the true God, the people of Najran, until then 
steeped in idolatry, became converted to the iaith.* The 
period at which this occurred is not mentioned, but not 
long before the birth of the Prophet, the Christians of 

* Tabari, i. 920, sqq. The inhabitants of Najran, we are told, 
worshipped a palm tree, which on certain feast days, they deco- 
rated with coloured cloths and with the ornaments of their women. 
At so late a period as that of the Prophet, the Madhhijites of 
Najran appear to have worshipped the idol Yayhuth. See Pro- 
fessor Kobertson-Smith's "Kinship," p. 192. 



NOTES 125, 126. Notes. 31^ 



o 



Najran became victims to the hostility of Dhu Niiwas, the 
last of the loug line of the Tabbas or Himyarite Kings of 
Yaman. He sought to force them into the acceptance of 
Jadeeism, the religion he had himself adopted, and the 
savage cruelty with which he pursued his design is de- 
nounced in the Kur'an (S. Ixxsv.), where he is proclaimed 
as doomed to the tormeats of hell. These persecutions of 
the Christians of Najraa brought about the invasion and 
conquest of Yaman by the Abyssinians, who were themselves 
subsequently expelled by the Persians. 

The Arab traditions on the proficiency acquired by the 
people of Najran in the practice of supernatural arts, may 
serve to show that long before the rise of Islam, the 
Christian inhabitants of that province had made consider- 
able progress in civilization. 

It will be noticed that they are spoken of in our text as 
having themselves held the Jewish faith in early days. 
Tabari mentions that when Baruch fulfilled his mission 
to Bukht Nassar (supra, Note 3), he came from Najran. 

Note 125 to p. 184. — Abu 'Omar Yusuf ibn 'Abd al- 
Barr, a famous traditionist, was a native of Cordova and 
died in a.h. 463. His life is included in the biographies of 
Ibn Khallikan (de Slano, iv. p. 398). 

It may be remarked that (in vol. ii. p. 256), Ibn Khal- 
dun himself omits the name of Yazid and substitutes that 
of his brother 'Abd al-Hajr son of Abd al-Madan. In his 
biography of the Prophet (p. 53) he, however, follows the 
narrative of Tabari. 

Note 126 to p. 184.— Ibn Khaldun repeats in vol. ii. 
p. 255, that a portion of the Azdites remained in Najran and 
shared the authority of the Madhhijites over the country ; 
but he makes there no mention of the Banu '1-Harith ibn 
Ka'b of the tribe of Azd. Al-Mas'udi tells us (Barbier de 
Meynard, iii. 390) that the Azdites in Najran were absorbed 
in the tribe of Madhhij, a statement which seems more 
probable than that quoted in our text from Ibn Hazm. 
The chieftainship seems to have remained permanently in 
the hands of the Banu Harith the Madhhijites. Jt passed 
on to a family of that tribe, known as the Banu Dayyan (or 
Eayyun ?), descendants of Yazid surnamed Dayyan. His 
son was Abd al-Madan, mentioned in the text and in Note 
122, father (ancestor y) of Yazid son of 'Abd al-Madan, who 



3H Notes. NOTE 127. 

was converted to Islam. Iba Khaldun proceeds witli a 
quotation from Ibn Sa'id, to the effect that in the sixth 
century, supreme power was held by 'Abd -al-Iyays of the 
family of Abu ^1-Jud descendant of *Abd al-Madan. He 
says in our text, probably on the same authority, that 'Abd 
al-Kays was deposed by Ibn Mahdy, but it will be observed 
that there is no mention of him in our copy of 'Omarah, 
nor is Najran mentioned as one of the places over which Ibu 
Mahdy ever exercised authority. I must add that I know 
of no other instance in which the name 'Abd al-Kays was 
borne by any person in Muhammadan times. 

Note 127 to p. 185. — I have nowhere found confirraatiou 
of Ibn Khaldiin's statement that al-Kasitn fled to India and 
died there. Al-Khazraji says (p. 291) that certain Yaman- 
ites, on the appearance of the Karmathians in their country, 
proceeded to the Mountain of liass at Medinah, in a.h. 
284, and raised to supreme authority the Imam al-Hady 
Yahya son of Husayn son of al-Kasim, who, with their assis- 
tance, conquered the country between Sa'dah and San'a. 
Al-Ahdal tells us (fol. 12 rev.) that al-Kasim died at ar-ilass, 
leaving two sons, Muhammad and Ilusayn. 

The Zaydite M^S. recently acquired by the library of 
the British Museum, give a fairly consistent account of 
the life of al-Kasim, the ancestor ot the long line of Imams 
of Yaman. According to the Hada ik al-Jfardtijah (Or. 
3786 and 38 lo), when Muhammad son of Ibrahim Tabataba 
died in a.h. 199, his brother al-Kasim was in Egypt. He 
remained there about ten years, living in a state of 
obscuinty and in concealment, but recognized as the suc- 
cessor of his brother by the Alides, who sent him emis- 
saries from all parts of the empire, from Mecca and from 
Medinah, from Knfah, from Rayy and from Kazwin. 

When 'Abd Allah rbn Tahir was appointed to the 
Grovernment of Egypt (in a.h. 211 according to Makrizi, 
in A.H. 210 or 211 according to Ibn al-Athir), the new 
Governor adopted measures for the arrest of al-Kasim.* 
The latter contrived, however, to make his escape from 
Egypt and to reach Hijaz. There he sought refuge with 
an Arab tribe, among whom he lived concealed, throughout 
the reign of al-Ma'mun and of his immediate successors. 
The lapse of years brought about a relaxation of the enmity 

* Cf. Tabari, vol. iii. p. 1094, sqq. 



NOTE 127. Notes. 315 

with wliich lie had been so long pursued, and towards the 
end of his life al-Kasim purchased a property, named ar- 
Bass, situated near Dhu Hulayfah " on the further side of 
Jabal al-Aswad.'^ * Here he built himself a house, in which 
he died in a.h. 246. 

The successor of al-Kasim to the Imamate was, accordinar 
to the author of the Yatca/dt, Muhammad son of al-Kasim, 
descendant of 'Aly Zayn al-'Abidin and of Husayn 
brother of Hasan. As Muhammad is generally admitted 
to have disappeared in a.m. 219, the introduction of his 
name seems an anachronism, but the case is not excep- 
tional. 

Of Husayn and Muhammad, the two sons of al-Kasim the 
Eassite, no record seems to have been preserved.f 

Yahya son of Husayn, who afterwards assumed the title 
al-Hdd^ ila 'l-Hakk, the Leader unto Truth, was born a 
year before the death of his grandfather. Al-Hady asserted 
his claim to the Imamate in a.h. 280 and proceeded to 
Sa'dah, where he used his influence to put an end to the 
strife with which the city was distracted. But he was soon 
compelled to abandon his task and to return to the Hijaz. 
Early in 284, he received invitations from the citizens to 
place himself at their head, and accordingly, in Safar of that 
year, he re-appeared at Sa'dah accompanied by his uncle 
Muhammad. He conquered Najran, and was next engaged 
in warfare with the Karmathiaus. The Zaydite author of 
the Hada'ik is silent over most of the particulars given by 
al-Khazraji {supra, Note 8) as well as by the author of the 
History of the Karmathians in Yaman, but he mentions that 
al-Hady sent his son Muhammad al-Murtada to assist the 
people of San'a against the Ismailites, to which he adds that 
the Imam became master of Yaman. Al-Hady died at Sa'dah 
iu Dhu ^l-Hijjah 298, of poison it is said. He left three sons, 
Abu '1-Kasim Muhammad al-Murtada, Ahmad surnamed 
au-Nasir and Hasan. 



* Dlui Hulayfah is described by Yakut as a village situated six 
or seven miles from IMedinah and as the Mikdt (see Note 16) of 
the people of that city. 

I The names of other sons are mentioned by genealogists, and 
there seems little doubt that certain descendants of al-Kfisim 
settled in Egypt. See the T;lj al-Arus, s.v. Rass, and cf. Ibn 
Khallikan (de Slane), vols. i. 115 and ii. 46. 



o 



1 6 Notes. NOTES 128, 129. 



The next Imam of the Zaydites, it is stated, was Hasan 
ibn 'Aly surnamed an-Nasir lil-Hakk, but better known in 
history as al-UfrusJi. He arose in Persia in a.h. 301, and 
died at Amul in Tabarislan in 304. 

But we are also told that next in succession to al-Hady was 
his son Muhammad al-Murtadu. He succeeded upon tlie 
death of his father, and abdicated in 301 in favour of his 
brother Ahmad an-Niisir. This leaves no room for al- 
Utrush. The author of the Yawa^lt, on the other hand, 
tells us that the Imamate of both the sons of al-llady is 
disputed. Al-Murtada died at Sa'dah in a.h. 310. 

Ahmad an-Ndsir li-din lUah was chiefly engaged in wars 
with the Karmathiaus of Maswar, whose ruloi-, it is stated, 
was 'Abd al-IIamid son of Muhammad son of al-IIajjaj.* A 
battle is said to have been fought in Sha'ban 307, m which 
the Karmathians were utterly defeated, but 'Abd al-Haaiid 
succeeded in making his e>cape. Ahmad an-Nasir died, 
according to the autlior of the Ilada'ik, in a.h. 325. 

For the subsequent Imams down to the middle of the 
seventh century of the Hijrah, 1 may content myself with 
referring the reader to the Genealogical Table, Note 107, 
and to Note 130. 

I must add that I have not been able to identify the 
writer Ihn ui-MuJdb, mentioned by Ibn Khaldun. 

Note 128 to p. 186. — Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya 
as-Suh died in a.h. 335. His life is given by IbnKhallikan 
(de Slane, vol. iii. p. 68). He was a voluminous writer, 
and it will be noticed that among his works was a History 
of the Karmathiaus. He is doubtless the author quoted by 
adh-Dhahabi, as reproduced by Prof, de Goeje in his " His- 
toire des Carmathes " (p. 35). 

Note 129 to p. 188. — Karaal ad-din 'Omar ibn 'Abd al- 
'Aziz, surnamed Ibn al-'Adim, was author of an important 
work in ten volumes on the history of Aleppo, entitled 
Buqhyat at-Talah fi tarlhh Halah, a title which may be 
translated " Object of the Student's furthest desires in re- 
spect to the History of Aleppo.^' He afterwards wrote an 



* This 'Abd al Hamid, it must be presumed, was father of 
Ibrahim ihn 'Abd al-Hamid, mentioned in Janadi's history of the 
Karmathiaus {supra, p. 210). 



NOTE 130. Notes. 317 

abridgment of the work, to wliich he gave the name 
Zubdat al-Hcdah, a portion of which has been published by 
Freytag. Ibn al-'Adim was born in a.h. 580 and died in 
660. 

Note 130 to p. 190. — Ibn Khaldun's chapter on the 
Rassite Imams is so incorrect that I have felt inclined to 
omit it altogether. Bnt I have eventually thought that a 
more useful purpose may be gained by allowing it to form 
part of this volume, and by pointing out its inaccuracies. 
Touching the Suleymanite Sharifs of Yaman, it will be 
sufficient to refer to what I have said in Note 88. 

I have there pointed out Ibn Khaldun's error in respect 
to the Imam Ahmad (al-Mutawakkil) son of Suleyman, 
whom he erroneously calls son of Hamzah, and of whom Le 
still more inaccurately says, that he was nearly related to 
the Suleymanite Ghanim ibn Yahya. The Imam in ques- 
tion was in point of fact a direct descendant of an-Nasir 
Ahmad son of al-Hiidy Yahya. 'Omarah is therefore right in 
styling him the liassite. (See the Genealogical Table to 
Note 107.) 

Ahmad al-Mutawakkil 'al' Allah issued his proclama- 
tions asserting his claims to the Imamate in a.h. 532, and 
was recognized in Najran as well as at Sa'dah. With the 
assistance of the neighbouring Arab tribes, he attacked and 
defeated the Hamdanite King of San'a, Hatim ibn Ahmad, 
in A.H. 545. In 549, he marched against the Karmathian 
tribe of Yam, who, if the Zaydite historians are to be 
believed, still persisted in the practices described in Janadi's 
account of the sect {nupra, pp. 199 and 203). The country 
was plundered and laid utterly waste by the Imam's troops, 
the remnant of the population seeking refuge in Najran. 
His expedition to Zabid took place in ah. 552. The account 
of it given by the Zaydite writers differs materially from 
'Omarah's. The Prince of Zabid, Fatik son of Muhammad, 
was, they say, a man of unparalleled wickedness and 
addicted to unnatural crimes. He fell into the hands of 
the Imam, who, refusing an enormous ransom, ordered his 
prisoner to be put to death in obedience to the Divine law. 
The Imam remained eight days at Zabid. He appointed a 
governor over the city and departed victorious and triumph- 
ant. He continued to wage war in defence of the faith and 
his fame spread abroad. The Kliutbah was recited in his 
name in Khaybar and at Yanbu'. He reigned thirty-three 



3i8 Notes. NOTE 130. 

years. Towards the latter end of his life he became blind, 
and he died in a.h. 666. 

Al-Mansur billah 'Abd Allah was likewise a member of 
the Rassite family, descendant of Harazah (son of the Imam 
Abu Hashim al-Hasan) and of 'Abd Allah grandson of al- 
Kasim the Rassite (see the Genealogical Table, Note 107). 
He was born in a.h. 561, proclaimed himself Imam in 598, 
and was solemnly recognized in the following year. He 
took up his residence for a time at Sa'dah, then moved 
southwards, and in 594 or beginning of 595, he entered 
San'a, where the citizens submitted to his rule. In 595 he 
made himself master of Daamar and its neiorhbourhood, 
but was soon compelled to relinquish his conquests and to 
retreat northward.* He nevertheless continued to increase 
in power and reputation, which not only extended into the 
Hijaz, but his authority as Imfim was formally recognized 
by the Zaydites of Persia. In a.h. 600 he restored and 
strengthened the fortress of Zafar. In 611 he regained 
possession of San'a and Dhamilr and occupied himself in 
subjecting the Mutarrifiyah, whom, according to his own 
historians, he treated with great cruelty. + 

At the instigation of the Abbasido Khallfah an-Nasir, a 
strong force was sent, in a.h. 612, against al-Mausur by 
al-Mas*ud, the last Ayyubite Sultan of Yaman. The Imam 
retreated to the neighbourhood of Kaukabiin and intrenched 
himself in a strong position, where he built a substantial 
house for himself and quarters for his followers, and where 
he also set up a mint. That position he occupied for three 
months and a half, during which time frequent engage- 
ments took place between his troops and their enemies. 
In 613 a truce was agreed upon. The Imam removed to 
Kaukaban and then to Zafar. His health now gave way, 
and he died at the former place in the first month of 
A.H. 614. 

The death of al-Mansur billah was followed by a division 
in the ranks of the Zaydites. The people of Sa'dah and 

* Ibn al-Athir mentions in his Chronicles (vol. xii. 113) the 
defeat of al-]Mansur ALd Allah by the Ayyubite Sultan al-Mu'izz 
Isma^^il, and the date he gives is a.h. 597, not 592 as in our text 
of Ibn Khaldun. 

t The AvorJ iJ^Wll frequently occurs in the Zaydite histories. 
I have nowhere met with an explanation, but it seems to be a 
designation for the Sannite Muslims and is very generally accom- 
panied by the epithet shaklyah, the vile. 



NOTE 130. Notes. 319 

its neigbbourliood recognized as Imam the Sharif Majd 
(or Najm) ad-dln Yahya ibn al-Muhsin (read Muhammad),* 
who adopted the surname of al-Hadj ila ^1-Hakk, the same 
as that of his namesake and ancestor, the originator of the 
dynasty. In the southern districts, 'Izz ad-din Muhammad, 
surnamed an-Nasir li-din Illah, son of al-Mansur *Abd 
Allah, was proclaimed Imam. Ho was defeatedin A.h. 623, 
in an engagement near San'a with the troops of the Ayyub- 
ite King al-Mas'ud. He fled to Thula, wounded by an 
arrow in the eye, and died before the end of the year. He 
was succeeded by his brother Shams ad-din Ahmad, al- 
Mutawakkil 'al' Allah. Al-Mansur 'Abd Allah, it must be 
stated, left a large family of sons besides the two I have 
here mentioned. 

The Imam Ahmad ibn Husayn (ibn Ahmad ibn al-Kasira), 
surnamed al-Mahdi, was proclaimed at Thula in a.h. 646. 
On the question of his descent there is a singular disagree- 
ment between the writers I have had the means of con- 
sulting, a thing all the more strange considering the 
importance attached by the Zaydites to the purity of 
their Imam's pedigree. Al-Ahdal makes Ahmad ibn 
Husayn great grandson of Kiisim (Abu 'l-Kasim al 
Husayn ?) son of al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad (one of the 
Persian Imams), descendant of Zayd son of Hasan and 
consequently not a member of the Rassite family. f The 
author of the Yawaklt identifies his great-grandfather with 
al-Mansur al-Kasim, who died in a.h. 393, and among whose 
children no son of the name of Ahmad has been mentioned. 
The author of the Bugliyat al-Murul says that he was de- 
scendant, as well as Malikah the mother of the Imam Ahmad 
ibn Suleyman, of Ahmad son of Isma'il Abu '1-Barakat, 
descendant of Muhammad son of al-Kasim the Eassite. 
This agrees with what is said by the author of the Jawdhir, 
who, however, confines himself to the statement that the 
Imam's great-grandfather al-Kasim was descended from 
Muhammad son of al-Kiisim the Rassite. On the other 
hand, a comparison of dates — the Imam Ahmad ibn Suley- 
man having been born in a.h. 500 — leaves the question in a 
doubtful condition. 

The designation al-Muti I find nowhere but in Ibn 

* Compare the Knshifat cd-Gliummah, fol. 22 rev., with the 
J/acla'ik, fol. 206 rev. 1. 14. 
t See the Genealogical Table to Note 107. 



320 Notes. NOTE 130. 

Klialdfm, who, it would appear, has borrowed it from al- 
Bayhaki.* The word signifies one appointed to subjugate. 

Ahmad ibn al-Husayn was raised to the Imamato with 
the full consent and approval of the family of al-Mansur 
'Abd Allah. Ere long he was able to treat on terms of 
equality with the Rasulite Sultan, at that time al-Muzaffar 
Yusuf. Such a state of things was necessarily most dis- 
tasteful, not only to the Saltan, but to all orthodox Muslims. 
Khazraji tells us, in his 'Ukud, that the Abbaside Khallfah 
al-Musta^sim sent the Sultan orders to put an end to the 
dominion of the heretical Imam. The Zaydite historians 
relate a different and a somewhat curious story. According 
to their version (Yawakit, fol. 171 rev.), al-Muzaffar asked 
assistance of al-Musta^sira against the Imam. The KhalTt'ah, 
it is related, sent the Sultan certsLm J fashlshiym, otherwise 
called, he continues, Fiddwii/Jn. These are persons, he 
further explains, " who sell themselves and risk their lives 
in accomplishing the slaughter of a person whose death is 
required of them.'^ f It is not without interest to observe 
that the word Haslilshiyln (or HasliTshiyuD) is the same as 
that found by Mr. Lane (" Thousand and One Nights/' 
Note 46 to ch. ii.) in Idrisi's Geography, applied to the 
people we call the Assassins. The word, as Mr. Lane re- 
marks, is precisely synonymous with Ha.^hshdsJiln. The 
latter is the form in common use at the present day, though 
it now simply signifies persons addicted to the use of the 
drug. 

Sultan al-Muzaffar sent the assassins on a pretended 
mission to the Imam. They were received in audience, and 
very nearly succeeded in effecting their purpose. The 
Imam was wounded by the dagger of his assailant, bub 
was rescued from the struggle by his attendants. J 

Ere long the Imam was beset with more serious trouble. 
The fidelity of the family of al-Mansur to their oaths of 
allegiance did not long endure. The distribution of com- 
mands brought about jealousy and dissensions, not only on 

* See supra, p. 175, and compare with the passage in vol. ii. 
p. 252 of Ibn Khalduu's General History (Bui. ed.). 

■j- See supra, Note 55. 

+ "We are told by the same writer (fol. 166 obv.) that the 
Persian Imam Abu 'I-Hasan 'Aly al-Hfidi al-Hakayni, who pur- 
sued the Ismailites with his enmity, was murdered in a.h. 440 by 
a Hashishy, sent for the purpose from the castle of Almut. 



NOTE 1 30. Notes. 



321 



their part, but also on that of other powerful chiefs. 
Denunciations were launched against the Imam, of whom it 
was declared that he was devoid of the qualities required 
by Divine law for his sacred office. The people were called 
upon to transfer their allegiance to the Sharif Hasan ibn 
Wahhas. Certain acts of extortion committed by order of 
the Imam Ahmad ibn Husayn filled up the measure of his 
unpopularity. The malcontents called upon Shams ad-din 
Ahmad (al-Mutawakkil), chief of the Hamzites and son of 
the Imam al-Mansur 'Abd Allah, to place himself at their 
head. They received support and assistance from the 
Kasiilite king of Yaman. The rival forces met at Shuwabah 
in A.H. 656.* The Imam's troops were defeated and fled, 
leaving him almost alone on the field of battle. Surrounded 
by a band of his enemies, he was overpowered and killed, 
and his head carried to the tent of Shams ad-dm. The 
event is said to have occurred on the identical day upon 
which the last Abbaside Khalifah of Baghdad was put to 
death by Hulaku. The Sharif Abu Muhammad al-Hasan 
ibn Wahhas was proclaimed Imam, but was not universally 
acknowledged. 

For about two years before that time, the country had 
been devastated by famine, which now resulted in pestilence. 
Among its earliest victims was Shams ad-din Ahmad, and 
he was followed, before the end of the year, by two other 
sons of al-Mansur 'Abd Allah, Najm ad-din Musa and 
Hasan. The chieftainship over the Hamzites consequently 
devolved upon their brother, Sarim ad-din Da-iid, son of 
the Imam al-Mansdr *Abd Allah. 

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the 
Imamate of Yaman was held by a family descended from 
al-Mcmsur al-Kdsim son of Muhammad son of 'Aly al- 
Amlahi, a descendant of Yusuf ad-Da'y great-grandson of 



* For Shuwabah see supra, Note 6 (footnote). The author of 
the Jawahir says that it stood east of Zafar ; Yakut, that it was 
at a distance of four miles from San'a (elsewhere he says four 
parasangs) on the banks of the river Daraiodn, which he tells us, 
flowed between Shuwabah and a town named after the river. The 
distance from San'a, as will be seen, must have been considerably 
more than even four parasangs. Yakut adds a strange account of 
the savage and desolate nature of the country. No bird, he says, 
will pass over it, and the bed of the rivor, he continues, is strewn 
with stones resembling the fangs of a dog. 



322 Azotes. NOTE 131. 

al-Hady Yahya, tlie founder, as has been seen, of the Rassite 
dynasty. 

Mansiir al-Kasim was born in a.h. 967 and died in 
A.F. 1029 (a.d. 1620), after a reign of twenty-three years. 
He is the Imam " Khassem ibn Mohamed " spoken of by 
Niebuhr as. ancestor of al-Mahdi 'Abbas, the reigning Imam 
of Yaman at the time of the traveller's visit to 8an'a in 
A.P. 1763. Niebuhr prints in his Description de VArahie a 
genealogical table giving the names and tracing the descent, 
from alKasim, of the Imams who successively occupied the 
throne down to the accession of al-Mahdi 'Abbiis. The 
Bughijat al-Mur'id contains a minute account of the numer- 
ous descendants of al-Kasim, the effect of which is to show 
that Niebuhr's table requires correction. Thus, al-Kasim 
was succeeded, according to the Burjlujat, not by his son 
Isma'il, but by his eldest son, al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad, 
born in a.h. 990, and who reigned from a.h. 1029 until his 
death in a.h. 1 054, twenty-five years. His successor was 
his brother Isma'il al-Mutawakkil, who died in a.h. 1087 
(a.d. 1676), aged sixty-six years.* The life of the Imam 
al-Mansur al-Kasim forms the subject of a MS. in the 
British Museum library. Or. 3329. 

The biography of an earlier Imam, al-Mutaivalikil 'aV 
Allah Yahya, will be found in one of the Zaydite MSS. 
(Or. 3731). Al-Mutawakkil, who died in a.h. 965 (a.d. 
1558), likewise claimed to be a descendant of Yiisuf the 
Dii'y, but the line of descent is separate and distinct from 
that of al-Kasim. 

Note 131 to p. 191. — Some words are, I think, here 
omitted in the text, but the general sense of the passage is 
sufficiently obvious. 

There is some difficulty in arriving at the correct 
names of the two personages who play so important a part 
in the history of the Karmathians, or Ismailites, in Yaman. 
Ibn Fadl is called Muhammad by Ibn Khaldiin, so also by 
Ibn al-Athir, and probably therefore by other writers 
whose works I have not within reach. On the other hand, 
he is called 'Aly not only by 'Oraarah, but also by Janadi, 
Khazraji, etc., by Mas'udi and by the author of the Dasiur 



* The year of al-Kasim's birth is recorded in a chronogram 
iihj c_*ft. .iUs. J aJ ^ = 967 ; also the date of al-Mutawakkil 
Isma'il's accession {jjS^ J »;- <^j = 1054. 



NOTE 132. Notes. -^23 



o 



id-Mimajjimhi, whom I have already had occasion to 
meation {supra, Note 26). See also the footnote to the 
printed edition of Tabari, iii. p. 2256. 

In the case of his companion, the discrepancies between 
the different names attributed to him are even greater. 
But in styling him Mansur, as if it were a proper name, 
Janadi and Khazraji have allowed themselves to be led into 
error, through the fact that the Ismailite emissary was 
known by the designation Mansur al-Yaman, he, that is to 
say, who was endowed with divine assistance in Yaman, 
meaning further, he who was victorious or who triumphed 
in Yaman. Khazraji gives him the name of Mansiir son of 
Husayn. 

The author of the Dastur calls him Abu '1-Kasim (see 
supra, p. 193), al-Faraj ibn Hasan ibn Haushab ibn Zadan 
al-Kiifi (native of Kufa). In Makrizi (vol. i. p. 349) we read 
Abu ^1-Kasim al-Husayn ibn Faraj ibn Haushab al-Kufi ; 
in Ibn '1-Athir (vol. viii. p. 22), Rustam ibn al-Husayn 
(or al-Hasan) ibn Haushab ibn Dadhan an-Najjar. The 
difference between the two last mentioned is ' somewhat 
singular, seeing that a comparison of the two passages re- 
lating to Ibn Haushab clearly shows that both writers 
have borrowed, whether directly or indirectly, from one 
and the same source. In Makrizi, it may be remarked, the 
word kharraha, to ruin or devastate, has been wrongly 
substituted for haratha, to plough, with the result of 
destroying the sense of the phrase. 

Note 182 to p. 191. — There is here a divergence between 
the statements of al-Janadi and Khazraji touching the 
pedigree of Ibn Fadl, all the more noticeable, since both 
evidently derive their accounts of the Karmathians in 
Yaman from the same origin, that is to say, from Ibn Malik, 
the writer mentioned in the text. 

In Khazraji there is no mention of Dhu Jadan. Ibn 
al-Athir, it deserves perhaps to be noticed, says that Ibn 
Fadl was member of a family, natives of al- Janad. Al- 
Khazraji simply says that Ibn Fadl was descendant of 
" Khanfar son of Saba son of Safi (Sayfi ?) son of Zur'ah 
(Ilimyar the younger) son of Saba the younger.'^ 

The tribe or family of Khanfar is mentioned by al- 
Hamdani (p. 204, 1. 10), and elsewhere (p. 53, 1. 19) the 
same writer tells us that Khanfar was the name of a town 
in Abyan. 

Y 2 



2,24 Notes. NOTES 133-136. 

Note 133 to p. 192. — It is of course altogether out of the 
question to suppose that Ibn Haushab and Ibn Fadl were 
sent to Yaman by Maymun, or that 'Obayd Allah the Mahdy 
was his son. 

*Abd Allah son of Maymun, the real author of the 
Ismailite conspiracy, was perhaps still living when the two 
emissaries were despatched ; but Prof, de Goeje shows that 
it was doubtless Abdallah's son Ahmad who organized the 
mission to Yaman. 

'Obayd Allah must at that time have been in his child- 
hood. He died in a.h. 322, at the age, according to Ibn 
al-Athir, of sixty-three years. 

Note 134 to p. 103. — These words are founded upon a 
traditionary saying of the Prophet. It is cited in both the 
works of Khazraji preserved in the Leiden Library, and also 
in the book by ar-Razi at the British Museum. 

Note 135 to p. 104. — Al-Khazraji here adds that Ibn 
Haushab and Ibn Fadl arrived in Yaman shortly after the 
assassination of Muhammad ibn Ya'fur, an event which we 
have been told by al-Janadi, on the authority of Ibn al- 
Jauzi, occurred in the first month of a.h. 279 {supra, 
Note 8, p. 225). 

Prof, de Goeje arrives at the conclusion that the Ismail- 
ite mission was sent to Yaman in a.h. 26G, a date in accord 
with Makrizi and with the author of the Dastiir. The 
latter states that the two missionaries were despatched in 
2()G, whilst both agree in saying that they arrived in Yaman 
in 268 and that the Ismailite supremacy began to be freely 
preached in 270. 

It would follow that Ibn Fadl's final conquest of San^a 
(see Note 138) must have occurred thirty-one years and 
Ibn Haushab's death (a.h. 302) thirty-four years after their 
arrival in the country. It would in fact appear tliat they 
laboured for many long years, before the}'' gained the com- 
manding position which they eventually held for a brief 
period. 

Note 136 to p. 196.— It will be noticed that Abu Abd 
Allah is here represented as having been sent to Africa by 
Maymiiu, or as it may be uuderstood, by the ruling chief 
of the Isniailites at that period, and not by Ibn Haushab as 
is stated by other writers. But it is probably true that 



NOTE 137. Notes. 325 

some time previous to his mission, Abu 'Abd Allah was 
absent from his native country, that he had an interview 
with the ^' grand master '^ (de Goeje, p. 19, footnote), and 
that he returned thereafter to Yaman. 

As regards the question of the date at which his mission 
to Africa occurred, the year 290 is to be found in Khazraji 
as in our text. Makrizi says (vol. i. p. 350) that Abu 'Abd 
Allah arrived in the country of Katamah in a.h. 288. In 
Ibn al-Athir we read 280, the date adopted by de Sacy, on 
the authority of Baybars al-Mansury and of Abu ''l-Fada. 
According to Ibn al-Athir, not only was Abu 'Abd Allah 
in North Africa before the death (at the latter end of 
A.H. 289) of Ibrahim ibn Ahmad the Aghlabite, but it would 
further appear that he had previous to that event acquired 
sufl&cient power in the country, to enable him to enter into 
a state of open warfare with the troops of Ibrahim. (Ibn 
al-Athir, vol. viii. pp. 25, 26.) The author of the Dastur 
cannot be accepted as a safe guide, but it is not without 
interest to notice that, although he explicitly mentions the 
totally inadmissible year 296 as that of Abu 'Abd AllaVs 
arrival, he does so immediately after mentioning figures, 
145 -f 135 (245 + 35?) which gives us the date of 
A.H. 280. 

The year 296, mentioned in our text as that in which 
'Obayd Allah started for North Africa, must be wrong. Our 
author is, it is true, by no means singular in his error, bvit 
Professor de Goeje shows that 'Obayd Allah's departure 
from Syria occurred, in all probability, not later than ah. 287 
or 288. 

A statement by the author of the Dastur may be noted, 
to the effect that when 'Obayd Allah arrived in Egypt he 
intended proceeding to Yaman, that he was deterred 
by news of the insubordination of Ibn al-Fadl, and that he 
remained in concealment in Egypt until he departed for 
North Africa. 

Note 137 to p. 199. — Professor de Goeje has repi'oduced 
these verses from Khazraji. Two lines are added, expressive 
of the indignation they aroused in the mind of the orthodox 
Muslim who has preserved them. The two lines are of the 
same character as the following, interpolated by Dayba', 
immediately after the passage in which the supposed new 
Prophet is represented as proclaiming the abolition of prayer 
and of fasting : — 



326 Notes. NOTES 138-140. 

»_.ftl* jTj *DI »l;i.lj ijJj JS J 4III a:^ 

Jkfa^/ God, curse Mm in every land. — May God abase him 
whithersoever he go (or among the followers of all religions). 

Note 138 to p. 199. — According to Khazraji, Ibn Fadl 
first obtained possession of San'a in 293, a statement wliich 
is indeed confirmed by Tabari (vol. iii. pp. 2256 and 22G7), 
and by Ibn al-Atliir (vii. p. 878). Al-Khazraji's narrative 
(pp. 34, 35) is to the effect tbat Dhamar having been seized 
by the Karmathians, As'ad ibn Ya'fur tendered his submis- 
sion, but that he fled upon Ibn Fadl making his entry into 
San'a. The citizens applied for aid to the Zaydite Imam 
of Sa'dah, al-Hiidi Yahya, who despatched against their 
enemies an army under the command of his son Abu '1- 
Kasim Muhammad al-Murtada. They gained possession of 
Dhamar and compelled the Karmathians to abandon San'a. 
But the latter recaptured Dhamar from the hands of al- 
Murtada in A.H. 294, and drove him to seek refuge at San'a, 
"where he joined his father. Al-Hadi was now attacked by 
the troops of As'ad ibn Ya'fur and, the citizens of San'a re- 
fusing to support the Imam against their old masters, he 
abandoned the city and retreated to Sa'dah. The Karma- 
thians again regained possession of the city for a short 
period, until they were for a second time expelled with the 
assistance of al-Hadi. But again the latter was put to 
flight by the approach of a strong force of the enemy. Al- 
Hadi died in 298. The Banu Ya'fur once more succeeded 
in wresting the city from the hands of the Karmathians, but 
they were themselves soon again driven forth, and Ibn 
Fadl, in Ramadan 299, made his entry into San'a, which re- 
mained thenceforth under his dominion, until the termina- 
tion of his career. 

Note 139 to p. 201. — These two words have a truly 
ghastly signification. They are derived from the verbs 
dahasa, to agitate oiie's limbs in the agonies of death, and 
shakhasa, tojix one's eyes in the stare of death. Al-Khazraji 
calls the place al-Mashahit, from shahata, to welter in 
blood. Miiller's Hamdani mentions al-Malahiz, situated 
on the banks of the river Zabid (p. 71, 1. 17, and 100,1. 21). 

Note 140 to p. 201.— The author of the Taj al-'Arus 
writes as follows : — 



NOTES 141-144. Notes. 327 

Husayb, pronounced like Zubayr, is the name of the river (or 
valley) of Zabid. It has an excellent climate, and its women are 
distinguished for their surpassing beauty and for their grace and 
kindliness. Hence the well-known saying: "On entering the 
town of Husayb put your beasts to the trot " — meaning, hasten 
your pace lest you fall a victim to the women's fascinations. 

See also Hamdani, p. 53, 1. 24, and 119, 1. 17. 

Note 141 to p. 202. — Abu Sa^id al- Jannabi was chief of 
the Karmathian Principality of Bahrayn. He died in 
A.H. 301, and throughout his life remained faithful in his 
allegiance to 'Obayd Allah. I do not know how to explain, 
the allusion in the text to his having declared his indepen- 
dence of the Mahdy, excepting by the fact that his fidelity 
seems at one time to have been suspected. See de Goeje's 
Carmathes, p. 69. 

Note 142 top. 211. — Egypt was conquered by Jauhar, 
the Fatimite general, and the foundations of the fortress of 
al-Kahirah (Cairo) were laid, in a.h. 358. Al-Mu'izz arrived 
in Egypt and established the seat of the Fatimite Empire 
at Cairo in a.h. 362. 

Note 143 to p. 211. — Dayba*^ adds here that Ibn al-Asad 
exercised the office of Da^y under the reigns of the Fatimite 
Khalifahs al-Hakim and az-Zahir (a.h. 411-427), and during 
the eai'lier years of al-Mustansir (a.h. 427-487). 

Note 144 to p. 212. — Instead of al-Ahrdj or Ahhrclj,! 
think we must read al-Akhruj, which, Hamdani tells us 
(p. 106), adjoins the lower country of Hadiir and was in his 
day the dwelling-place of the Banu Sulayhi, the Ham- 
danites. See Dr. Glaser, pp. 38 and 10. He identifies the 
district with the modern Hujrah, shown upon his map, east 
of Haraz. The place is mentioned, I may add, by al- 
Mukaddasy, who, according to Professor de Goeje's edition, 
writes JJkhruj. 



i 



GENERAL INDEX. 



[T/ie letters H, K, S, and T, form separate headings, 
naines, see page 352.] 



For geographical 



Al-A'azz. See 'Aly ibn Saba and 

Muhammad. 
•Abbas SOD of 'Aly al-A'azz, 73. 
'Abbas ibn al-Karam, Prince of Aden, 

33 (f.-note), 64, 65, 66, 307,308. 
Al-Mahdy 'Abbas Imam of Yaman, 

322. 
'Abd Allah ibn al-* Abbas, cousin of 

the Prophet, appointed Governor 

of Yaman, 139.— 64. 
'Abd Allah ilin al-'Abbas ash-Sha- 

wiry, the Da'y, successor to Ibn 

Ilaushab, 208, 209. 
'Abd' Allah ibn 'Abd Allah the 

Sulayhite, adherent oflbnNajTb 

ad-Daulah, and his successor as 

Da'y, 60, 298, 299. 
'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Madan, 184. 
'Abd Allah son of Imam Ahmad an- 

Nasir, 187. 
•Abd Allah ibn 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 129, 

164. 
'Abd Allah ibn As'ad ibn Wa'il the 

Wuhazite, son-in-law of Mansur 

ibn Fatik, 98. 
Al-Matisur 'Abd Allah ibn Hamzah, 

Zaydite Imam, 188. Ilis history 

318, 319. 
'Abd Allah ibn Hatim ibn al- 

Ghashlm the Hamdanite, Prince 

of San'a, 230. 
'Abd Allah (or Ziyfid), infant son 

and successor of Abu "l-Jaysh 

Ishilk, 8, 143. 
'Abd Allah (or Ibrahim), successor 

of the preceding and last of his 

race, 13 sgry., 144. 
'Abd Allah ibn Kahtan of the Banu 

Ya'fur, 227. * 
Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allah ibn Abi 

'I-Kasim al-Abbfir, one of 

'Omfirah's informants, 12, 103. 



'Abd Allah, ibn al ■ Mahdy al-Ma'mari, 

63. 
'Abd Allah al-Ma'mun the Abbaside 

KhalTfah. Sends Ibn Ziyad to 

Yaman, 2-4, 141, 218.— 27, 140, 

141, 159, 185, 220, 221, 223, 308, 

314. 
'Abd Allah ibn al-MasQ', 258. 
'Abd Allah ibn Maymun al-Kaddah, 

324. See also Maymun. 
•Abd Allah ibn (Muhammad ibn) 

'Aly ibn 'Abd Allah ibn al -Abbas, 

as-Safifiih, the first Abbaside 

KhalTfah, 2, 140, 184. 
'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad, al- 

Mansur, the second Abbaside 

Khallfahj 245. 
*Abd Allah ibn Muhammad the 

Sulayhite. His death, 31, 84, 

153. Builder of Dhu Jiblah, 40, 

148, 169. Owner of Ta'kar, 

257.— 50, 160, 169. 
Abu 'Abd Allah ash-Shiya'i. See 

Husayn ibn Ahmad. 
'Abd 'Allah ibn Tfihir, 314. 
Abu 'Abd Allah ibn Ya'fur. Eead 

Abu 'Abdj Allah al-Husayn at- 

Tubba'y, which see. 
'Abd Allah ibn Yahya, 53. 
'Abd Allah ibn Yahya, Chief of the 

Banu Janb, 295, 297. 
Sultan 'Abd Allah ibn Ya'la the 

Sulayhite. Owner of Khadid, 

55, 169, 170. His verses, 50. 
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr. See Abu 'Omar 

Yusuf. 
'Abd al-Hajr son of 'Abd al-Madan, 

313.' 
'Abd al-HamId son of Muhammad 

son of al-llajjaj, 316. 
'Abd al-Kadir son of Ahmad tho 

Ya'fu'rite, 225. 
'Abd al-Kays, 184, 314. 
Bami 'Abd al-Kays. See al-'Abdi. 



330 



General Index. 



'Abd al Madiin, 18-i, 312, 313. 

KhaUfah 'Abd al- Malik son of Mar wan, 
I-IO, 220. 

'Abd al-Muhsin ibn Isma'Tl, one of 
'Omiirah's informants, 118. 

'Abd al-Mnsta'la ibn Ahmad the 
Zawahite, 39. 

'Abd an-Naby son of ' Aly ibn Mahdy. 
Succeeded his brother and ruled 
over Yaman when 'Omarah 
wrote, 129, 130, 161. His con- 
quests and eventual defeat by 
'Aly ibn Hfitim, 291 -2 J6. His 
death, 297." 

Abu'Alu 'Abd ar-RahTm al-Kfidi al- 
Fadil, 'Omarah's history written 
at his request, 1. His relations 
with the author, vii.-ix. 

'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ahmad the 
Alide. His rebellion in Yaman, 
218-19 (f.-note). 

'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Aly al-'Absi, 
one of 'Omarah's informants, 12. 

'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 'Auf, xiv. 

*Abd ar-Rahman ibn Tahir al-Kaybi, 
81. ■ 

Abtt, 'l-Faraj 'Abd ar-Rahman sur- 
named Ibn al-Jauzi, 225. 

'Abd ash-Sliams. See Saba. 

Banu 'Abd al-Wahid, 18, 177. 

'Abd al-Wahid son of Jayyash, 93. 
His rebellion and sub-;equent 
expulsion from Zabid, 91, 95.- — 
156. 

Al-' Ahdi (i.e. of the tribe of 'Abd al- 
Kays, descendants of Rabi'ah 
son of Nizar). See Alni Bakr 
ibn Ahmad. 

Abhirah. See Buhar. 

Ibn Ablhi. See Ziyad. 

Abna. Meaning of the word, 300. 

Banu 'Ahs, Isbmaelite tribe, de- 
scendants of Sa'd son of Kays 
'Aylan. See 'Abd ar-Rahmiin 
ibn 'Aly. 

Abyssinian conquest of Yaman, 313. 

Abyssinian tribes. See Amharah, 
Jazali and Sahrat. 

'Ad and 'Adites, 171, 180, 290, 311. 

£anu 'l-'Ad'a, 195. 

Al-'Adid li-dJn Illah, the last Fat^'- 
mite KhalTfah, vi., vii., 1. 

Al-Malik al-'Adil an-Nasir, son and 
successor of Tala'i', vi. 

Ibn al-'Adim. See Kamdl ad-dln 
'Omar. 

'Adnan, Patriarch of the Ishmaelite 
Arabs, 215. 



The Af'd of Najran, 183. 312. 

Al-Afdal. SeeShahin-Shah. 

Al-Agharr, 269. See 'Aly al-A'azz 
ibn Saba. 

.41-Ahdal, xviii. sq. His history 
referred to, 236, 239, 218, 250, 
259 (f.-note), 271, 311, 311, 319. 

Ahmad son of 'Abd Allah son of 
Maymfin, 321. 

Shams ad-dln Ahmad ibn al-Mansur 
'Abd Allah, al-Mutawakkil, the 
Zaydite Imfim, 175, 188, 189. 
Appointed Imam, 319. Heads 
a rebellion against the Imam 
Ahmad ibn Husayn, 321. His 
death, 321. 

Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Hamld, Governor 
of Yaman, 221. ' 

Ahmad son of 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 297. 

Ahmad ibn 'Aly al-Hakly, Safy ad- 
Daulah, poet, 75. 

The DiVy al-Mukarram Ahmad ibn 
'Aly the Sulayhite. Appointed 
deputy to his fatlier, 30. Re- 
captures Zabid and releases his 
mother, 31-36, 147, 154. Origi- 
nates the Malikite dinars, 37. 
Loses and recovers Zabid, 37, 
148. His marriage with Sayyi- 
dah, 39. Removes to Dhu Jiblah, 
40-41, 148. Deposes the Banu 
Ma'n at Aden, 65, 159, 168. 
His death, 42, 254.-22, 30, 50, 
65, 85, 87, 91, 93, 130, 134, 147, 
169, 172, 174, 230, 242, 257. 

Ahmad ibn 'Attabal-Hadhaly, deputy 
of Saba ibn Abi 's-Su'ud at 
Aden, 68. 

Ahmad ibn Falah, one of 'Omarah's 
informants, 82. 

Ahmad ibn Husayn al-Amawy, Ibn 
as-Sahah, 22. - 

Imam Ahmad ibn Husayn al-Mahdy. 
Doubts as to his lineage, 319. 
Surname al-Muti, 319. His his- 
tory, 319-321. ' His place of 
burial, 223 (f.-note), 175, 189- 
190. 

Ahmad ibn 'Imran ibn al-Fadl, 148. 
Ibn Khaldun's error in styling 
him Sultan of San'a, 230. 

Ahmad son of Ja'far son of Musa 
the Sulayhite. Father of Queen 
Sayyidah, 38, 94. His death at 
Aden, 250. 

Ahmad ibn Mansur ibnal-Mufaddal, 
267. 

Ahmad ibn Mas'ud ibn Faraj al- 



General hidex. 



Zl^ 



Mu'taman, governor of Ilays, 
106. See 'Aly ihn Mas'ud. ' 

Ahmad ibn Mas'ud al-Jazali, an 
influential leader at Zabid, 97- 

'Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Ash'ari, 

Lone of 'Otnarah's informants, 2. 
hmad ibn Muhammad al-Hamudi, 
ruler of Mir bat and Zafar, 182, 
311. 
Ahmad ibn Muhammad aUHclsii al- 
1 ■ Farady, Idl-lOS. 
jAhmad ibn Muhammad the Sulayhite. 
' See Ahmad son of Ja'far. 
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, grandfather 

of 'Omarah', 29. 
Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Abi 'z-Zarr, 77. 
Abu Saha Ahmad son of al-Muzafiar 
son of 'Aly the Sulayhite, father 
of the Da'y al-Mansur Saba, 42, 
149, 250, 304. 
Ahmad ibn Salim, Ibn Shihab's 
assistant at Zabld, 27, 28, 3i-37. 
Imam Ahmad ibn Suleyman al-Muta- 
waklcil. The citizens of Zabid 
ask him for aid against 'Aly ibn 
Mahdy, 128, 129, 157, 163, 187. 
Ibn Khaldun's erroneous ac- 
count of the Imam, 284, 317. 
1 His history, 317.— 230. 
Ahmad son of Suleyman the Zawa- 
hite, nephew and son-in-law of 
Queen Sayyidah, 39, 58. 
Ahmad ibn Tulun, sovereign of 

Egypt, 10.' 
Imam Ahmad an-Nasir son of al- 

Hady Yahya, 186', 251, 316. 
Ahmad son of the Rasulite Sultan 

az-Zahir Yahya, xii. 

Kadi Ah mad ar- Rashld ibn az-Zubayr, 

envoy from Cairo to 'Aly al- 

A'azz, 74, 78. 

Al-Ahwal, 253. See Sa'Td ibn Najah. 

'A'ishah, wife of the Prophet, 64, 139, 

301. 
Barm Abi 'Akamah, 4. 
Abu 'Akamah. See Abu Muhammad 

al-IIasan. 
'Akkites (Banu 'Akk). Their revolt 
in the days of al-Ma'mun, 3. — 
105, 213,216. 
Akyal. See Kayl. 
Hajjah 'Alam, mother of Fatik ibn 
Mansur, originally slave of 
Anls, 97, 98. Grants her pro- 
tection to 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 125, 
162. Her death, 126, 162.— 95, 
112, 115, 117, 119, 120, 122, 156, 
286, 



'Alas. See Dhu Jadan. 

'Aly son of 'Abd Allah ibn al-'Abbas, 
289. 

'Aly son of al-Mukarram Ahmad, died 
in infancy, 39. 

'Aly al-Amlahy, ancestor of recent 
Imams of San 'a, xxiv. 

Abu 'l-Sasan 'Aly al-Ash'ary, 213. 

'Aly ibn Fadl the Karmathian. 
His history, 191-207. His name, 
322. Date of his arrival in 
Yaman, 324 (Notes 133 and 135). 
Date of his conquest of San'a, 
326.-6-7, 143, 173, 222,' 225, 
226, 232. 

'Aly ibn Abi '1-Gharat, joint King of 
Aden. Succeeds his brother 
Muhammad, 67. War with his 
kinsman the Da'y Saba ibn Abi 
Su'ud, 68-73. His death, 73.— 
113,272. 

'Aly ibn Ilatim ibn Ahmad, al-Wahid, 
King of San'a. Heads a con- 
federacy against 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 
295, 296. His flight from San'a 
on arrival of Turan Shah, 297. — 
230, 2 19. 

'Aly ibn Husayn Juftam, sent frona 
Baghdad as Governor of Yaman, 
225. 

'Aly Zayn al-'Abidln son of Husayn 
son of 'Aly, 289, 302. 

Dd'ij 'Aly ibn Ibrahim ibn NajTb ad- 
Daulah, al-Muwaffak. His his- 
tory, 57-64. Arrival in Yaman, 
57. Establishes order and wins 
the Queen's confidence, 53. 
Defeated at Zabid, 59, 97. Makes 
war on the Zurayites, 59-60, 66. 
Becomes disafl'ected to the Queen 
but is reduced to submission, 
60-61. Charged with treason 
against the Khalifah, 61-62. 
Arrested, 63. Carried to Aden 
and embarked for Egypt, 64. 
His ultimate fate in doubt 
266.-134, 156, 169, 170, 263, 
264, 265, 298. 

'Aly son of ^Isa son of Hamzah son 
of Wahhas. Suleymanite Sharif, 
living iu A.n. 510, 285. 

Imdm Abu 'l-IIasan 'Aly ibn Ja'far 
al-Uddy al-Hakayni, 320 (f.- 
note). 

'Aly ibn al-Kumm. See 'Aly ibn 
Muhammad. 

'Aly ibn Mahdy. His history, 124- 
134, 161-165. Lineage, 288, 289. 



2,0^ 



General Index. 



Ravages Tihamah, 120-7. Be- 
sieges aud captures Zabld, 128. 
His death, 129. Place of burial, 
294. His doctrines and laws, 
132-134. His Khntbah, 290. 
His riches and conqiiests, 130- 
132.— xvi. 123, 151, 157,168, 172, 
173, 174, 184, 187, 242, 275, 314. 

'Aly ibn Ma'a, 30, 278. 

'Aly ibn Mas'fid, Prince of Hays, 

115. See Ahmad ihn Mas'ud. 
'Aly ibn Muhammad, Zaydite Imam 

of Sa'dah, 190. 
Du'i/ 'Aly ibn Muhammad as-Sulay- 
hi. His history, 19-31,' 145-47. 
Parentage and education, 19, 
145. Succeeds the Dli'y 'Amir 
az-Zawahi, 19, 146. Marries 
Asma daughter of Shihfib, 21- 
22. His seizure of Masar, 23, 

116. His rapid conquest of 
Yaman, 24, 25, 146. Assassi- 
nates Najah and takes ZabTd, 24, 
81, 151. Conquest of Aden, 25, 
65, 159, 168, 308. Capture of 
SanTi, 25, 228, 230. Starts for 
Mecca by order of the Fatimite 
Khallfah and is killed, 30, 31, 
83-86, 147. Objects of the pro- 
jected expedition to Mecca, 252. 
—7, 14, 17, 18, 130, 134, 159, 167, 
168, 172, 173, 212, 242, 250, 251 

•Aly ibn Muhammad, Prince of 
Dhakhir, 131. 

'Aly ibn Muhammad, Kadi of Haraz, 
23. 

Abu 'l-Sasan 'Aly ibn Muhammad 
ibn A'yan, merchant at Aden, 72. 

Ahu 'l-Uasan 'Aly ibn Muhammad 
al-Kumm, wazTr at ZabTd to 
As'ad ibn Shihab, 27-28, 38 
(Husayn ibn 'Aly? 43, 254), 
89*-92, 155. 

Shams al-3Ia'uli 'Aly, son of the 
Da'y Saba the Sulayhite and 
- son-in-law of Queen Sayyidah, 
39. Prince of Kaydan, 52. Pos- 
sessed the fortress of Ashyah, 
151, 174. Takes a second wife 
and is banished, 49. His death, 
49, 151, 174. 

'Aly al-A'azz al-Murtada son of Saba 
the Zurayite. Succeeds his 
father at Aden, but dies shortly 
after. 67, 73, 159, 160, 273.-72, 
74, 269. 

Alii 'I'Husayn 'Aly ibn Suleyman, 
one of 'Omarah's informants, 20. 



'Aly Ibn Snleymfin az-Zawahi, adbe 
rent of ibn Najib ad-Daulah, 60 

'Aly ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of t'ni 
Prophet, ix. (f.-note), 139, 163 
ISO, 219, 301-2. 

Abu 'Aly ibn Talik, one of 'Omarah't 
informants, 13. 

'Alv ibn Wardan, freedman of the 
* Banu Ya'fnr, 226. 

Amharah, an Abyssinian tribe, 117. 
See Abyssinian tribes. 

Al-Amin. See Muhammad son ol 
Hariin. 

The BiVi/ 'Amir ibn 'Abd Allah az- 
Zawahi, 19, 145-6, 211, 248-9. 

AI-'Amir bi-Ahkam Illah, the Fati- 
mite Khallfah. His official in- 
timation of the birth of his son, 
134-7, 300.— 62, 63, 257, 265,.| 
298-9. 

Al-Amlahy. See 'Alv. 

'Amlik or 'Amlnk, 179, 310. 

Bami 'Amru, subdivision of the tri 
of Khaulan, 57. 

Abu 'Amru ibn al-'Ala, 102, 282. 

'Amru ibn 'Arkatah the Janbite, 
56, Gl. 

'Amru ibn al-'i^s, 219. 

'Amru son of Wardah, 116. 

'Anbar (?), slave of Princess 'Ala 
112. 

Ihn 'Anbasah, 200. 

AnTs, 236, 273. See Nafis, freedmal 
of the Ziyaditos. 

AnTs al-A'azzi, guardian of the cl 
dren of al-A'azz 'Aly and one 
'Omarah's informants, 73, 74 
273. 

AnTs al-Fatiki al-Jazali, wazTr 
Mansur ibn Fatik, 96-97, 117. 

Banu 'Ans, 52, 69, 139, 177, 217, 262,' 
295 (f.-note), 300. 

AI-Ansar, designation given by Ibn 
Mahdy to his auxiliaries, 126, 
163. See also 217. 

Al-'Ansi. See al-Aswad. 

Banu 'Anz ibn Wa'il, 166, 178, 308. 

Al-'Aranjaj, surname of thepatriarch 
Himyar. 

'ArTb, ancestor of one of the three 
great stems of Yamanite tribes, 
216, 217. 

Byhe of 'Arim, 183, 216. 

Banu 'Z-'Arja rulers of 'Ayn Mu- 
harram, 210. 

Ihn 'Arkatah. See 'Amru, 

Sir Joseph Arnould, 266. 

Al-'Arud, surname of Yamamah, 178. 



General Index. 



\ZZ 



4rwa, name of Queen Sayyidah (?), 
i 22. 

fi.rwa daughter of 'Aly ibn 'Abd 
I Allah ibn Muhammad the Su- 
layhite, wife of Mansur ibn al- 
Mufaddal, and subsequently of 
Muhammad ibn Saba, 76, 160,296. 
s'ad ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Muham- 
mad, kinsman of the Da'y Ahmad 
al-Mukarram and Lord of Ta'kar, 
50, 257. 
s'ad son of 'Abd-Allah ibn Ya'far, 
227. 
iS7iar7/"As'ad ibn 'Abd as-Samad ibn 

k' Muhammad al-Hawwaly, 63. 
s'ad ibn 'Arraf, 26, 38. 

As'ad ibn Abi '1-Futiih, 60, 66. 

As'ad ibn Shihab, brother of Asma, 
Governor of Zabid, 26. Anec- 
dotes, 25-7. His three apsis- 
tauts, 27-8. Ee-appointed over 
Zabld, 36. Driven forth by the 
Banu Najah, 37. Appointed over 
San'a, 41.' Plight from Zabld, 
87, 153. His honourable treat- 
ment by Jayyash, 92, 155. — 21, 
27, 33, 34, 38, 42, 84, 89, 154, 
155, 253. 

A s'ad ibn Wa'il ibn 'Isa, the Wuhaz- 
ite, 18, 76, 93, 176, 243. 

iAs'ad ibn Ya'fur. His family, 223. 
Their surname, Hawwalites, 224. 
Driven out of San'a by 'Aly ibn 
Padl, 199, 326'. Appointed Ibn 
Fadl's deputy at San'a, 204. 
Conspires against the life of 
Ibn Fadl, 205. Besieges and 
captures Mudhaykhirah, 207. 

i Retains his independence until 
his death, 226.-6, 7, 141, 142, 
173, 185, 191, 234, 242. 

A s'ad ibn Yahya al-Haythami, 22. 

Banu A shall. See Dhu Asbah. 

Al-Asbahi. See Malik ibn Anas. 

jBaimA'shab, 210 (f.-note). 

Banu Ash'ar, 3, 213, 217. 

Al-Ash'ary. See Ahmad ibn Mu- 
hammad and Abii '1-Hasan 'Aly. 

Kitah al-'Asjad, name given to 
Khazraji's KljCtyah by Dayba', 
xviii. 

Asmfi daughter of Shihab. Her mar- 
riage to the Da'y 'Aly the Sulay- 
hite, 22. Her eminent qualities, 
2i'i. Procures the appointment 
of her broiher As'ad over Zabld, 
2(>. Captured by Sa'id ibn 
Kajrdi, and carried to Zabid, 31, 



35. Eescued from her captivity, 

31, 35-6, 85-87, 147, 153-4. Her 

death, 37, 148.— 21, 27, 28, 30, 

38-9, 42, 65, 250. 
Al-Asmar. See Yiisuf ibn Abi '1- 

Futuh. 
The Assassins, 266, 320. See also 

Nizarites, Ismailites and Kar- 

matbians. 
Al-Aswad al 'Ansi, 138-9, 300. 
Al-Aswad ibn 'Auf, xiv. 
Ihn al-Athlr, quoted, iv. (f.-note), 

188, 218 (f.-note), 224, 226, 250, 

252, 285 (f.-note), 305, 314, 318 

(f.-note), 323, 325, 326.-236, 

281 (Usd al-Ghabah). 
'Aththarlyah dinars, 8, 143 (f.-note), 

234. 
jBantt Aus, 216-7. 
Banu Anza', 216, 243. 
Ihn A'yan. See Abn '1-Hasan 'Aly 

ibn Muhammad. 
Al-'Ayani, surname of the Imam 

al- Mansur al-Kiisim, son of 'Aly. 
Noyjin ad-din Ayyub, father of Sala- 

din, ix. 
Azal. See Uzal. 
Banu Azd, 183, 216, 313. 
Al-'Aziz, the Fatimite Khallfah, 227 

(f.-note). 



B. 



Badhan, Governor of Yaman, con- 
version to Islam, 138. 

Bahjah, mother of 'Aly ibn Abi 'I- 
Gharat, 72, 272. 

Banu Bahr, 54, 170, 262. 

The Bahrite. See Zakarlya ibn 
ShakTr. 

Al-Bajali. See Abu 'Ahd Allah al- 
Husayn ibn 'Aly. 

Tribe'of BajTlah, 45 (f.-note), 178, 217. 

Al-Bakhudah. See Ahmad ibn Mu- 
hammad al-llamfidi. 

Bakli, sub-tribe of Hamdan, 18, 107, 
132, 175, 216, 247. 

Ahu Bakr, successor of the Prophet, 
139. 300. 

Abu Bakr iba Ahmad al-'Abdi, one of 
'Omfirah's informants, 79, 275, 
276. 

Abii Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Yafi'y, 
75, 76, 260. 

Al-Bakri, the geographer, 178. 

Eiji/ptiun Balsam, 107. 

Abu V-Barakat, sou of al-Walid the 
Himjarito, 50, 258. 



334 



General Index. 



Banu {Ahi) '/-Barakut, 173. 

Ibn Abi '/-Barakat. See al-Mufad- 
dal. 

Baruch, 215, 313. 

Al-Bisri, 276. 

Al-Bata'iliy. See al-Ma'mun. 

Ibn Hatfitah, 166 (f.-note), 237. 

Al-Ba'yari. See Jlahammad ibn 
Zayd. 

Al-Bayhaki. Several writers of that 
surname. Tlie one probably here 
in question, 305. — 159, 172, 175, 
176, 178, 182, 183, 217. 

Bilal ibn Jarir as-Sa'id al Muwaffak. 
Depnty of Saba ibn Abi Su'fid 
over Aden, 6J. One of 'Omfirah'a 
informants, 72. His capture of 
tLe fortress of al-Khadra at 
Aden, 72-3, 272. Places Mu- 
hammad ibn Saba on tlie throne, 
74, 160. Titles granted to him 
by the Khallfab, 71. Hisgovern- 
ment of Aden and death, 79-80, 
276, 278. His great wealth, 
80, 160. 

Bilkls Queen of Saba, 22, 183, 250, 
'256. 

Banu '^Bi'm (?), sub-tribe of Khau- 
lan, 207. 

An Arab Birnam-wood, 310. 

Bughyat al-Milrld, MS. at the Brit. 
Museum, xxiv. , 319, 322. 

Buhfir, a weight, 80, 278. 

Banu Buhr, 262. 

Bukht Nassar, 215, 313. 

Burhan (ur Masrur), slave of Qaeen 
•Alam, 112. 



D. 



Dadhwayh, 139, 300. 

Ad-Dahhak Abu 'l-Kasim, 186, 226, 

*227. 
Kitdb Dastur il-Munajjimin, 250, 

322-3.324, 325. 
Da'ud Sarim ad-dln son of 'Abd 

Allah ibn Hamzah, 321. 
Da'ud ibn 'Aly,* uncle of 'Abd Allah 

as-Saflah, Governor of Yaman, 

140. 
Da'y, 1. Meaning of the word, 213. 

Succession of Fatimite Da'ys in 

Yaman, 134, 298-9. 
Ad-Dayba', historian of Yaman, iii., 

v., xvii.-xviii. His account of 

the conquest of Yaman by the 

troops of the Egyptian Sultan 



al-Ghuri, 237 (f.-note).— 221 

(f.-note), 226 (f.-note), 236, 241, 

325, 327. 
Ad-Dayr (monastery), name given to 

the Ka'bah of Najran, 18 i. 
Banu Dayyan of the IJauu '1-Harith 

the Madhhijites, rulers of Naj- 
ran, 184, 313. 
Adh-Uhab'>al, name of 'Aly the 

Sulayhite's horse, 84. 
Adh-DhMhabi, 316. 
Adh-Dhakhirah, daughter of Jayyash 

son of Najrdi, 93. 
Adh-Dhakhlrah daughter of Najah, 

16, 81. 
Banu 'dh-Dhib, surname of the 

family of the Banu '1-Karam, 

67, 70. 
Banu Dhu Asbah, their country, 

176.— 17, 197, 216. 
Dhu Hawwal, ancestor of the Banu 

Ya'f ur, 22 1. 
Dhu Jadan, 191, 323. 
Dhu '1-Kahl', 17, 176, 215, 232. 
Dhu 'l-Mauiikh, ancestor of Abu 

Ja'far al-J\lanakhi, 222. 
Dhu '1-Mnthlah, 2:>2. 
Dhu Nuwas, the last Himyarite 

king, 313. 
Dhu Ru'ayn, or Yarlm, 215, 219 

(f.-uote), 245, 288. 
Dhu 'th-Thafinfit, surname of 'Aly 

Zayn al-'Abidln and of 'Aly son 

of 'Abd Allah son of 'Abbas, 289. 
Dieterici's Mutanabbi. See Al- 

Mutanabbi. 
Dinar ibn 'Abd Allah, 219 (f.-note). 
Malikite Dinars, first struck by al- 

Mukarram Ahmad, 37, 79, 80, 

253. 
Banu Dinnah, 54, 202. 
Dodekite Shi'ahs, 301, 302, 303. 
Duhaym ibn 'Abs, 84. 



1 



F. 



1 



Alu 'Z-Fada's Geography, 233, 306. 
Al-Kddi al-Fadil. See 'Abd ar- 

RahTm. 
Ibn al-Fadl. See 'Aly ibn al-Fadl 

and 'Imran ibn al-Fadl. 
Al-Fadl ibn Sahl Dhu 'r-RiTisatayn, 

3." 
Banu Fahm, sub-tribe of Kuda'ah, 

218. 
Al-Fa'iz bi-Nasr Illah, the Fatimite 

Khalifah, vi. 



General Index. 



n ■^ r 



\lbn Falah. See Ahmad. 

Al-Falammas the Afd of Najran 
(KalammasP), 183, 312. 

Faraj eon of Ishak ibn Marzuk as- 
Sahrati, 115. 

Faraj as-Sahrati the Abyssinian, 21. 

Banu Faiasan, 280 (f.-note). 

Fath ibn Sliftiih appoiiited over 
Ta'kar, 54. Father-iu-law of 
'Imran son of Muslim ibn az- 
Zarr, 55, 170. (Ibn Khaldun 
writes Suleyman instead of 
'Iniriin.) 

Ahti 7- Fath. See Imam an-Nasir the 
Daylamite. 

Kadi Abu 'l-Fath ibn as-Sahl, 75. 

Abu 't-Fath ibn al-WalTd. See Abu 
'l-Futah. 

Abu 'I-Fath. See Sultan Abu 'n- 
Nurayn, 

Al-Fatik son of Jayyash son of the 
Indian concubine, 91, 93. Suc- 
ceeds his father, 93, 156. His 
death, 94, 156. His descendants 
exercised only nominal rule, 95-6. 

Al-Fatik son of Mansur ibn Fatik 
ibn Jayyash. His accession, 98, 
156. His death, 115, 157, 285.— 
95, 100, 114, 117, 162. 

Al-Fatik son of Muhammad ibn 
Fatik ibn Jayyash, 95. Killed 
at the instigation of the Imam 
Ahmad al-Mutawakkil, 129, 158, 
163, 187. Account of his death 
as given by the Zaydite histo- 
rians, 317. 

Fatimah daughter of al-Mnharram 
Ahmad the Sulayhite. Married 
to Sha77is al-Ma'ali 'Aly son of 
the Da'y Saba the Sulayhite, 
39. Escapes from her husband, 
49. 

Fatimah daughter of the Prophet, 
■ 180. 

Faymiyyiin, converted the people of 
Najran to Christianity, 183, 
312. 

Fayrfiz the Daylamite appointed 
Governor of Yaman by Abu 
Bakr, la9, 300. 

Fidawlyah. See Assassins. 

Ihn al-Fuwaykar. See az-Zibrikan. 

Abu 't-Futuh, nephew of Ja'far ibn 
Ibratiim'al-Manakhi, 222. 

Abu 7-Futuh ibn al-Walid, 50, 258, 
263. The author says here " son 
of al-'Alfi son of WalTd," but of. 
p. 258. 



G. 



Al-Ghafa'i, son of 'Aly ibn Fadl, 
207. 

Al-Gha'it, meaning of the word in 
Yaman, 247. 

The Sharif Ghanim ibn Yahya the 
Suleymanite. Ally of Mnflih 
and defeated by Surur, 113, 114, 
118, 167. His envoy to Surur, 
116. Abandons his Arab allies, 
120.— 16IJ-7, 187, 284, 317. 

Abu'l-Ghsbvab son of Mas'ud, Prince 
of Aden, 60, 66, 67. 

J.6m 'Z-Ghayth ibn Saniir, adherent of 
Ibn ISajIb ad-Daulah, 60. 

Ghazal, slave-girl of Qaeen 'Alam 
and sister-in-law of Surur, 12u. 

Ibn aZ-Ghifari. See Muhammad. 

Kasr Ghumdan, the Ka'bah of Ya- 
man, 6, 171, 1S2-3. 

Al-Ghuri, Sultan of Egypt, 237 
(f.-note). 

Ghnzz, 161, 165. According to the 
Sihah (apud Taj al-'Arus), a 
Turkish tribe, but the word is 
commonly used to denote na- 
tives of Western and Central 
Asia (Turks, Tartars, Kurds, 
etc.), employed in a military 
capacity, 161, 165. 

The Ghuzz enlisted by Jayyash. 
Their history, 104-6. 

Dr. Eduarcl Glaser, xix. sqq., 171 
(f.-note), 222, 223, 228, 233, 234, 
247, 251 (f.-note). 

ProJ. de Goeje, 316, 324, 325, 327. 
See also Ibn Haukal, Istakhri, 
Khurdadhbah, etc. 



H. 



Banu Habi-ah, 251. 

Al-Hadhaly. See Ahmad ibn 'At- 
tab. 

Imam al-Hady. See Abu 'l-Hasan 
'Aly ibn Ja'far, Yahya ibn II u- 
sayn and Yahya ibn Muhammad. 

Banu Hanidan. They and the Banu 
Khaulan were the two most 
powerful tribes in Yaman, 175, 
176, 218. Their descent. 216. 
—18, 58, 59, 60, 64, 69, 70, 71, 
145, 146, 148, 159, 168, 169, 186, 
188, 226, 228, 229, 230, 243, 247, 
262, 295, 309. 

Al-Hamdani the Geographer, xix., 



33^ 



General Index. 



214, 217, 219 (f.-note), 232-3, 

237, 243, 245, 247-8, 280 (f.-note), 

327, 'pas^sitn. 
Banu Hashim, Amirs of Mecca, 147, 

148, 152, 166, 252, 284, 285. 
Ahxi Hfishim. See Ahu Hi/sliim al- 

Ilasan ibn 'Abd ar-Rahmaa. 
Haudhah son of 'Aly of the Banu 

Hanifah, King of Yamfimah, 179. 
Al-Hajzari ibn Ahmad, 43. 
Al-Haythami. See As'ad ibn Yahya. 
Iliud. daughter of Abu '1-Jayeh 

ishak, 8. Aunt of 'Abd Allah 

ibu Ziyad{?),14. Her death, 15. 

—143-4. 
Ibn nisham, descendant of Hisham 

the 'Omayyad KhalTfah, 2, 4. 
Banti, nizzan, 179, 310. 
Hud, the prophet, 180, 290 (f.-note), 

311. 



n. 



Hadr/ik al-Wardlyah, ]\IS. at the 

Brit. Mus., xxiii., 226 (f.-note), 

284, 285, 314. 
ITndramaut, son of Kalitau, 311. 
Al-Hfif, son of Kudd'ah; 181. 
Ihn Ahi '?-Hafat. See Husayn. 
B%r,n Ahi 'f-Hafat, 94. 
Al-Hafiz li-din Illah, the Fatimite 

Khallfah, vi., 137, 298, 300. 
Al-Hajiah. See 'Alam. 
Al-Hajjrij, 140, 178. 
Al-HajQri. See Husayn ibn Abi '1- 

Hafat. 
^anwHakam, v., 217, 118, 120,238, 

252, 285. 
Al-Hakami, STU'name of 'Omarah, v., 

79. 
Al-IIakayni. See Imam Abu 'l-Hasan 

'Aly ibn Ja'far. 
Al-IIakim bi amr Illah, the Fatimite 

'KhalTfah. 327. 
Al Hakly. See Ahmad ibn 'Aly. 
Al-Hamal (or al-Jamal), leader of 

the insurrection against al-Mu- 

faddal, 53, 150. 
HamTd ad-Daulah. See Hatim ibn 

Ahmad. 
1671 HamTd ad-DTn. See Sa'id. 
Al-Hamidi. See Ibrahim ibn al- 

Husayn and Hatim ibn Ibrahim. 
Hamil al-Madyahj 46. 
Al-Hamal. See also al-Jamal, 53. 
Al-Hamudi. See Ahiutid ibn Mu- 
hammad. 



Hamzah son of the Imt'em Ahu Hasl / .' 

al- Hasan, 229, 318. 
Banu Hamzah, 321. 
Hamzah ibn VVahhas, Suleymanite 

Prince of Mecca, 285. 
Banu HanTfah, 178, 179, 309, 310. 
Banu Haram, 118, 286. 
Al-Harami (or Hirami), 7, 9, 234. 
Al-Harani. See al-Murajja. 
Bar'u Har.iz, 175, 21.^, 309. 
Banu 'Z-Ilarith ibn Ka'b sub-tribe of 

Azd,'l83, 216, 313. 
.BaTiM 'Z-Ilarith ibn Ka'b sub-tribe of 

Madhhij, 217, 183-4, 313-14. 
Ilarithah son of 'Amru, 216. 
Suhib al-llarmali, 235. 
Hasan son of the Imam al-Mansilr 

' Abd 'Allah, 321. 
Tmdm Abu JJ/'ishim al-Hasan ibn 

'Abd ar-Rahman, 229,'31S. 
Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Yahya aU 

Muntakhah, mentioned by as- 

Suli, and by Ibn Ilazm, 186. 
Abu Muhammad al-llasau ibn Abi 

•Akrimah, 27, 93,'280. 
Ab^i'l-]\aBa,n ibn 'Aly ibn Muham- 
mad the Sulayhite, 77. 
Hasan ibn 'Aly al-Utrush an-Nasir 

lil-Ijakk, 316. 
jd.b?t '/-Hasan ibn .46i'Z-Kri8im al- 

Bayhaki, 305. 
Al-IIasan ibn Sahl, 3. 
Hasan son of Mansur al-Yaman, 208. 
Ahu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn 

Wahhas, proclaimed Imam, 321. 
Hasan son of the Imam al-Hfidy 

Yahya, 315. 
Hasan son of Zayd, descendant of 

Zayd son of Haean eon of Aba 

Tidib, 303. 
Jbu 'Mlasan (Abu '1-Jaysh ?) ibn 

Ziyiid, 227. 
Banu Ilashid, sub-tribe of Hamdan, 

107, 132, 175, 216, 233, 247. 
Ibn Ahi Ilashid the Khaulanite. See 

Yahya. 
IlashTshiyTn. See Assassins. 
Hassan ibn Tubbn', 178, 310. 
ibn Hatim the historian. See Mu- 
hammad. 
Ibn Hatim. See 'Aly ibn Hatim. 
Hamld acl-Dai.( ?a/i Hatim ibn Ahmad, 

148, 230, 317. 
Hatim son of 'Aly son of Saba the 

Zurayite, 73, 295. 
Hatim ibn al-GhashTm, Sultan of 

SanTi, 230, 257. 
Hatim ibn Ibrahim ibn al-IIusaynal- 



General Index. 



337 



Ilainidi, succeeded his father as 
Da'y, 137, 299. 

Ihn Haukal the Geographer, 6 (f.- 
note), 143 (f .-note), 178, 180, 231, 
234. 

Ibn Haushab. See Mansiir al-Yaman. 

Bamt Ilawwiil or Hawwalites, sur- 
name of the Banu Ya'fur, 195, 
224, 234. 

Al-IIawwali (al-Jawwali ?). See 
As'ad ibn 'Abd as-Samad. 

Banu Hay, 263. 

Ba7iu ilaydan, 126, 162, 280 (f.-note), 
291. 

Banu Haywan. See the preceding. 

Ibn Ilazm, the Genealogist, 175, 183, 
186, 313, 247. 

Banu Ilimas, 58, 265. 

Banu Himyar, 215. Ally themselves 
with Bilal ibn Jarlr, 69. Con- 
quered Najran, 183. Join the 
Hamdanites in supporting Hu- 
sayn, son of al-Mansur al- 
Kasim, 228. 

Himyar son of 'Abd ash-Shams (al- 
'Aranjaj), ancestor of the Him- 
yaiites, 215, 5, 124, 176. 

Himyar al-Asghar, or Znr'ah, son of 
Saba al-Asghar, 224, 243. 

Ahu Ilimyar, surname applied to 
Saba ibn Abi Su'ud the Zurayite, 
71 ; also to al-MansQr Saba son 
of Ahmad the Sulayhite. 

Himyar ibn As'ad, secretary of Surur 
al-Patiki and one of 'Omiirah's 
informants, 104. His history, 
106-7. His story of the slave- 
girl Wardah, 106-111. A dealer 
in poison, 107.— 108, 114-16. 

Himyar ibn al-Harith, Governor of 
Yaman, 224. 

Al-IIirami. See al-Harami. 

Banu Iliwal. See Hawwal. 

Al-llujariyah, 57, 62. Meaning of 
'the word, 263. 

Banu Ilurab, sub-tribe of Madhhij, 
177, 217. 

Ibn Ilnrabah, 67. vSee 'Imran. 

Al-llurrah, meaning of the word, 281. 

Abu 'Abd Allah al-Hasayn ibn Ah- 
mad ibn Muhammad ash-Shiya'i, 
the Ismailite missionary to 
Africa, 6, 173, 196, 249. The 
date of his arrival in Africa, 325. 

Ahu'l-Iulsim al-Husayn son of al- 
Mit'ayyad Ahmad, 319. 

Abu Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Abi 
'Akamah. See al-Hasan. 



Ahu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn 'Aly 
al-Bajali, one of 'Omarah's in- 
formants, 45, 46, 61, 265. 

Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn 'Aly 
ibn Muhammad al-Kumm, the 
poet. His verses in praise of 
the Da'y Saba (Read Husayn 
instead of 'Aly .''), 43. His rela- 
tions with Jayyash son of Na- 
jah, 89-91.-28, 38, 75. 

Husayn ibn Abi '1-Hafat al-Hajury, 
94. 

Husayn son of *Aly ibn Abi Talib, 
191, 219, 302. 

The Kadi Husayn ibn Isma'Il al- 
Isfahani', 46, 47. 

Husayn, son of the Imam al-Kasim 
the Rassite, 142, 185, 315. " 

The Mahdy Husayn son of the Imam 
al-Mansur al-Kasim, 228-9. 

Husayn ibn Salamah, freedman of 
the Ziyaditea and wazTr to the 
son of Abu '1-Jaysh, 8. Mosques 
and wells constructed by Hu- 
sayn along the road to Mecca, 
9-13. His death, 9.— 16, 90, 92, 
97, 129, 143, 145, 177, 220, 227 
(f.-note), 235-6, 292. 

Al-Muhri/ al-Husayn, grandson of 
Husayn ibn tjalamah, one of 
'Omarah's informants, 12. 

Abu 'Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn at- 
Tubba'y, Prince of Sha'ir. The 
fortresses he conquered, 17. 
The part he took in the discom- 
fiture of Sa'Id ibn Najah, 37, 41- 
42, 154. Erroneously named 
Ta'fur by Ibn Khaldun, 304. 
Was chief of the Banu Kurandi, 
242. 

I. 

Ibadites, a Muslim sect, a division 
of the Kharijites, 181. 

Ibrahim ibn 'Abd Allah, brother of 
Muhammad an-Nafs az-Zakiy- 
yah,' 302. 

Ibrahim ibn 'Abd al-Majid (or 'Abd 
al-Hamid). Abjures the Ismail- 
ite doctrines and declares him- 
self independent, 210-11, 316. 

Ibrahim ibn Ahmad the Aghlabite, 
325. 

The Dd'i/ Ibrahim ibn al-Husayn al- 
Hamidi, 137, 298-9. 

Ibrahim Abu Ja'far al-Manakhi, 
founder of a dynasty in Mikhlaf 
Ja'far, 221-2. 

Z 



38 



General Index. 



Ibrahim son of Jayyash. Seeks to 
oppose the succession of his 
brother Fatik and again that of 
his nephew Mansiir, 93-4, 156. 

Ibrahim, sou of the Abbaside Khall- 
fah al-Mahdy. 3. 

Ibi'ahlm ibn Mahammad ibn Ya'far, 
172, 185. Outlines of his his- 
tory, 221-6. 

Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Zaydan, 
uncle of 'Omarah. Joins in a 
cons-piracy against al-Mufaddal 
and brings about the latter's 
death, 53-4, i50, 169, 262. 

Ibrahim son of Muhammad ibn 
Ziyiid, succeeds his father to 
the Principality of Zabid, 5, 
234-5, 291-2. 

Ibrahim al-Jazzar son of Musa al- 
Kazim, 140, 218. 

Ibrahim (or 'Abd Allah), last Prince 
of the dynasty of Zijad, 13-15, 
144. 

Idrls son of 'Abd Allah, descendant 
of Hasan son uf 'Aly, regarded 
as one of the early Za^dite 
Imams, 302. 

'Imdd ad-din Idris, author of a his- 
tory of Yaman, xvi. 

Banu 'ijl, a Modarite tribe, 178, 
309. 

Kitdb al-'Ikd ith-thamin, History of 
Yaman, xv. See Muhammad 
Ibn Hatim. 

The wazlr Ikbal. Originally one of 
the slaves educated by Queen 
'Alam, 112. Poisons King Fa- 
tik son of Mansur, 114-15. — 100, 
115. 

'Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, 139. 

'Imad ad-din al-Isfahani, author of 
the Kharldiit al-Kasr, 309. 

Imams of the Shiahs, 301-3. 

Banu 'Imran, allies of Mnflih and of 
the Sharif Ghauim ibn Yahya, 
113, 118, 120, 126, 285. 

*Imraa ibn al-Fadl the Yamite. Al- 
Mukarram's deputy over San'a, 
41, 148. His grandson Hamid 
ad-Daulah Hatim becomes king 
of San'a, 230.-42. 

'Imran ibn Hurabah, 67. 

The Dti'y 'Imran ibn Muhammad ibn 
Saba, Zurayite King of Aden. 
His coinage, 37. Succeeds his 
father, 67. Forgives Omarah's 
debt, 78. His death, 79.— 80, 
131, 274, 275, 278. 



'Imran, son of Muslim ibn az-Zarr. 
Placed by his father under the 
care of Queen Sayyidah, 55. 
Dispossesses Fath ibn Mifiah of 
Ta'kar, 55. His insubordina- 
tion and treatment by the queen. 
56.-56, 57, 59, 60, 63, 64, 150, 
170. 

'Imru 'l-Kays, 85, 278, 177. 

'Isa ibn Hamzah, hrother of Ahmad 
(of Yahya, father of Ghiinim ?), 
167, 187. See Notes 88 and 130. 

'Isa ibn Yazid the Wfi'ilite, 23. 

'Isa son of Zayd son of 'Aly Zayn 
al-'Abidin, 302. 

Al-Isfahani, See Husayn ibn Is- 
ma'il and 'Imad ad-din. 

Ibii Ig/u/k, See Muhammad. 

Abu 'l-Jaysh Ishilk ibn Ibrahim ibn 
Muhammad the Ziyadite. Suc- 
ceeds his brother, 5. His death, 
8, 143. His power and wealth, 
8.-7, 129, 142, 166. 172, 173, 
200, 222, 227, 235, 291-2. 

Islwk ibn Marzuk as-Sahrati, 107. 
Suitor for the hand of Wardah, 
115. Defeats 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 
125. 

Ishak ibn Yahya ibn Jarlr, author 
of a History of San'a, xiv.-xv., 
204. 

Ishmael son of Abraham, and Ish- 
maelite Arabs, 215, 312. 

Al-Ashraf Isma'Il ibn al-'Abbasj 
Rasulite Sultan, xv., xvi., 294. 

Imam Isma'Il al-Mutawakkil, son 6£- 
al-Kasim, 322. 

Banu Isma'Il. See Banu Mash'al 
and the Arabic text, p. a v. 

Al-MuHzz Isma'Il, Ayyubite King of 
Yaman, 188 (f.-note), 318, 243. 

Ismailites (or Karmathians, or Fa- 
timites. See also Assassins, S«- 
layhites, Zurayites, etc.). His- 
tory of the sect in Yaman, 191- 
212;-vi.-x., 150, 213, 225, 226, 
249, 258, 264, 265-6, 274, 301-3, 
317, 320. 

Al-Istakhri, the Geographer, 231, 
234. 

Ithna'ashariyyah. See Dodekites. 

'Izz ad-dIn, a member of Ibn al- 
Khayyat's mission to Yaman, 62, 



J. 



Al-Jabar wa '1-Mukabilah (Algebra), 
102. 



General Index. 






Banu Ja'dah, 214. 

Banv, Jadls, 179, 310, 311. 

Banv, Ja'far. See Ju'fi. 

Ja'far ibn al-'Abbas, killed in an 
attack upon 'Aly the Sulayhite, 
251, 

Ja'far ar-SasMd, mentioned as son 
and successor of the Imam Ah- 
mad an-Nasir, 186. 

Ja'far ibn Dinar, Governor of Ya- 
man, 224. 

Ja'far son of Ibrahim al-Mandkki. 
Gave his name to Mikhlaf Ja'far 
and was the builder of Mudhay- 
khirah, 221. Attacked by 'Aly 
ibn al-Fadl the Karmathiaa and 
killed, 222. 

Ja'far son of the Imam al-Mansur 
al-Kasira, 228, 229, 251. 

Ja'far son of Mansur al-Yaman 
(Ibn Haushab), 210. 

Ja'far as-Sudik, son of Muhammad 
al-Bakir, the sixth Imam, 249, 
303. 

Ja'far, freedman of Muhammad ibn 
Ziyad, 4-5, 141. 

Ja'far, son of Musa the Sulayhite, 
38. 

Kitdh al-Jafr (or as-Suwar), 19, 145, 
249. 

Banu Jald, sub-tribe ©f Madhhij, 217. 

Battle of al-Jamal (the Camel), ix., 
139, 301. 

Al-Jamal, 150. See al-Hamal. 

Al-Janadi, his History of the 
Scholars and Kings of Yaman, 
xi.-xiv., xvi., xix. Chapter on 
the Karmathians in Yaman, 191- 
212. Extracts from his His- 
tory, 254, 258-262, 236-7, 271, 
272-4, 275-7, 279-80, 283, 286-8, 
290, 291-3, 298-9. References, 
passim, 

Banu Janb, or Munabbih, sub- tribe 
of Madhhij, 56, 69, 150, 169, 170, 
217, 262, 295-6. 

Ahu Sa'ld al-Jannabi, 202, 327. 

Ibn Jarir. See Ishiik ibn Yahya. 

Banu Jarm, sub-tribe of Kuda'ah, 
218. 

Abu Durr Jauhar al-Mu'azzami, 
guardian of the children of 'Im- 
raa, the last Zarayite King of 
Aden, 275. Surrenders the 
castle of Dumluwah to Tiiran 
Shah, 297. 

Tbn al-Ja,nzi. See Abu ' l-Faraj 'Ahi 
ar-Rahraiu. 



Al-Jawahir wa 'IDnrar, MS. at the 
Brit. Mns., xxiii,, 227 (f.-note), 
319, 321 (f.-note). 

Abu '1-Jaysh, See Ishak. 

Abu 't-Tdmi Jayyash son of Isma'U 
son of Albuka, one of 'Omarah's 
informants, 111. 

Abu 't-Tdmi Ndsir ad-din Jayyash 
son of Najah. Author of a His- 
tory of Zabid, xii., 2. Joins 
with his brother Sa'Id in re- 
covering Zabid from 'Aly the 
Sulayhite, 82, 152. His narra- 
tive of the expedition and of 
subsequent events, 82-6, 88-92. 
Takes part in the attack upon 
the camp of 'Aly the Sulayhite, 
82-4, His advice to his brother, 
85. Upon the recapture of Za- 
bid by the Snlayhites he seeks 
refuge in India, 37-8, 88, 154. 
Returns and succeeds in regain- 
ing the city, 88-92, 155. His 
generous treatment of As'ad iba 
Shihab, 92, 155. His death, 93. 
His literary talents, 279. His 
slaughter of the Kadi Ibn Abi 
'Akamah, 93, 280. * His ingrati- 
tude to the WazTr Khalf, 255. — 
14, 16, 44, 45, 81, 153, 154, 

Jazali, name of the tribe to which 
the Banu Najah belonged, 96, 
97. See Abyssinian tribes. 

Al-Jazzar (the Butcher). See Ibra- 
him, son of Musa. 

Jinan al-Kubra, freed woman of 
Mansur ibn Fatik. 

C. T. Johannsen. His abstract of 
Dayba's History of Zabid, iii. — 
221 (f.-note). 

Family of Abu 7-Jud, rulers of Naj- 
ran, 184. 

Bami Judham, sub-tribe of the Banu 
Murrah, 218. 

Juftam. See 'Aly ibn Husayn. 

The Dd'y Ibn Juftam (or Rahim ?), 
one of Ibn Haushab's succes- 
sors, 211. 

Banu Ju'fi, sub-tribe of Madhhij, 
167, 217. 

Banu Juma'ah, a Khanlanite tribe, 
54, 263. 

Jumanah, daughter of Suwayd, and 
wife of the Da'y al-Mansur 
Saba, 48. 

Banu Jurayb sou of Sharahbil, 94, 
281. 

Banu Jnrhum, 183, 216, 312. 



z 2 



40 



Gene7^al Index. 



Banv Jurrah, 217. 

Jusham ibn Khaywan, ancestor of 

the B. BakTl and B. Hnsliid, 175. 
Banu Jusham ibn Yam, sub-tribe of 

Hamdan to whi ch the Sulayhites 

and Zurayites belonged, 64, 70, 

159, 168, 216, 251, 271. 
Juynboll's edition of the Marfisid, 

239, 294, 305 (f.-note), 309. 



K. 



The Ka'bah of Mecca, 241 ff.-note), 
253. 

The Ka'bah of Najran, 182, 311-2. 

The Ka'bah of Yaman. See Ghnm- 
dan. 

Al-Amir al-Kadhdhab, envoy to 
Yaman from Cairo, 61. 

Kahlan fieedman of Naiah, 81, 145, 
152. 

Banu Kalh, sub-tribe of Kuda'ah, 
218. ' ■ 

Ihe author of aZ-Kamii'im, 182. 

Kitub Kanz il-Akhjar, a historical 
work, xvi. 

Al-Karam, or al-Kazam, the Yamite 
ancestor of the Zurayite Kings 
of Aden, 65, 269. 

Sanu 'Z-Karam, 66. 67, 159, 168. 

The Karmathians, 222, 226, 235, 242, 
250, 314, 316. See also Assassins 
and Ismailites. 

Kashifat al-Ghummah, MS., at the 
Brit. Mus., xxiv. 319 (f.-note). 

Katamah, a Berber tribe, 250, 325. 

Ibn Khaldfin, xi., x.xi. His History of 
Yaman , xxii. His account of the 
Arab tribes, 214. AI-Ma'mun's 
motives in sending Ibn Ziyad 
to Yaman, 218. His account of 
the Shi'ah sects, 301. Errors 
in his history of Yaman, 
namely : — In his description of 
-Mudhaykhirah, Aden La'ah and 
Aden Abyan, 232. In his ac- 
count of the Suleymanites, 284. 
In that of the early Governors 
of Yaman, 300. In that of Sa'id 
ibn Najiih's death and of Jay- 
yash's relations with Ibn al- 
Kumm, 304. In his history of 
the Zurayites, 307. In his ac- 
count of the Eassite Imams, 
314, 317 sqq.—226, 236, 242, 
245, 249, 252, 266, 274, 293, 304, 
305, 309, 312, 313, 322. 



Khalf ibn Abi Tahir the Omayyad, 
wazTr of Jayyash, 2. His es- 
cape with Jayyash to India, 37, 
88, 154. They reconquer Zabld, 
88 sqq., 155. Hostility between 
Jayyash and him, 255. His 
rebellion, 45. 

Khalid son of Abu 'l-Barakat ibn al- 
Walld, his assassination, 258. 

Khalid ibn al-Walid (" the Sword 
_ of God"), 184. 

Ha^iji KhalTfah, author of the Kashf 
az-Zuuun, xii., xiv., xv., xvi.. 



xvm. 



J49. 



Ibn Khallikan, v., xi., xiv., 236, 245, 
250, 252, 253, 309, 313, 315, 
(f.-note), 316. 

Khanfar son of Saba, 323. 

Sect of the Kharijites, 161, 163, 181, 
289. 

Bann Khath'am, 177. 178, 217, 228. 

Banu Khaulan. Part of the tribe 
settled in Mikhlaf Ja'far, 54, , 
170. According to certain J 
authorities the B. Khaulan were 
a division of Kuda'ah, 217. — 53, 
55, 56, 57, 69, 127, 131, 150, 162, 
169, 217, 226-30, 262-3. 

Banu Khaywan the Hamdanites, an- 
cestors of llashid and Bakil, 
175. 

Ibn al-Khayvat, al-Amlr al-Mu- 
waffak, 62, 63. 

Ibn al-Khazami, See al-Harami. 

Ifcn al-Khazary. See Ahu 'J-Kfisim. 

Tribe of Khazraj, xv., 216-7, 236. 

Al-Khazraji, xii. His Histories of 
Yaman, xv.-xvii. Extracts, 243- 
244, 2512, 257-8, 268-9, 280-1, 
282, 283. References, passim. 

Ibn Khurdadhbah, the Geographer, 
33 (f.-note), 240. 

Tribe of Khuza'ah, 216. | 

Al-Kifayah. History of Yaman by 
Khazraji, xvi., xvii. 

Banu Kindah (sub-tribe of the B. 
Hurrah) and their country, 101, 
177, 218, 262, 295 (f.-note). 

Baron von Kremer, 231. i 

Banu 7-Ktirandy the Himyarites, 16, ' 
21, 171, 172, 242-3, 245. 

Ibn al-Kurandv, ruler of al-Ma'afir, 
30, 147, 278. 



Ibn Kabas. 
Al-Kabuni. 



See Muhammad. 
See Abii Thhir. 



General Index. 



341 



Kalitan, ancestor of the tribes of 
■ Yaman, 165, 214, 215. 
IKahtan, nephew of As'ad ibn Ya'fur, 

'207. 
Kahtanites, 85, 153, 165, 181, 183.^ 
Al-Ka'im bi arar Illah, the Fatimite 

Khalifah, 210, 250. 
lln Kalakis the poet, 160-1, 306. 
Kasldat al-Himyarlyah, 231. 
IKasim, father of Saba and Muham- 
mad, retainers of Muhammad 
ibn Saba, 75. 
Al-Kasim son oi al-Mu'ayxjad Ahmad. 

Read Abu 'l-Kdsim al-Husayn. 
Al-Kasim al-Mukhtdr son of an- 
'Ndsir Ahmad, 186 (and f.-note\ 
226. 
Imam al-Mansur al-Kasimson of 'Aly, 

228, 3L9. 
Sharif Kasim son of Ghanim son of 

Yahya the Suleymanite, 296. 
Al-Kasim ibn Husayn, the Zaydite 

'Sharif, 228-y. 
Al-Kasim son of Ibrahim Tabataba, 
aucestor of the Rassite Imams 
of Yaman. Sketch of his his- 
tory, 314-5.— 142, 185, 186, 318, 
319. 
Ahu '?-Kasim, surname of the Pro- 
phet, 136. 
Ahu 't-Kasim ibn al-Khazary, deputy 
at Aden of 'Aly ibn Abi '1- 
Gharat, 68. 
Imam aUMansur al-Kasim ibn 

Muhammad, 321. 
Kasim al-Mulk, an empty title given 

to Khalf ibn Ab' Tahir, 255. 
Kasr Ghumdan. See Ghumdan. 
Al-Kavbi. See 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn 

Tiihir. 
Kayl, singular of Akydl, title given 

to the Himyarite Kings, 176. 
Kays ibn 'Abd Yaghuth, the slayer 
of al-Aswad the 'Ansite, 139, 
300. 
ICays 'Avian son of Mudar, one of 
the patriarchs of the Ishtnaelite 
Arabs, 179, 215. 
Kays. See Nafis, freedman of the 

Ziyadites. 
Al-Kayyum, meaning of the word, 

237. 
Kuda'ah son of Malik son of llim- 

' yar, 181. 
Banu Knda'ah, 181 , 218, 262. 
Ibn al-Kumm, see 'Aly ibn Muham- 
mad and Husayn ibn 'Aly. 
Kuran, quoted, 3, 26, 32, 47, 86, 126, 



130, 132, 149, 213, 257, 265, 289, 

290. 
Tribe of Kuraysh, 18, 104, 215, 219. 
Kurrat al-'Uyua, History of Yaman 

by Dayba', xviii. 
Kurt son of Ja'far, last King of the 

Banu Hizzaa, 17^. 
Kuss iba Sii'idah, Christian Bishop 

of Najran, 183, 312. 
Ibn Kutaybah, 265. 



L. 



Ibn al-Labban al-Faradi, 102, 282. 
Bcinu Lakhm, sub-tribe of Murrah, 

218. 
Mr. S. Lane-Poole, iii., 235, 253. 

M. 

Ma'add son of 'Adnan, ancestor of 
the Ishraaelite Arabs, 215. 

Banu Ma'afir, xiii., 218. 

Abu, 'l-Ma'ali ibn al-Ilabbab, 111. 

Banu Madhhij, 69, 216, 217, 262, 
295-7. 

Al-Mahdy. Designation of the 
Imam Ahmad ibn Ilusayn. Also 
of the Persian Imam Muham- 
mad, 186. See moreover Do- 
dekites, Husayn son of al- 
Mansur al-vKasim, 'Obayd Allah, 
'Abbas and the 'iable of Imams 
at p. 303. 

Banu Mahdy, 220. 

Ibn Mahdy. See 'Aly. 

Mahdy son of 'Aly ibn Mahdy. His 
conquests and death, 294. — 129, 
260, 267. 

Atabek Nur ad-d'm Mahmud, vi., vii. 

Tribe of Mahrah (Mahrah son of 
naydan),181, 182. 

Banii Majld, 280 (f.-note). 

Al-Makrlzi, vi (f.-note), viii., ix.,x., 
82' (f.-note), 241, 250,264,265, 
274, 314,323, 324. 

Ibn Makshuh. See Kays ibn 'Abd 
Yaghuth. 

Imam Malik ibn Anas al-Asbahi, 17, 
245. 

Malik ibn al-Ilaf, 181. 

Malik ibn llimyar, 181. 

Malik son of Zayd son of Kahlan, 
ancestor of one of the three great 
Kahtanite stems, 216. 

Tlu- Kadi Ibn Malik the Salayhite, 
chief Da'y in Yamia, 134. 



542 



General Index. 



Ibn Malik. See Abu 'Abd Allah 

Mnliammad. 
Malikite dinars, 37, 79, 80. 
Miilikali, mother of the Imilm Ahmad 

ibn Sulevman, 319. 
Ma'mar ibn Ahmad ibn 'Attab, 79. 
Al-Ma'mari. See 'Abd Allah ibn al- 

Mahdy. 
Al-Ma'mun al-Bata'ihy, wazTr of the 
Khalifah al-'Amir, 58, 61, 62, 
26'>. 
Al-Ma'mun the Abbaside Khalifah. 

See 'Abd Allah. 
Banu Ma'n, Princes of Aden. Out- 
lines of their history, 307-S. — 
16, 21, 65, 158, 159, 243, 245. 
Ma'n son of Ilatim ibn al-GhashIm, 

Sultan of SauTi, 230. 
Ma'n ibn Za'idaVi, Governor of 

Yaman, 16, 159, 243, 245. 
Manakh. See Dhu '1-Manakli. 
Al-Maniikhi, See Ibrahim Abu 

Ja'far and Ja'far. 
ManI' ibn Mas'iid the Zurayite. 

Anecdote, 69, 70. 
Mann Allah al-Fatiki, wazlr of 
Mansur ibn Fatik. His military 
achievements, 97. His absolute 
power, 98. His death, 99. 
Place of burial, 282.— 156, 157, 
220, 281. 
Mansur son of al-A'azz 'Aly ibn 

Saba the Znrayite, 73. 
Imam al-Mansur. See 'Abd Allah 
ibn Ilamzah, al-Kasim ibn 'Aly 
and al-Kasim iba Muhammad. 
Mansfir ibn Fatik ibn Jayyash. 
Succeeds his father and receives 
assistance from al-Mufaddal, 
94, 156. Slays his wazir Anls, 
96-7. Is poisoned by Mann 
Allah, 98, 156, 281.— 52, 95, 117, 
120. 
Mansfir son of Ikbfd, 115. 
Mansur, one of the three children of 
'-Imran the last Zurayite King of 
Aden, 79, 80, 275, 297. 
Mansur son of Jayyash, 93. 
Mausur son of Mann Allah, 119. 
Mansur son of Al-Mnfaddal ibn 
Abi '1-Barakat. Sells the 
strongholds he had inherited. 
76, 151, 174. His death and 
age, 130-1, 267, 293.-59, 60, 73, 
150. 151, 160, 171, 173, 260, 274. 
Mansur son of Muflih, 111, 112, 114, 

115. 
Mansfir son of Najah, 16. 



Mansur al- Yaman (Ibn Hausliab). 
His history, 191-208. His name, 
192, 323. Date of his arrival in 
Yaman, 324. His death, 208 — 
6, 208, 232, 249, 324 (Note 133), 

R. Mnnzoiu, XX., 247, 267 (f.-note), 
306, 309. 

Marasid al-Ittila', Geographical Dic- 
tionary. See Juynboll. 

Marjan, freedman of Ilusayn ibn 
Salamah, 14-16, 22, 129, 144, 145. 

Jlanu Marian, 54, 55, 262. 

Marfih. See Eashid. 

Kifdb Masarib at-Tajarib, 305. 

Mash'al the 'Akkite, 84. 

iJami Mash'al, 100, 113, 118, 285. 

Masrfir (or Burhfin ?), freedman of 
Queen 'Alam, 112. 

Mas'ud son of al-Karam, joint ruler 
of Aden, 65. His death, 66, 67. 
—159, 276, 307, 308. 

Mas'ud, retainer of King Fatik, 100. 

r/is K'l'id Mas'ud, the Zaydite in the 
district of Mahjam, 113. 

Al-Mas'udi (Barbier de Meynard), 
226, 235, 310, 311, 312, 313, 322. 

Al-Mausim, meaning of the woi'd, 
146, 162. 

Mawfihib ibn Jadid (al-Maghrabi ?). 
His verses in praise of Al-Mu- 
faddal, 259. 

Maymun (or 'Abd Allah ibn May- 
mfin), 192-4, 196, 324-5. 

Banu Maytam, 215. 

Miftah as-Sudasi, mamluk of Yasir 
ibn Bilal, 276. 

Mikhlaf, meaning of the word, 5. 

Mikat, meaning of the word, 240, 
315 (f.-note). 

Mu'adh ibn Jabal, 10, 236. 

Mii'adhah, daughter of 'Aly ibn 
Fadl, 207. 

Mu'arik son of Jayyiish, 93, 156. 

Mu'arik son of Najah, 16. Com- 
mitted suicide, 81, 152. 

The Khalifah Mu'awlyah, 219. 

Al-Ma'ayyad Nasir ad-dln. See 
Najah. 

Imam a"l-Mu'ayyad. See Muhammad. 
See also the Table of Imams, 
p. 303. 

Mudati' son of Bilal, 80. 
Abu'l-MndaO.'. SeeManl'ibn Mas'ud. 
Mndar son of Nizar, 215. 

Al-Mufaddal son of al-A'azz 'Aly, 

Prince of Aden, 73. 
Al-Mufaddal son of 'Aly son of 
Radi the Zuravite, 172. 



General Index. 



343 



Al-Mufaddal ibn Ahi '/-Birakat the 
llimyarite, 150 (f.-note). His 
history, 49-54. Confidential 
minister of Queen Sayyidah, 50- 
51, 149-50, 258-9. His services, 
49, 51-52, m. Introduces the 
Khaulanites into Mikhliif Ja'far, 
54, 170. Expedition to ZabTd, 
return and death, 53-4; 94-5, 
156. His successor, 2G3. Me- 
morials of bis rule, great aque- 
duct, etc. , 259-60.— 38, 49, 131, 
151, 169, 173. 

Al-Mufaddal son of Saba ibn Abi 
Sa'ud,'68, 2^9. 

Mnfaddal ibn Zuray', 59, 60, 67. 

£'iitf6al-Mufid, history of Zabid, xii. 

Ahu Mansur Muflih al-Fatiki as- 
Sahrati, wazir to King Fatik 
8on of Mansur, 103-4. Story of 
the slave-girl Wardah, 104-111. 
Anecdotes, 111, 112. His ex- 
pulsion from ZabTd, 113. De- 
feated along with his Arab 
allies by Surur, 114, 118. His 
death, 114.— 97, 100, 119, 167. 

Al-Muhajir ibn Abi Umayyah, 139, 
300. 

-\1-Muhajirun, surname given by 
Ibn Mahdy to his followers 
from Tihamah, 126, 132. See 
also 217. 

Muhammad ibn al-A'azz, 60. 

'Izz ad-dln Muhammad, son of the 
Imam al-Mansur 'Abd Allah, 
319. 

Mtthammad son of 'Abd Allah, an- 
Nafs az-Zaklyyah, 302. 

Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah the Ya- 
fi'ite, one of 'Omarah's infor- 
mants, 100. 

Muhammad son of the Da'y al- 
M'ukurraiii Ahmad, died in in- 
fancy, 39. 

Muhammad son of Ahmad ibn 'Im- 
nm ibn al-Fadl, 60, 231. 

Muhammad al-Maliily (son of Ah- 
mad?), 186 (f.-note). 

Muhammad ibn Aly, one of 'Oma- 
raii's informants, 130. 

Abu 'Alid Allah Muhammad ibn 'Aly 
as-Sahhami, one of 'Omarah's 
informants, 97, 102. 

Muhammad son of 'Aly the Sulayh- 
ite, father of the Da'y 'Aly, 
19, .50, 145, :<04. 

Muhammad al-Bakir, son of 'Aly 
Zayu ul-Abidiu, 302. 



Muhammad ibn Abi 'l-'Arab, " the 

Da'y," 57, 298. 
Muhammad ibn al-Azraki, secretary 

to Queen Sayyidah, 63, 64. 
Muhammad ibn Bisharab, one of 

'Omarah's informants, 25. 
Muhammad ibn Fadl, 322-3. See 

''Aly ibn Fadl. 
Muhammad son of Fatik son of 

Jayya8h,95. His rebellion, dis- 
comfiture and flight, 113, 119. 
Muhammad ibu Abi '1-Gharat, Prince 

' of Aden, 67, 307. 
]\Iuhammad ibn al-Ghifari, 45. 
Al-Am/n Muhammad, son of Hariin, 

the Khalifah, 3, 220. 
Muhammad ibn Harun the Taghlib- 

ite, one of Ibn Ziyad's com- 
panions, 3, 4, 27, 220. 
Muhammad ibn Ilatim the historian, 

XV., 227, 230 (f.-note), 270, 296, 

311. 
Muhammad son of Ibrahim Taba- 

taba, 140, 143, 184-5, 314. 
Muhammad ibn IdrTs, Imiim ash- 

'Shafi'y, xiii., 4, 2.36. 
Mnhammad ibn Ishak, 311. 
Muhammad al-Maktum, son of the 

Imiim Isma'il, 303. 
Muhammad, one of the three sons 

of 'Imran ibn Muhammad the 

Zurayite, 67, 160. See Mansur, 

son of 'Imran. 
Ahu Hdshim Muhammad ibn Ja'far, 

Amir of Mecca, 152, 252-3. 
Muhammad son of .Ja'far as-Sadik, 

"140. 
Muhammad ibn Kabas (Kays?) the 

Wiihazite, 53. 
Mnhammad son of al-Kasim, physi- 
cian and astrologer, 75. 
Muhammad son of al-Kasim iba 

'Aly, descendanc of Zayn al- 

'Abidin, 107, 315, and Gen. 

Table, p. 3u3. 
Muhammad son of al-Kasim the 

Rassite, son of Ibrahim, 315. 
Imam Muhammad al-Mi/aijyad ibn 

al-Kasim ibu Muhammad, 322. 
Muhammad ibn Maui' iba Mas'fid 

the Zurayito, 73. 
Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibu Malik 

ibn Abi '1-Kaba'il, author of a 

history of the Karmathians, 

191, 192, 198, 2U3. 
Muhammad ibn Niziir, Imam at' 

Mukhtdr, grandson of al-Mus- 

tansir, 265. 



344 



General hidex. 



Sharif Muhammad Ahu 'l-Sasan ihn 
Ahi'l-'Omari, merchant at Aden, 
and descendant of the second 
Khalifah, 72. 
Muhammad son of Saba the Zuray- 
ite, Prince of Aden. His acces- 
sion, 67, 73-4, 137. One of the 
author's informants, 68-72. 
Marries the daughter of Bilal, 
74. His character and liberality, 
74-78. Purchases the strong- 
holds of Mansur, ibn al-Mu- 
faddal, 76, 267. His death, 
78,' 278. Refuses Ibn Mahdy's 
request for assistance, 127-8. — 
73,80, 160,269, 270. 
Muhammad ibn Ahi 'l-'TJla, ruler of 
Abyan at the time of Ibn Fadl's 
arrival in Yaman, 197. 
Muhammad ibn 'Ulay/ah, 32. 
Abu 'l-Kdsim Muhammad al-Murtada 
son of Yahya al-Hadi, 186, 315, 
316, 326. 
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya as- 

Suli, 186, 316. 
Muhammad ibn Ya'fur, Prince of 

"SanTi, 224-5, 324. 
Muhammad ibn Zayd al-Ba'yari the 

'Janbite, 297. 
Muhammad ibn Ziyad. His ancestor 
Ziyfid, 219. History of his 
dynasty, 2-18. Sent to Yaman 
by al-Ma'mfm, 4, 141, 218, 223. 
Conquered Tihamah, and even- 
tually the whole of Yaman, 4. 
Founder of the city of Zabid, 4, 
His descendants, 5. 129, 234-6. 
291-2. His death, 234.-2, 5, 27, 
141, 142, 166,223. 
Muhammad son of Ziyad, descend- 
ant of 'Abd al-Madan, Governor 
of Yaman under the Khalifah 
'Abd Allah as-Saffah, 140, 184. 
Imam al-Mu'Id li-din Illah, 229. 
Al-Mu'izz li-din Illah, the Fatimite 

Khalifah, 211, 263, 827. 
Al-Mu'izz Isma'Il. See Isma'il. 
Ihn al-Mujab, 185, 187, 316. 
Ifcwal-Mujawir, xxi., 221, 239, 240, 

241, 288. 
Mujrim, assassin of Surur al-Fatiki, 

123. 
Al-Mnkaddasi, the geographer, 232, 

234, 238, 239, 240, 241, 327. 
Al-Mukarram, title of 'Imran ibn 
Muhammad the Zurayite, 278. 
See also Da'y Ahmad ibn 'Aly. 
Imam al-Mukhtar. See Kasim son 



of Ahmad an-Nasir and Mu« 

hammad ibn Nizar. 
Al-Mulfihidah. 21)6. 
iZo'is Mula'ibal-Khaulani, citizen of 

ZabId, 82. 
D. If. Miiller. His edition of Ham- 

diini's Geography, xix. 
Tribe of Munnabbih. See Banu 

Janb. 
Tribe (or family) of Muntab, 202, 

210. 
Al-Muntab, son of Ibrahim ibn 'Abd 

al-llamid, 211. 
Al-Muntakhab. See Hasan ibn Ah- 
mad. 
Banu Murad, 139, 177, 217. 
Shaijkh al-Murajja al-IIaraoi, 77. 
Bami Murrah, 217-8. 
Al-Murtada. See 'Aly son of Saba 

and Muhammad ibn Yahya. 
Najm ad-din Musa son of Imam al- 

Mansur 'Abd Allah, 321. 
Musafir, slave of Mufaddal ibn 

Zuray, 60. 
Musalla, meaning of the word, 274. 
Musaylimah, the false prophet, 179. 
Banu Mnslh, 280 (f.-note). 
Muslim ibn Yashjub. Envoy to 

Surur from Ghanim ibn Yahya, 

116. 
Muslim ibn az-Zarr, of the sub-tribe 

of Marran. Captures the fort- 
ress of Khadid, 55. His death, 

55, 170. 
Al-Mustafa li-dln Illah. See Nizar 

eon of al-Mustansir. 
Al-Musta'In, the Abbaside Khalifah, 

15, 142. 
Al-Musta'la, the Fatimite Khalifah, 

257, 265. 
Al-Musta'sim, the last Abbaside 

Khalifah, 320, 321. 
Al-Mustansir billah, the Fatimite 

Khalifah, 14, 18, 24, 46, 65, 146, 

147, 149, 174, 250-1, 264, 327. 
Al-Mu'taman. See Ahmad ibn 

Mas'ud. 
Al-Mu'tamid, the Abbaside Khalifah, 

224. 
Al-Mu'tasim, the Abbaside Khalifah, 

224, 234. 
Al-Mutanabbi, the poet, 21, 34, 70, 

125, 250, 254, 271, 289. 
Al-Mutarriflyah, meaning of the 

word, 318. 
Al-Mutawakkil, the Abbaside Khali- 
fah, 15, 142, 224, 234. 
AI-Mutawakkil. See Ahmad ibn al- 



General Index. 



345 



Mansur 'Abd Allah, Ahmad ibn 
Suleyman, Isma'il son of al- 
Kasim and Yahya. 

Bed of the Mu'tazilites, 289, 302. 

Al-Mntl', the Abbaside Khalifah, 
235. 

Al-Muti. See Imam Ahmad ibn Ha- 
sayn al-Mahdt/. 

Al-Muwaffak. See 'Aly ibn Ibra- 
him, Biliil ibn Jarir and Ibn al- 
Khayyat. 

Bamt Mnzaffar, the Sulayhites, 4-1:, 
132,151, 173, 304. 

Al-Muzaffar, Rasnlite Sultan of 
Yaman. See Yusuf ibn 'Omar. 



N. 



Nafls, freedman of the Ziyadites, 
assassin of the last Prince of the 
dynasty, 14-16, 22, 144-5, 236. 

Banu Nahd. Their country, 177. 
A mixed race derived from 
Knda'ah, 177-78.— 218, 286, 295. 
Najah, al'Mu'ayyad Nusir ad-dln. 
His history, 14-16. Defeats his 
rival, Nafls, near Zabld, 15, 144. 
Is recognized as supreme ruler 
by the Abbasides, 16, 145. His 
death, 24, 81, 145, 147.— 22. 

Dynasty of Najah. Their history, 
14-16, 81-123, 152-58.-107, 158, 
169. 

Najiih son of Salah son of 'Aly, Zayd- 
ite Imam, 190. 

Ibn NajTb ad-Daulah. See 'Aly ibn 
Ibrahim. 

Banu Nakha', sub-tribe of Madhhij, 
217. 

Nashwan ibn Sa'Td the Himyarite, 
Prince of Bayhan, 173, 231. 

An-Nasir. See Imam Ahmad son of 
Yahya. 

Sultan NSsir son of Mansfir the 
Wa'ilite, one of the author's in- 
formants, 23, 54. 

An-Nasir li-din Illah, the Abbaside 
Khalifah, 188, 318. 

An-Nasir li-dln Illah, Zaydite Imam, 
xxiv. 

Imam an-Nasir Ahu 'l-Fath the Day- 
lamite, 229-30. 

Nasr Allah ibn Salim the Jiirist, 
friend of the author, 29, 

Negro troops in Egypt, 264. 

Niebuhr,233 (f.-note), 241,247, 254, 
267 (f.-note), 322. 



Nizar ibn 'Abd al-Malik, one of the 

author's informants, 2. 
Nizar son of Ma'add son of 'Adnan, 

215. Dispute between his sons 

referred to the Af 'a of Najran, 

183, 312. 
Nizar son of Zayd ibn al-Husayn al- 

Wuhazi. His lines on the Sultan 

of Wnhazah, 17. 
Nizar son of al-Mustansir, aZ-Ilfw.^to/a 

li-din Illah, first Imam of the 

Eastern Isma'Tlites, 62, 265, 

266. 
Nizarites, 63, 266, 299. See also 

Assassins. 
An-Nuby, Sheykh al-Islam, chief of 

Ibn Mahdy's MuhajirQn, 126, 

163. 
Banu Numayr, Ishmaelite tribe, 

descendants of Kays 'Aylan, 

262. 
Nurad-dTn. See Mahmud the Atabek 

and 'Omar ibn Rasul. 
Sultan Ahu 'n-Nurayn Abu 'l-Fath, 
■ 131. 

0. 

'Obayd ibn Bahr, wazTr of Surur al- 
Fatiki, one of the author's in- 
formants, 116, 120, 121. 

'Obayd Allah ibn 'Abbiis, Governor 
of Yaman under 'Aly, 139. 

'Obayd Allah the Mahdy, founder of 
the Fatimite Khalifate, 192, 195, 
196, 201, 208, 209, 210, 250, 303, 
324, 325. 

'Obayd Allah son of Ziyad, Ibn Ahihi, 
219. 

'Obaydites (or Fatimites), 19, 145, 
146, 184. See Isma'ilites. 

Banu 'Okayl, Ishmaelite tribe, de- 
scendants of Kays 'Ayliin, 300. 

'Omar ibn 'Adnan the 'Akkite, 20. 

Kamal ad-dln 'Omar ibn al-'AdIm, 
188, 316. 

Nur ad-dln 'Omar ibn Rasul, the first 
Rasulite Sultan of Yaman, xvii., 
175, 188, 189, 273 (f.-note). 

'Omar ibn 'Abd al-'AzTz, the Omay- 
yad Khalifah. His mosque at 
Aden, 9.-9, 10, 279. 

Kddi 'Omar ibn al-Mui'ajjal the 
Hanatite, 20. 

'Omar ibn Suhaym, 90. 

'Omarah. His native place and 
family, v., 28-9. Student at 
Zabld, 29. His uncle Ibrahim 
ibn Zaydan, 53, 150, 169, 262, 



346 



General Index. 



At the Conrt of the Prince of 
Aden, 75-6, 77. Incurs the ho8- 
tility of the people of Zabld by 
his eulogies of ihe Zurayites, 78, 
103, 27-4. His liberal treatment 
by the Dfi'y 'Imran. 78-9. His 
part in the solution of a problem 
attending the division of the 
estate of Ruzayk, 100-3. Becomes 
a follower of 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 
124-5. His subsequent meeting 
with 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 127-8. His 
final departure from Yaman, 7i:>. 
Arrival in Egypt and reception 
by the reigning wazir, vi. Ac- 
cused of being concerned in a 
conspiracy against Saladin, and 
execution, vii. His relations 
with the Kadi al-Fadil, viii. 
His attachment to the Fatimites, 
ix., X., 274. His History of 
Yaman, x. Its date, 79, 134. — 
142, 144, 164, 167, 169, 184. 

•Othmin ibn 'AffTm, the third Kha- 
llfah, 163, 171. 

Arriir 'Othman al-Ghuzzi. Story of 
his slave-girl, 104-10. 

•Othman ibn as-Saffar, 102, 

Al-'Othmani, the poet, t6. 



R. 



Eabi'ah son of Nizfir, one of the 

patriarchs of the Ishmaelite 

Arabs, 215, 280. 
Bann Rabi'ah, sub-tribes of Khau- 

lan and of Janb, etc., 131, 262. 
Ar-Radah, mother of Queen Sayyi- 

dah, 38. 
Ib« Ral.um. See IVa Juftam. 
Kajih ibn Katadah, Amir of Mecca, 

i67. 
Ar-Eashid. See Ja'far son of the 

Imam Ahmad. 
KatU ar-Rashid. See Ahmad ibn az- 

Zubayr. 
Rashid, freedman of Ishak ibn Ziyad. 

See Eushd. 
Tix Rashid ibn Maruh. Marching. 

cry of the Banu Janb, 56, 2H8. 
The Rassite Imams. Their history, 

184 sciq., 314-15, 317 sqci., 172, 

174, 226 s(i(i., 284, 175 (Banu '.- 

Hadi). 
Kasulite Sultans of Yaman. Their 

history by Khazraji, xv. — 16.'), 

166, 173. See also '^iir ad-dln 



'Omar, al-Mnzaffar Yueuf, al' 

Ashraf Isma'il, etc. 
Rauh son of Saba ibn Abi Su'ud, 

68, 269. 
Ar-Rawahy, 19, 248-49. See Az- 

Zawfihy. 
Raylifm and Rayhan the Elder, freed- 

men of Queen 'Alam, 112. 
Rayhan al-Kahlani, freedman of 

Sa'Id ibn Najah, 45. 
Rayhan al-Muhammadi, treasurer of 

Muhammad ibn Saba the Zaray- 

ite, 77. 
7j(/nw Rayyan. SeeDayyan. 
Ar-Rfizi, author of a History of 

Yaman, xiv., 324. 
/?«rtMRri/.ih, 54, 170, 263. 
Riyad, freedwoman of Mansur ibn 

Fatik, 99. 
Ri'yah sou of Abu 'l-Gharat, 73. 
Ru'ayn. See Dhu Ru'ayn. 
Ibn ar-Rudid, 282. 
Rnkaym son of Aram, 180- 
Rushd (or Rashid), freedman of Abu 

'l-Jaysh Ishfik, 8, 129, 143, 236. 
Ruzayk al-Fatiki, wazTr of al-Fatik 

ibn Mansur, 100, 157. His large 

family and the difficulty of 

dividing his estate, 100-103. Hia 

resignation, 103. 



S. 



I 



Saba or 'Abd ash-Shams, ancestor of 
the Yamanite tribes. 215. 

Al-Many/ir Abti Himijar Saba son of 
Ahmad the Sulayhite. Succeeds 
as Da'y, 42, 169, 254. Owner 
of Ashyah, 43, 151, 173. His 
wars with Jayyash and eventual 
defeat, 44-5, 255 (f. -note). Hia 
marriage to Queen Sayyidah, 
45-48, 149. Eulogized by Ibn 
al-Kumm, 254. His death, 151, 
257'.— 51-2, 105, 132, 230, 297-8, 
304. 

Saba son of Kasim, 75. 

Ba'y Saba son of Abu Su'ud, Prince 
of Aden. Succeeds his father 
as joint ruler, 67-8. Enters 
into a struggle with 'Aly ibn 
Abi '1-Gbarat, 69. Anecdotes, 
69-70, 71-72. His conquest of 
ZaTizi' and 'Aden, 72-3, 272. 
His death and place of burial, 
72, 272. His sons, 68, 269.-59, 
60, 113, 159, 298. 



General Index. 



)47 



Saba ibn Yfisuf, Sheykh al-Isliitn. 

Chief appointed by 'Aly ibn 

Mahdy over his Ansar, 126. 163. 
Ahu Saba. Surname given to Him- 

yar ibn As'ad, 107. 
Ihn as-Saba'i, 131, 297. 
As-Sabkhah, 23. 
De Sacy, 264, 274, 325. 
Sa'd al-'Ashlrah, son of Madhhij, 

167, 217. 
Sa'd al-Mulk son of Ibn al-Khayyat. 

62. 
As-Saflah. See 'Abd Allah ibn 

Muhammad, 
Sahrat, an Abyssinian tribe, 21, 104, 
I 107. See Abyssinian tribes. 

I Banu Sahul, a Himyaritic tribe, 216. 
i Aim Sa'id. See al-Jannabi. 
I Sa'id al-Aliwal son of Najah. 

Seeks refiige, after the death 

of his father, in the Island of 

Dahlak, 81. Attacks and kills 

'Aly the Sulayhite, captures 

Asma and regains possession of 

Zabid, 30-1, 81-7, 147, 152-3. 

Defeated by al-lMukarram and 

driven out of ZabTd, 34-6, 87, 

147. Returns to Zabld, 37, 87. 

His death, 37, 41-2, 87, 153-4, 

301.-14, 16, 36, 65, 148, 242, 

243. 
Ihn Sa'id, xxi., xxii., 143, 144, 159, 

165, 167, 179, 187, 232, 254, 284, 

305, 307. 
Ihn Sa'id. See Nash wan. 
Saksak son of Wa'il (or Wathil), son. 

of Ilimyar, 179, 181, 310. 
Barm Saksak, sab-tribe of Kindah, 

descendants of Mui'rah, 218. 
Banu Sakiin, sub-tribe of Kindah, 

218. 
Saladin, vii. — ix. 
Ihn Salamah. See Husayn. 
Si'ilim ibn Idrls, Prince of Zafar, 311. 
SelTm son of Bayazid, Saltan of the 

Ottoman Turks, 238 (f.-note). 
Ibn Samurrah, the historian, xiv., 

262. 
Sapilr, freedman of the Banu Ya'fur, 

227. 
Sarawat, meaning of the vsrord, 177. 
Abu 's-Saraya, 140, 142, 185. 
Sarwa, designation of the Banu 

Nahd, 177. 
As-Sa'y, one of Ibn Najib ad-Dau- 

lah's Hanidanite followprs, 59. 
Sayf al-Ishlra. See Tuglitikln. 
Sayyidah, wife of al-Mukarram Ah- 



mad sou of 'Aly. Her parentage 
and eai-ly history, 38-9. Her 
marriage and children, 39. 
Received the revenues of Aden 
as her dowry, 65-6. Assumes 
the direction of public aSair!», 
40, 148. Removes the seat of 
Government to Dhu Jiblah, 40, 
Her marriage to the Da'y Saba 
sonof Ahmad, 45-8. Al-Mufaddal 
becomes her confidential adviser, 
50-1, 150, 169, 258-9. Terms 
accorded to the insurgents at 
Ta'kar, 54, 150. The Queen and 
Ibn Najib ad-Daulah, 58-61,169. 
Orders his arrest, 63. Her 
letters and presents to the 
KhalTfah,63.4. Official notifica- 
tion from the KhalTfah of the 
birth of his son, 135-136. Her 
death and place of sepulture, 41, 
73, 257, 267 (f.-note), 272 (f.- 
note).— 22, 37, 49, 55, 58, 87, 88, 
91, 94, 131, 134, 148-51, 169, 170, 
. 250, 254. 256-7, 263, 266-7. 

Banu Sha'b Hay, 54, 170, 263. 

Banu Sha'ban, 215. 

Imam ash-Shafi'y. See Muhammad 
ibn IdrTs. 

Shat, or Suli, one of the last chiefa 
of the Ghuzz, 106. 

Shahar son of Ja'far, 26, 87. 

Al-Afdal Shahin Shah, the Fatimite 
wazTr, 49, 58, 257, 265. 

Shahr son of Badban, Governor ap- 
pointed by the Prophet over 
San'ii, 138, 139. 

Ibn Shakir. See Zakariya. 

Shams ad-Daulah. See Turan Shah. 

Shams ad-din. See Ahmad son of 
al-3Iansur 'Abd Allah. 

Shanjs al-Maali. See 'Aly son of 
Saba. 

Banu Shar'ab, Himyaritic tribe, 215. 

Sharahbil, 94, 281. 

Shawar, Fatimite wazTr, vi., vii. 

Ash-Shiiwiry. See 'Abd Allah ibn 
al-Abbas. 

Sheykh al-Islam. See an-Ni'iby and 
Saba ibn Yfisuf. 

The Shi'ahs, their principal sects, 
301-3. 

An Arab Shibboleth, 36. 

Shihab, father of Asma and of As'ad, 
21. 

Banu Shihab, 216, 295, 297. 

Asad ad-cUn Shirkuh, al-Malik al- 
Mansur, vi., vii. 



48 



General Index. 



Shuja' ad-Daulah, 49, 

Ban%h Sburah, 219 (f.-note). 

I6w Sibil', 76. 

As-Simt al-Ghaly, History of Yaman 
by Ibn Ilatim, xv. 

Banu Sinhaii, 52, 58, 217, 251, 262, 
295, 2'97. 

Baron de Slane, v., 249. See also Ibn 
Khallikan. 

Professor Robertson Smith, 312 (f.- 
note). 

Dr. SnoTick Hurgronje, 253, 285. 

Dr. Spreuger. His Reiserouten, xxi., 
221, 271. See also Ibn al- 
Mujiiwir. 

As-Sndasi. See Miftah. 

Abu Sufyfm, 219. 

Ibn Siihaym. See 'Omar. 

As-Suhayli, 309. 

Suleymiln ibn 'Amir az-Zawahi, half- 
brother of Sayyidah, 38, 46, 134, 
149. 

Suleyman ibn Da'ud (Solomon the 
sou of David), 183. 

Suleyman sou of Hisham son of 'Abd 
al-Malik, 2, 219-220. 

Suloymiin son of Muslim ibn az-Zarr. 
Succeeds his father in the posses- 
sion of Khadid, 55. His insubor- 
dination to Queen Sayyidah and 
subjection, 56. .Joins in making 
war against Ibn XajTb ad-Daulah, 
60.— 59, 63, 64, 170. 

Saleyman ibn Tarf , ruler of 'Aththar, 
7, 9, 28, 81, 142, 143, 146, 166, 
167, 234. 

Suleyman son of Ya-Sln, one of 
'Omarah's informants, 32, 43. 

Banu Suleyman, the Hasanite Sharifs, 

113, 130, 148, 157, 166, 171, 174, 
187, 284, 317. See also Ghauim 
ibn Yaliya. 

Suleymanite Amirs of Mecca, 252, 
284. See Banu Suleyman. 

Full. See Shah. 

Tlie Kt'tdi Surayy, 200. 

Abu Muhammad Surur the Amharite, 
wazir of Fatik ibn Mansur and 
of the Lady 'Alam. His history, 
117-123. Leader in a conspiracy 
against Muflili, 112-114, 117. 
Attains supreme command, 118. 
Defeats Muflili and his allies, 

114, 118. Eescues the Lady 
'Alam from the rebellion of 
Muhammad son of Fatik, 119. 
Receives a grant of Mahjam, 
114, 120. Marries the widow of 



Muflih, 115. Anecdote, 116 
His habits, piety, and charity 
120-123. His death and placi 
of burial, 123, 128,287.-157, 163 
167. 

Surur al-Knrandy, 118 (f.-note). 

.46m Su'Qd, one of the three childrer 
of 'Imran the Zurayite, 67, 79 
160. See Mansurson of 'Imvan 

Abu Su'udjSon of Zuray', joint Prince 
of Aden, 66, 67, 159, 307. 308 

Snwayd son of Yazid the Salayhite, 
48. 



Sahib al-IIarmali, 235. 

Sfi'id ibn Ilamld ad-dln, 57. 

Salah son of 'Aly ibn Malnminad, 

Imam of Sa'dah accordiug to 

Ibn Khaldim, 190. 
Malik as-Salih. See Tala'i' ibn Ruzayk. 
Sawab, freedman of Queen 'Alam, 1 L2. 

Chief Steward of the Palace, 

117. 
Battle of Siffln, ix. and f.-note. 
The Sulayhites. Their history, 19- 

49, 145-151. Duration of their 

dynasty, 267. Their original 

home, 212, 327.-67, 130, 1G6, 

168, 171, 247, 298. 
As-Suli. See Abu Bakr Muhammad 

ibn Yahya. 
Kitdb as-Suwar. See K. al-Jafr. 



Tababi'ah. See Tubbas. 

Banu Taghlib, 3, 220, 280 (f.-note). 

Taj al-'Arus, Commentary on the 

Kamus, xviii. (f.-note), xxi., 83 

(f.-note), 270, 31 5 (f.-note), 32G-7. 
Tamanni, wife of Mansur son of 

Fiitlk, 99. 
Banu Tamlm, 178, 309. 
Banu Tanukh, sub-tribe of Knda'ah, 

218. 
Tarjuman ad-dln, surname of al- 

Kasim ibn Ibrahim the Rassite. 
Tha'labah son of 'Amru, 216. 
Tribe of Thamud, 2y0, 311. 
Banu Thumamah, 243. 
Thumaoiah ibn Uthal, 179. 
The Tribes of Arabia, 213-8. 
The Tubbas, 138, 141, 158, 165, 168, 

171, 176, 178, 182, 183, 313. 
Ihn at-Tabba'y, 30. See Abu 'Abd 



General Index. 



)49 



Allah al-IIusayn ; also Ibn 
Ya'fur. 

Tughtikin, Sayf al-Islam, the Ayyub- 
, ite, 220, 259 (f.-note), 2fiO. 
jrulifat az-Zaman, History of Yaman 
I by al-Ahdal, xviii. See Ahdal. 
liKaiiM Tujib, sub-tribe of Kindah, 

218, 

Turan Shah, Shams ad-Daulah, the 
Ayyubite. His conquest of 
Yaman, 296-7.— vii., 67, 161, 
164, 168, 231, 270, 275, 276. 



T 



At-Tabari, the historian, 179, 218 

■(f.-note), 224, 311, 312 (f.-note), 

313, 314 (f.-note), 323, 326. 
iTabiitabii. See Muhammad son of 

Ibrahim. 
Tahir ibn al-Hueayn, 220. 
Ahv, Taliir al-Kabuni, one of the 

author's informants, 52. 
lln AU Tahir. See Khalf. 
Tala'i' ibn Ruzayk, al-Malik as-Salih, 

the Patimite wazir, vi., 78. 
1671 Tallk. See Alu 'Aly. 
Alvi, 't-Tami, 279. See Jayyash, 
Iln Tarf, 146, 167. See Suleyman. 
Taraifah ibn al-'Abd al-Bakri, quoted, 

69, 271. 
Trile of Tasm, 179, 310, 311. 
At-Tauk ibn 'Abd Allah, commander 

of Ibn NajTb ad-Daulah's Ham- 

danite auxiliaries, 58-60. 
T ytas (Taytfis ?), one of the last 

Chiefs of the Ghuzz, 106. 
Bami. Tayy, 217. 
At-Tayyib Abu 'Abd Allah, 46. 
Imam at-Tayyib Abu 'l-Kasim, infant 

son of the Khaliiah al-'Amir, 

134-6, 300. 
Tiriiz A'lam iz-Zaman, historical 

work by Khazraji, xvi 
Ibn at-Tufayl, chief Da'y of the 

Ismailites of Yaman, 211. 
Tumiin-Bay, last Sultan of Egypt, 

238 (f.-note). 



U. 



Banu Udhrah, sub-tribe of Knda'ah, 

218, 262. 
Uhdula, wife of Ishak ibn Marzuk, 

115. 
Ibn Uthal. See Thamfimah. 



'Ukrimah ibn Abi .Jahl. Read *Ikri- 
mah, which see. 

Al-'Ukud al-Lu'lu'Tyah. History of 
the Easulites by Khazraji, xv. 

Uram Ablha, freedwoman of Mansur 
ibn Fatik, 99. 

Umm Fatik. See al-Hajjah 'Alam. 

Umm Hamdan, daughter of Queen 
Sayyidahand wife of Ahmad ibn 
Suleyman az-Zawahi, 39, 58. 

Umm Abi '1-Jaysh, freedwoman of 
Mansiir ibn Fatik, 98. 

Umm Ma 'bad, 84. 

Umm Mu'arik, wife of Sa'Td ibn 
Najah, 42. 

'Uwayd, father-in-law of Ishslk ibn 
Marzuk, 115. 

Uziil, 214. See also Azal, a geo- 
graphical name. 



W. 

Ibn Wahhas, surname of Khazraji, 

XV. 

Wahhas ibn Ghanim, the Suleymanite 
Sharif, 295. 

Al-WahTd. See 'Aly ibn Il&tim. 

Banu Wa'il (or Wa'ilites), descen- 
dants of Dhu '1-Kala'. Con- 
quered Wuhazah, 17, 176, 243.— 
18, 130. See As'ad ibn WS-'il, 
'Isa ibn Yazid, Nasir ibn Man- 
sur and Yazld ibn 'lea. 

Wa'ii ibn 'Isa al-Wuhazy, 30, 147, 
278. 

Wa'il (or Wathil) son of Ilimyar. 
181. 

Family of al-Walid, 257 sq. 

Wardah, slave-girl of the Amir 
'Othman. Her story, 104-111. 
Her marriage to Surur, 115. 
Anecdote, 116. 

Wasil ibn 'Ata, the Mu'tazilite, 302. 

Al-Wathik billah, the Abbaside Kha- 
iTfah' 224, 234. 

Banu Wuhazah the llimyarites, 215. 

The Wuhazite. See Muhammad ibn 
Kabas and Wa'il ibn 'Isa. 

Al-Wuhaziyah, daughter of As'ad 
ibn Wa 'il and wife of Muhammad 
ibn Saba, 76. 



Banu Yafi', sub-tribe of Himyar, 
215. 



350 



Gene7'al Index. 



Al-Yafi'y (author of a MS. at the Br. 
Mns. Add, 16645), 248. 

Al-Tafi'y. See Muhammad ibn ' Abd 
Allah and Ahu Bakr ibn Muham- 
mad. 

Banu Ya'fur. Outlines of their 
history, 141, 142, 171, 185, 223 
sqq., 234, 242, 326. See also 
Banu Hawwal. 

Ya'fur ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, 224, 
234. 

Ibn Ya'fur at-Tubba'y, 147. Doubt- 
less in error for Abu 'Abd Allah 
al-Husayn ibn at-Tubba'y. See 
Note 109. 

Banu Yahsub, a Himyarite tribe, 
176. 

Yahya ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Yahya, 
Kadi of San'a, 75, 77. 

Yahya ibn 'Aly, wazir of al-A'azz 
■ 'Aly, 73, 74. 

Nizarii ad-dln Yahya, .son of 'Aly the 
Suleymanite, 285. 

Yahya son of 'Aly ibn Mahdy, 297. 

Yahya son of Hamzah son of 
Ghanim, 167. 

Yahya ibu Abi Hashid, 229, 230, 
251. 

Imam Yahya, al-Hady ila 'l-IIakk, 
son of Ilusayn son of Al-Kasim 
the Bassite. Outlines of his 
history, 314, 315.-6, 142, 143, 
185, 186, 226, 322, 326. 

Az-ZuhirYaA\y2i,i\in Ismail, Rasulite 
Sultan of Yaman, xii. 

Imam Majdad-dln Yahya ibn Muham- 
mad, al-Hady, 319. 

Imam Yahya al-Mutawakkil, 285, 
323. 

Yahya son of Zayd son of 'Aly Zayn 
"al-'Abidin, 302. 

Yahya son of Ziyad ibn 'Abd al- 
Madan, 184. 

Yakut al-IIamawi, the Geographer 
'xi., xxi., ]07 (f.-note), 214, 221 
222, 228 (f.-note), 231, 232, 239 
245, 246, 247, 248-49, 252, 253 
254, 258 (f.-note), 282, 283, 288 
291, 294, 297 (f.-note), 306 (f. 
note), 310 (f.-note), 315 (f.-note) 
321 (f.-note). See also foot 
notes to the Arabic text. 

Ya'la ibn Munyah (also styled ibn 
Umayyah), 139, 301. 

Banu Yam, sub-tribe of Hamdan, to 
which the Sulayhites and Znray- 
ites belonged, 60, 64, 79, 145, 
159, 176, 216, 247, 251, 271, 295. 



Yamamah az-Zarka daughter of 
Murrah, after whom Yamamah 
was named, 178, 179, 310. 

Yaman ad-Da'wah. See lliimil al- 
Madyah. 

Banu Yarbu', 177, 178, 309, 310. 

Banu Yarim. See Dhu Ra'ayn. 

Banu Ya'rub son of Kahtan, 180, 
199,215,311. 

Al-Yas son of Mudar son of Nizar, 
one of the Ishmaelite patri- 
archs, 215. 

Ahu 'l-Faraj Yfisir son of Bilal, wazTr 
to Muhammad ibn Saba and to 
'Imran, Princes of Aden, 80, 
160, 161, 275, 276, 296 (f.-note), 
297, 307. 

Yawaklt as-Siyar, MS. at the Brit. 
MuB., xxiii., 284, 303, 315, 319, 
320. 

YazTd son of 'Abd al-Madan, 184, 
313-14. 

Sultan Yazld ibn 'laa the Wa'ilite, 
one of 'Omarah's informants, 
56. 

Yule's Marco Polo, 33 (f.-note). 

Yumn, freedman of Queen 'Alam, 
112. 

Ahu 'Omar Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Barr, 
184, 313. 

Yusuf ibn al-Asad, Chief Da'y of the 
Ismailites of Yaman, 211. 

Al-Asmar Yusuf ibn Abi '1-Fntuh, 

226, 227. 

Al-Mas'ud Salah ad-din Yusuf, the 
last Ayyubite King of Yaman, 

188, 318. 

Al-Muzaffa'>' Yusuf ibn 'Omar, second 
Rasulite King of Yaman, 175, 

189, 311, 320. 

An-Ndsir Saldh ad-din Yusuf ibn 

Ayyub. See Saladin. 
Imam Yusuf (ad-Dtl'y) son of Yahya, 

227, 228, 321, 322. 



Z, 



Az-Zaiir (or Zahir) bi amr Illah, the 

Fatimite Khallfah, vi. 
Ziifir ibn Farah, merchant at Aden, 

72. 
Az-Zahir li-l'zaz dm Illah, the 

Fatimite Khallfah, 327. 
Zakariya ibn Shakir the Bahrite, 

170. 
Az-Zarka. See Yamamah. 
Banu 'z-Zarr, 66, 131, 176. See 

Muslim, 'Imriin and Suleyman. 



General Index. 



35T 



Az-Zawahy. See *Abd al-Musta'la, 

'Aly ibn Suleyman, 'Amir, 

Suleyman and Ahmad, also ar- 

Rawahy. 
Zayd, the Jurist, 258. 
Zayd sen of 'Aly Zayn. al-'Abidin, 

228, 302. 
Zayd iba 'Amru, Chief of the Banu 

Madhhij, 295. 
Zayd al-Jamhur (or Jumhur), the 

Himyarite, 215. 
Zaydites. Origin and Doctrines of 

the Sect, 301-303.— 6, 128, 142, 

166, 171, 172, 174, 176, 226-229. 

See also Rassite Imdms. 
Ihn Zaydan. See Ibrahim ibn 

Muhammad. 
Az-Zibrikan ibn al-Fuwaykar the 

'Akk'ite, 20. 
Banu Zi'l, 113, 138, 120, 285. 
Ziyad (or 'Abd Allah) son of Ishak. 

See 'Abd Allah. 
Ziyad, descendant of ^Abd Allah ibn 

'Abd al-Madan, 184. 



Ziyad son of Ibrahim, Prince of 
Zabid, 5, 129, 142, 235. 

Ziyad son of Abu Snf yan , 2, 141, 219. 

The Ziyadites, Princes of Zabid. 
Their history, 2-16, 129, 141-44. 
Succession of their dynasty, 
234-36, 291-92.— 159, 168, 172, 
224. See also Muhammad ibn 
Ziyad, Ibrahim, etc. 

Banu Zubajd, 52, 177, 217, 262. 

Zuhrah, to whom the temple at 
San'a was dedicated, 171. 

Zoray' ibn al-' Abbas, Prince of 
Aden, 64, 66, 67, 159, 268, 307. 

Zuray' ibn Abi '1-Fath, wazir of 
Queen Sayyidah, 47. 

The Zurayites, their history, 64-80, 
158-161. A ppointed to the office 
of Dfi'y, 137, 298, 299. Succes- 
sion of the dyiiasty, 307. — iii., 
52, 59, 151, 159, 168, 171, 172, 
173, 174, 176, 247. 

Zuray^. See Ruzayk. 

Zur'ah (Himyar al-Asghar), 224. 



GEOGEAPHICAL INDEX. 



[^An asterisk indicates that the na7newill he found on the map. The ivord Wdd4^ 
sirjiiijles either Valley or River. JSxceptiuij after heavy rains, the river-beds iny^ 
Yaman are, as a general rule, dry before they reach the sea.] 



A. 



'Abada, landed property in Wadi 
DhuTil, 111. 

Abjar, 177. 

Abwar. See Anwar, 

*Abyan, 5, 8, 9, 16, 197, 198, 243. 

Abyssinia, 8, 87, 280 (f.-note). 

*Aden. It and Aden-Abyan the 
same place, 232. Taken by the 
Banu Ma'n, 16, 65, 158-59, 243. 
Placed under the rule of the 
Banu Karam, 65, 159, 168. 
Captured by Turfin Shah, 296. 
Described, 168. Historv under 
the Zurayites, 64-80, 158-161. 
— iii., 5, 8, 9, 21, 25, 27, 35, 37, 
51, 52, 57, 63, 101, 113, 129, 143, 
151, 154, 164, 165, 176, 242, 250, 
269, 270, 272, 295, 306, 307. 

*Aden-Abyan, 6, 143, 168, 194. See 
Aden. 

Aden-La'ah. Described, 173. Its 
real situation, 232.33,-6, 143, 
194, 195, 202. 

Al-Ahkaf. Sandy deserts on either 
side of Iladramaut. 

Al-Ahmadiyah, surname of Zafar, 
182 

*Al.Ahwab, 11, 124, 221, 237, 288. 

Mount Aja, 217, 

•Akad, 29, 252. 

Sisn al-Akhdar. See al-Khadra. 

*Ai-Akhruj, 212, 327. 

*Akyan, 234. 

Almut, 320 (f.-note), 

Al-'Amad, 18, 248. 

Amul in Tabaristan, 316. 

'Amwas, 236. 

Al-'Anbarah, 124, 161, 288. 

Anwar, 17, 243, 246. 

'Arafat 12 

*Al-'Avah, il, 124, 241, 288. 

* J uhlan al-'Arkabah, 247. 



A1-' Arud, surname of Yamamah. 

178. 
Ascalon, 263. 
Mount Bani A'shab, 210, 
Ashyah. Described, 173-74.-18,1 

43-44, 46, 149, 151, 169, 173,1 

254, 257, 
Jahal al-Aswad (not Aswfid), 315. 
*'Aththar. Described, 166. Its 

situation, 237-39.-7, 11, 141-42, 

143, 146. 
'Athr, 11, 240-41. 
'Ayn Muharram, 195, 210. 
Azal,309. 

'Azzan, 16, 131, 243, 246. 
'Azzan Dhakhir, 246, 297. 
'Azzan Khabt, 246. 
'Azziin at-Ta'kar, 54, 262. 



B. 

*Brib al-Mandab, 8, 11, 64, 143, 266, 

280 (f.-note). 
*Mount Ba'dan, 232, 248. 
Bfidlyah, 297. 
Bcihat Jazan, 238, 239-40, 
Bahrayn, 178, 183. 
Country of Bakil and Ilashid, 107, 132, 

175, 247-48. 
Bani Abbah, or Manyabbah, 69, 271. 
*A1-Baun, 228 and f.-note. 
Baybars (Yaris r Yarim ?), 17, 247. 

See Dhu Ru'ayn. 
Al-Bayda, 12, 240. 
Bayhan, 5, 6, 141, 173, 231, 
Bayn (Blr?) ar-Riyadah. 
*Baysh, 239. (Yakut says that the 

town of Abu Turab (Harad ?) 

stood in the valley of Baysh.) 
Bayt 'Izz, 16, 222, 243. 
Bayt Yunis, 254. 
Bi'ah, 11. 
Birad, or Bir Aydam, 12, 240, 



Geographical Index. 



\^7> 



Bir al-Bayda. See Bayda. 
Bir Baui Siiihab, 251. 
*Birash, 297. 

Al-Buk'ah, 221 and f.-note. 
*Ja6ai Bura', 18, 113, 132, 233, 218, 
283, 297. 



D. 



Dabik, a town in Egypt, 242 (f.- 
note). 

Dabsan, fortress near Mahjam, 113, 
283-84. 

Dahwan. See Zahran. 

Dahlak, 8, 34, 57, 62, 81, 82, 143, 147, 
152. 

Dammun, capital of the Banu Kin- 
dab, 177. 

Damt, 132, 294. 

Darawan, 3^:1. 

Dar al-'Izz. At Dhu Jiblab, 41, 42, 
46, 51, 148. At Zabid, 91. 

Darwan, 297. 

Ad-Dashir, 126, 128, 163, 291. 

Daylam, 188, 

*Dhahaban, 11. 

*Dhakbir (mountain and fortress), 
16, 131, 243, 245. See 'Azzan 
Dhakbir. 

*Dhamar, 10, 199, 227, 265, 295, 297 
and f.-note, 318, 326. 

Dbat al-Kbayf (al-Kbubayt ?), 11, 
239. 

*Dhi Bin. See Dbu Bin. 

*Wii(li Dhn'al, 9, 105, 110, 177. 

*Dbu Ashrak, 10, 76, 131, 296. 

*Dbubhan, 68, 269, 270 (Note 60). 

*Dhu Bin, 223 (f.-note), 229. 

Dhu Hulayfah, 315. 

*Dhu Jiblab. Derivation of its 
name, 40. Its locality, 254. 
Described, 169. Adopted as the 
capital of the Sulayhites, 40-1, 
149,230. Burial-place of Qaeen 
Sayyidah,41, 267(t..note). Sold 
by MansQr ibn al-Mufaddal, 76, 
151, i60; 174. Possessed by Ibn 
Mahdy, 131.— 39, 45-52, 57-9, 61, 
64, 77, 94, 127, 148-51, 154, 160, 
169, 170, 172, 174,253-54, 257, 
267 (f.-note), 295-97. 

*Q<mntry o/ Dhu '1-Kala', 246, 247. 

*JloM,))f Dhukbfir, 234. 

Dhu 'r-Kassah, 44, 248. 

Country of Dhu Eu'ayn 228 (f.-note), 
245. See Yarlm. 

•Dhu 's-Sufal, 258 and f.-note. 



Dhu 'Udaynah, near Ta'izz, 276, 
295. 

Ad-Dija', 11, 239. 

Duhaym, or Umm Duhaym, 30, 84. 

*Fortress of Dumluwah. Described, 
305-6. Acquired by the Bauu 
Kurandi, 243. Taken by Zuray' 
son of 'Abbas, 268. Besieged 
by Bilal, 74. By TurSn Shah, 
297.— 16, 68, 73, 159, 172, 175, 
189, 245, 259 (f.-note), 270, 273 
(f.-note), 275. 

Duwaymah, 11, 241. 



P. 



Al-Fajr (al-Hajar ?), 11. 
Al-Ffirah, 124, 288. See al-'Arah. 
Farasan Islands, 233, 280 (f.-note). 
*Fashal (mentioned by Yakut as 

situated on Wadi Rima'), H, 

15. 
Mount Fa ish, 202, 233. 



G. 



*Pool of Ghassan, 216. 

*Ghulaakah, port of ZabTd, 8, 11, 

194, 197, 221 and f.-note. 
*Gizan, 239. 



*Habb, one of the four strongest 
fortresses in Yaman, 18. Held 
at one time by the Banu 
Rabi'ah, 131. — Its locality, 245- 
246,-16, 50, 77, 131, 243, 267, 

liabTl ar-Raybah, 306 (f.-note). 

Al-llabt, 240. 

Frovince of Had, 171 and f.-note. 

Al-lladd, a place at Zabid, 282. 

lladramaut. Description and early 
'history, 179-80. Subject to Ibn 
Ziyild, 5, 141, 142; to Muhammad 
ibn Ya'tur, 224; to the Banu 
Ma'n, 16, 65, 243.-9, 101, 180, 
181. 

*Mount Iladfii', 251 and f.-note. 

*IIadur Bani Azd, 223 (f.-note), 251 
(f.-note), 

Al-Hajar (Mufajjar ?), 11, 241. (The 
word Hajar, according to 
Hamdani (p. 80, 1. 3), siguilies 

A a 



354 



Geogi'aphical Index. 



a village in the language of the 

Himyarites.) 
*IIajjah, 194,233,309. 
Al-Hajr, residence of Muhammad 

ibn Saba, 75. 

Ilajr, capital of Yamfimah, 178. 

*iiajur, 94, 281. 

*Coimtry oj the Banw -Hakam, 233, 
259 

♦Ilali, 5, 7, 11, 166, 239. 

Country of the Hamdanites, 145, 175. 

See Country of Bakll and 

Hashid. 
*IIamidah, 11, 241. 
♦I'V./cJt' Ilarad, 27, 238. See also 

Mahall Abi Turib. 
*Frovince and mountain of Ilaraz, 18, 

19, 132, 145, 175, 200. '212, 233, 

234, 248, 249. 
Al-Ilarf, 201 and f.-note. 
Harrfm (in Mesopotamia), 215. 
Mount al-Hashab. See Bani A'shab. 
Country of Ilashid, 233. See 

Country of Bakil. 
Castle of Ilaubfin, 35. 
Ilayran, 240. See Jlzan. 
*Hay8, 11, 22, 23, 107, 115. 
Highlands of Yaman. See al-Jibiil. 
Ijijaz, 165, 166, 177, 178, 182, 314. 
Hima Bani Salraah, 59, 
Hinwah, 75, 259 and f.-note. 
*Hirdah, 11,238, 241. Read, Ilirdah 

and 'Itnah were, according to 

Hamdani, the ports of al-Mahjam 

and of al-Kadra. 
*Hirran, fortress close to Dhamar, 

199, 297. 
*Al-nudaydah, 237 (f.-note). 
*A1-Husayb, 201, 327. 
Huwayb, 94. 



*ibb. Its locality, 245-46.-10, 76, 

131, 295. 
India, 38, 88, 168, 314. See Sind. 
«Irak, 4, 16. 
Al-'irk, 288. 

Al-'Irk, close to Zabld, 15, 288. 
'Irk aii-Nasham, 11, 239. 
'Itnah, 238, 241. See Hirdah. 
*'itwad, 239. 



Al-Ja'ami, 244. See Ju'ii in the 

I'cueral Index. 
*Jaba, 245. 



Al-Jabalah (?), 73, 272. 

*Jabjab, 17. 247. 

Al-Jadun, 11, 239. 

Mikhldf Ja'far. So named after 
Ja'far al-Manakhi, 221. Subject 
to the Banu Ziyad, 4-5, Taken 
by the Banu Kurandi, 21, 171, 
243—40, 50, 76, 169, 170, 172, 
176, 199, 207, 245. 

Mount Jamimah, 202 and f.-note. 

*Janad (city and district) in Mikh- 
Ifif Ja'far. Subject to the Banu 
Ziyad, 5, Held by the Banu 
Ya'f ur, who appointed the Banu 
Kurandi as Governors, 224, 242. 
Was in the possession of the 
family of Manakhi at the time 
of Ibn Ilaushab's arrival, 194. 
Captured and looted by Ibn 
Mahdy, 294. Its mosque a place 
of pilgrimage, 10. Was rebuilt 
by Al-Mufaddal and by Tugh- 
tikln, 259-60!— 16, 25, 58, 59, 60, 
63,68, 131, 169-72, 197, 199, 207, 
245, 259, 267, 295-97, 

Al-Jannfit, 75. 

*Wt7di al-JannSt, 306. 

Al-Jardah. See Ilirdah. 

AlJaththah, 11, 239. 

Al-Jauf, 205. 

Jaww, ancient name of the city of 
Yamamah, 178, 310. 

Al-Jibfil (the Highlands of Yaman), 
4, 8, 9, 82, 105, 115, 118, 125, 
126, 127, 141, 143, 145, 162, 164, 
165, 172, 177, 294. 

Jiblah. See Dhu Jiblah, 

Jiirm, 188. 

Jlzan (Ilayran?) 11, 239-40, 

Jublah,132. 

Jublan. See al-'Arkabah and Ray- 
mah. 

Juddah, 11, 240. 

Jumii', ancient name of Sa'dah, 247 
(f.-note). 

Jurash, 6, 141, 182, 231. 

Al-Jurayb, 94, 281. 

*A1-Juwwah. Its locality, 306,— 
10, 59, 75, 161, 166, 168, 176. 



*A1-Kadra, on W5di Saham, 9, 11, 13, 
14, 108, 125, 144, 162, 177, 200. 

Castle of Kahhln, 171, 172, 185, 
228. 

Island of Kamaran, 237 (f.-note). 



Geographical Index. 



355 



Karbala, 192. 

Al-Karish (or Mukarrishah), 113, 
114, 115, 283. 

Karm 'Amim, 222. 

Katamah (name of a Berber tribe), 
250, 325. 

* Fortress of Kaakaban, 35, 228, 234, 
318. 

Al-Khabt, 240. 

Castle of Khadid (or Khudad), de- 
scribed, 246.— 17, 50, 55, 169, 
170, 176, 243. 

KhadTr, 306 aud f.-note. 

Castle of Al-Khadra at Aden, 65, 
67, 72, 73, 270, 272. 

Al-Khadra in Wulmzah, 17, 243, 2i7. 

Khanfar, 323. 

Khanwah, 259 (f.-note). 

*Wddi Kharid, 205 (f.-note), 223 (f.- 
note). 

♦Al-Khauhah, 11, 239. 

Country of Khaulan. 170, 176. 

Mountain of Khaulan, 207, 223, 232 
(?), 300. 

*Fortress of Khawalah, 222 (f.-note). 

Khaybar, 317. 

*Jahal Khubban, 245, 265. 

Khudad. See Khadid. 

*Wad% Khuzamir, 223 (f.-note). 

Country of the Bamt Kindah. De- 
scribed, 177.— 5, 101, 141, 223. 

Kirsh. See Al-Karish. 

*Kudummul, 241. 

Kulam, 33 (f.-note). 



K. 



Al-Kiihirah al-Mu'izzTyah (Cairo), 
'46, 49, 50, 62, 211, 263, 274, 2yy, 

327. 
"*A1-Kahmah, 11. 
Al-Kandir, 11. 
Al-Karin, 12, 240. 
Karkara in Yamamah, 179. 
*KaWarTr, 44, 220, 248. 
Kaynan, 206 and f.-note, 246. Seo 

Kayziin. 
Kayrawa'n, 210, 211. 
kayziln, 52, 246, 262. 
Kiyad, 222. 
*Sarat Kudam, 309. 
Kudayb' 124, 288, 291. 
*Kiirtub, 221. 
Kutabah, 175, 189, 309. 
]^uwayd (or Wadi 'l-'lrk), 288, 



La'ah. See 'Aden La'ah. 

*W(Ui Lh'ah, 233. 

*Lahj, 5, 9, 16, 65, 73, 243, 272, 294. 

Wddi Lahj, 69, 70. 

*Li'san, 18, 248. 

Al-Lith, 12, 240. 

*Luhayy, 237 (f.-note). 



M. 



*District of Ma'afir, 5, 16, 21, 68, 131, 

171, 172, 243, 269. 
Ma 'bad. See Umm Ma' bad. 
Al-Mabnv, 11, 240. 
Al-MadahTs, 201. 

Country of the Banu Madhhij, 177. 
*Mahali Abi Tarab, or Harad, 238, 

296. 
Mahdiyah, 209. 
*A1-Mahjam, 11, 14, 30, 31, 50, 82, 

113, 114, 118, 120, 144, 147, 167, 
200, 233, 241, 242. 

Mahrah, or Shihr, 181. 

Al-Majma'ah, 131, 293-4. 

*Al.Makhnak, 11, 240. 

*A1-Ma'kir, 9, 13, 177. 

Makr, 44, 248. 

Al-Malahiz, 326. 

Manahi and Menakha, 222-3 (f.-note). 

Mandal, 136 (f.-note). 

*Mansurah, 259 (f.-note). 

Manyabbah. See Bani Abbah. 

Ma'rib, 216, 229, 231. 

Martan, v. (f.-note). 

*Sardt al-Masani' {not Masani'), 233, 

251 (f.-note). 
*Masar, one of the four strongest 

fortresses in Yaman, 18. — 23, 

43,146,175,248,251. 
Masdud (?), 170, 171. 
Al-MashakhTs, 201, 326. 
Masna'ah. See Musannafah. 
*Ma8war, 195 (f.-note), 202, 210, 

211, 233, 316. 
Matran, in the district of al-Ma'a- 

fir, 131.— 68, 269, 270, 
*Maur, and Wadi Maur, 11, 13, 14, 

114, 233. 
*Mauza', 11, 239. 
Mavia. See Juwwah. 
Al-Maylun, College at Zabid, 294, 
Mayiam, 58, 264-5. 
Mecca, 5, 9, 11, 30, 105, 111, 112, 

125, 166, 167, 177, 178, 216, 22o, 
252-3, 275, 314. 

a 2 



356 



Geographical Index. 



Medinah, 177, 216, 314. 
Mikhlaf, meaning of the word, 5. 
*Milhan {not Milhiln), 200 (f.-note). 
Castle of Minhab, owned by a 

member of the Zurayite family, 

172. 
Al-Mirad, 201. 
Mirbat, 5, 182, 223. 
*Mokha, 11, 280 (f.-note). 
*A1-Mudhaykhirah. Its locality, 

232. Its destruction, 207-8.— 

4, 6, 7, 132, 143, 172, 198, 201, 

202, 203, 204, 205, 221-23, 235, 

246. 
Al-Mnfajjar, 11, 241. 
Wdcli Muhram (Mikat of the Yama- 

nite pilgrims ?), 240. 
Al-Mukarrislaab. See al-Karish. 
Munfahik Jfibir, 238. 
*MnnTf, 73, 2-2, 297. 
*A1-Mnravvi'ah, 83 and f.-note. 
*i2a.s Masahib, 238. 
Al-Mnsfi'id. See Sa'id. 
Al-Musannafah, 297 and f.-note. 
Al-Mushallal, 183, 312. 
Al-Mu'tafi, 124, 288. 



N. 



Najd (Highlands) of llijfiz, 178. 
*Wddi Nakhlah, 132, 222, 294. 
An-Najm, 249. 
Najran. Outlines of its history, 182- 

184.— 6, 141, 172, 178, 185, 216, 

311, 312, 313-14, 317. 
*An-Nakil (Nakll Sayd), 10, 17, 243, 

246, 297. 
*Nakil as-Saud, 251 (f.-note), 297. 
Na'man (Xa'man al-Arak), 12, 240. 
Nur. See Anwar, 
Numayr, 131, 269, 270, 297. 



R. 



Ea'afi, 270-71. See Za'azi'. 
*WMi Kaghadah, 265. 
TFfldi ar-Rahm (Rukhmah?), 12, 240. 
Jahal ar-Ealimah (Rukhmah?), 12. 
Ar-Rama, 68, 270 (Note 60). 
Ar-Raml (and Rami 'Alij), 101, 177, 

179. 
Ar-Rass, 315 and f.-note. 
Rassah. See Dhn Rassah. 
Ar-Rawahi, 248-49. See Zawahi. 
Raybah. See Ilabil. ' 
*Raydah, 228 and f.-note. 



Raym, or Raymah, Raymat al- 
Asha'ir, Raymat al-Manakhi, 4, 
44, 50, 198, 222. 232, 246, 248. 

*Juhldn Raymah, 132, 248. 

*Moi(.nt Raymfin, 248. 

Fortress of Raymat al-Kala', 248. 

*Mount Rayshan, 200 (f.-note). 

Riyah, 11, 240. 

*Wddi Rima', 15, 132, 220, 221, 247, 
248. 



S. 



Sa'b (or Sha'b), 243, 247. See Sha'r. 

Saba Suhayb. See Suhayb. ^M 

Sabak'hat al-Ghurrib,'l2, 240. •■ 

*Sabir, mountain and fortress, 16, 
73, 76, 174. 232, 243, 245, 254, 
263, 267, 297. 

Sa'dah. Held by the Ziyadites, 5. 
Original seat of the Zaydite 
Imams, 6, 185, 315. Subject to 
the Banu Ya'fur, 172. Con- 
quered by 'Aly the Suiayhite, 
251.— 10, 128, 142, 157, 166, 174, 
185-190, 242, 247-48, 284, 309, 
314-15, 317-19. 326. 

*Wddi Sahfim, 9, 177, 221, 234, 248. 

*Sahul, river, town and district, 17, 
176, 206, 232, 243, 246, 248. 

Sa'id, 11,240. 

Salamlyah, 192. 

Saluk, a06 (f.-note). 

Samadan, one of the most important 
strongholds in Taman, 16, 18, 
131, 171, 172, 243, 245, 297. 

Sami', mountain and fortress in the 
district of Ma'afir, 68, 269, 270. 

*San'a. Described, 6, 171. Its 
ancient name, 171, 309. Taken 
by Ibn Fadl the Karmathian, 
199-200, 326. Outlines of its 
history until its conquest by 
'Alv the Suiayhite, 138-40, 146, 
300', 223-31. The Suiayhite 
seat of Government removed to 
DhuJiblah, 40-41, 148,169. The. 
Hamdanite Princes of San'a, 18, 
230-31, 243, 257, 295-97.-5, 10, 
25, 30, 32, 36, 41, 42, 49, 105, 
141, 142, 147, 153, 172, 174, 182, 
185, 202, 204, 247-48, 251, 253, 
314-15, 317-22. 

Sarandib, 88, 154. 

Sa'r. See Sha'ir. 

Sarawat (plural of Sarat), meaning 
of the word, 177.-20, 'IS, 146. 



Geographical Index. 



357 



' Sanf, 251. 

Sawfi, 131,243, 245, 297. 

Sawiikin, 64. 

*As.Sayad, 223 (f.-note). 

Slifiliit, 17, 176, 247. 
! Sha'ir, 16-17, 37, 41-42, 154, 243, 246. 

Aah-Shamakhi, 131, 293 (Shamahi). 

Shar, 55 and f.-note. 

Sha'r, 17, 247. See Sa'b. 

*Ash-Sharaf, 44, 126, 127, 128, 162, 
291. 

•Asli.Sharjah. Its locality, 237-8.— 
7, 8, 11, 143, 166, 233 (f.-note). 
. Sharvak, 131, 294, 297. 
1 Shawafi, 17. 

Shibam (in lladramaut) , 9, 180, 234. 

•Shibam, on Mount Haraz, 7, 211, 
222 (f.-note), 234.' 

* Shibam Akyan, 202, 223 (f.-note), 
226, 234. 

Shibarik, 220. 

Sliihr. Description and early his- 
tory, 180-82. Was subject to the 
Ziyadites, 5, 8, 141. Conquered 
by the Banu Ma'n, 16, 65, 243. 
j^yu 223 

*Shuwaba'h, 223 (f.-note), 321 (f.- 
note). 

As-Sirrayn. Described, 167. — 11,165, 
168. 

*^loxint Silu, 305. 

Sind, 142, 143, 185. (India), 8, 
168. 

Snb!"i', 247. 

•Suhari or §nhari, 11, 239, 241. 

Siifal. See Dhu 's-Sufiil. 

*Suhayb, 73, 271-2. 

*As-Sukya, 11. 

*Frovince of Suleyman ibn Tarf, 7, 
113, 146, 166, 167, 252, 284. 

*T7«cliSurdud, 234. 



T. 



Tabalah, 177, 178. 

At-Tahunah, 250. 

Tfi'if, iO, 20, 146, 179. 

*Ta'izz, described, 173. — 50, 73, 151, 
161, 165, 166, 174, 258, 263, 267, 
296. 

*Fortress o/At-Ta'kar. Its position, 
40. Taken from Ja'far al-Ma- 
nTikhi by Ibn Fadl, 222. Ap- 
propriated by the Banu Ku- 
randi, 16, 243. Given by 
al-Makarram the Sulayhite to 
the family of Abu '1-Barakat, 



50, 257-58. Taken by Ibn 
Mahdy, 131. By Turan Stiati, 
296. Dismantled by al-Mu'izz 
Isma'Tl, 243 (f.-note).— 16, 18, 
43, 50-56, 66, 94, 95, 150, 151, 
156, 169, 172, 176. 

Castle of At-Ta'kar at Aden. Its 
locality, 270. Assigned to al- 
'Abbas son of al-Karara, 65. 
Place of sepulture of Saba son 
of Abu Su'ud, 73, 272.-243 
(f.-note). 

Country of Ibn Tarf. See Country of 
Suleyman ibn Tarf. 

Tarim, city in lladramaut, 9. 

Ta'shar, 11, 240. 

*Tha'bat. 267. 

Ath-Thalathi, 201. (Manzoni has 
*Suk ath-Thaluth S.E. of Yarlm.) 

Thalithah, 131, 201 (f.-note). 

Mount Thauman (or Khaulan), 207, 
221, 223, 232. 

Ath-Thnjjah, 232. 

*Thula, 174, 185, 189, 319. 

Tihamah of Yaman. Meaning of the 
word, 165.— 4, 5, 9, 11, 16, 21, 24, 
25, 28, 36, 41, 43-5, 51, 53, 77, 81, 
86, 87, 91, 93, 94, 96, 105-7, 113, 
115, 126, 141,145-48, 155,162-63, 
167, 173, 177, 213, 216, 217, 236, 
255 (f.-note), 259,267. 

Tudih, in Yamamah, 17y. 

Mount Tukhla, 233. 

*Turaybah, near Zabid, 32, 



U. 



Uhazah. See Wuhazah, 

Al-'Ukdah, 15. 

Al-Ukhruj. See Akhruj. 

'Ukwah, castle of 'Omarah's grand- 
father, 29. 

Al-'Ukwatani (the two 'Ukwas), 29, 
252. 

Umm Duhaym. See Duhaym. 

Umm Ma'bad (or Blr Umm Ma'bad), 
30, 84. 

*'Unnah, river and district, 16, 132, 
243, 245. 

Usab. See Wusab. 

'Utaynah, 2.S8. ' 

Uwal, 171, 309. 

Uzcll, 214, 309. 



W. 



Al-Wftdlyani, 11, 14, 114, 239. (In- 
stead of al-Wadiyani, as in our 



58 



Geographical Index. 



text at p. 14, Khazraji writes 

Bay sin.') 
Al-Wahsh, 248. 
* Wadi Warazan, 306. 
Wasa', 282. 
Wasit, 124, 288. 
*Province of Wuhazah, 17, 130, 243, 

247. 
*Wusab, mountain and fortress, 18, 

44, 247, 291. 



Al-Yabis, 247. 

Yathrib, 199, 216. 

* Country of Yafi', 191, 197, 222. 

Yaf Qz, 17, 243. 

*Yahdib, 232, 246. 

Yalamlam, 12, 240. 

Yana', 251. 

Yanbu', 317. 

*Yarim, 309. See Dhu Ku'ayn. 

Yarls, 243, 247. 



Z. 



Az-Za'dziS in Wadi Lahj, 69, 70, 72, 
73, 270-71. 

•Zabid. Its foundation, 4. 141. 
Described, 166, 220-21. Its his- 
tory under the Ziyfidites, 4-16, 
141-45. Looted by Ibn Fadl, 
200-1. By 'Abd Allah ibn 



Kahtan, 227. Subject to Najah, 
16, 144-45. Taken and re-taken 
by the Sulayhites and Banu 
Najah :— By the Sulayhites, 24, 
81, 144-5, 147. By Sa'Id son of 
NajSh, 31, 87, 147, 153. By al- 
Mukarram, 35-6, 147. By Said, 
37, 87. Again by al-Mukarram, 
37, 42. By Jayyiish, brother of 
Sa'Id, 38, 92, 155. Subject to 
Jayyfish and to his descendants, 
92-123, 152-58. Captured by 
Ibn Mahdy, 123, 129, 158, 1C3. 
By Turfiu Shah, 164, 296.— 21, 
22, 25, 29, 30, 31-36, 41, 45, 52, 
58, 59, 62, 65, 67, 77, 82, 84, 86, 
88-91, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130,144, 
148, 161, 165, 167, 168, 169, 187, 
218, 222, 235-36, 238, 242, 252, 
253, 255, 282, 287, 288, 294-96, 
305, 308, 317, 327. 

*Wddi Zabid, 132, 216, 220, 222, 245, 
246, 248, 288, 327. 

*Zafar (the ancient city), 246, 311. 

Zafar (the sea-port"), 182, 311. 

*Zafar (Zaf.ar az-Zahir?), 318, 321 
(f.-note). 

Zaffir (Zafiran ?), 44, 248. 

Zahran,'l7, 243, 247. 

Az-Zar'ah, 11. 

Az-Zara'ib, v., 28, 29, 252. 

Az-Zarf, 44, 248. 

Az-Zawahi (not Zawahi), 19, 145, 

248-49. 
Zufar (the sea-port). See Zafar. 



i 



(I 



COKEIGENDA. 



p. I footnote 1, for J^y read j\y 
!. •■ „ 11, „ i-.U'j^ „ Is-Mb ^ 

„ * line 7, „ jjUl „ slli! 

„ M f. -note 2, for Jlo-^read Jlc>*ii^? 
„ " 1.14, for UAi^ read Lv^ 
„ r- 1. 14, i^y Ji^i ^ I have read yjji Jl^j':^ 
„ i-c 1. 1, for t:: — J read ij>J 
„ r, 1. 19, ,^ iuJ „ iuJl 

,, ''• 1. 14, ,, ^^ U ,, ^^U 
n •'^ 1- 2, „ e;; „ ^1 
,, I'A footnote 4, for iU read 'il 
>) )> )> 5, ,, ^1 ,, f\j^ 

n ). ,, 5, for Jl jJj ^ „ Jl jjj J P 

„ "1 f.-note 6, ., jj^c ,, ,_^c ? 
„ - 1. 20, 



rrr 
ir- 



1. 9, for ^jjjlx- ^1 and J^U ^1 read 
jyjj'^lill and BjU^I 

1. 2, for ia-lj read i«-.lj 
f.-note, for J-l^Jl read J--l^l 
1. 16, for Liu read L'o 
1. 17, read 'J.^^ j Jj liV^ j J, 
1- 18, „ ^ 
1. 12, ejjiii read ^sii 
f.-note 5, for i—sj^ti read i—Jj^dl 
1. 10, for ijcjj read J^eJo 

• 11. 5, 6, for y^ifj J read ^^_ ^ 

(see p. r.) 
1. 10, for yt. J read vt j , as in 

vol. ii., p. 252 of Ibn Khaldun's 

General History. 
1. 20, jl.=.l . So in L. In B, 

1. 3, liU read ^lik 

f.-note 2. iJj? Add ^^ j ? 

1. 10. The MS. has ^^ ^j 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

Ah. Ahdal. 

D, Dayba' (Kurrat al-'Uyun). 

J. Janadi. 

Kan. Ibn Khallikau. 

Kdn. (or Kn.). Ibn Khaldiin. 



B. Ibn Khaldun, Bulak Ed. 

L. „ British Museum, 

Add. 23,272. I 

P. Ibn Khaldun, Bibl. Nat., Suppl. 

Ar. 742 M. 
Yak. Yakut's Mxi'jaiii. 



|»«xJbiX< ^ AJk>«>s^' ii.AC ^1 «.sv.. ^ Jiuli l/«.A*ji"] _5 jj'-aj1 AjA.^*^'' Axe 

J &Lo\Ji] j]i} [^n.s^ J S^aliill ^^iLl ^^-c ^J\ y;'j>_;J^jl ^j-o ^J^^^^l 

(_ftwj.> ^1 (J lib ^^A^ Sis*-. ^lX^ {J,!b] ^ic ( aii^wjl <i6''j _j ci^J UJ 

^1 yzsi ^^Vi ^] ^^ (^iJl aLc,.^ ^^1 J; ; J^ ^ '^-'il ^^1 

' D. *^:u> J:»-^ Jl sjcjJl olft;jU -i^^l <iJ^ Jifiia^l fj'} "*' J^^- [•i^ J*yf 



* -1 



J'x _j JlUl^^b tj:^;lAi! i^J^^l "-h'-t^'^ jC;j'JJ5 c— ?'j^ ^i Uj Jlc 
^_^J^a!I ^-jI^ (J-^j'*^ t^' j^«^*i« *» ^ t^iUll li'jO uJlr>- .^.^aLe J^^ 

^^1 jj S— ^'-^ ^ ^ Ij-'i- i_j^ ^ U^*^*^. ^ (^^ ''^^' 
^_ji\^>«Jl A-^' • Ijuai^ <dc ^ ,=:* <j:jJ1 L::^vaAlj As ^uSs. ^cssxj t ij^i U 

w 

^ji *J>i>yl ^ J'-AJ. 2,5^. .^x) j-ic L,o)jc\.>^l y aj.S'U]! i^Jo' ^^j^L* 

f'^-^j^'^ ^^j1 ^^ S-^^J iV^^ {^J^- h^ ^^ L—jllJuJ! J'Jij'J ^^,'^■< 

H^K ijii (^ TTJ-^ " <LX\3 '^^ "^ <^^ «-^»*i M.J^^>- J <lJu^ 






'icj^.-c L|j.v«w*»i sAs-lj lo-v^-o '^-'^ (-AL^i lii) ^> . £)\yi ,xm . 

yliiul! J ijJJ ^_ji'^Jl <)dJl L.VAC ^ c:_;jj_jj yj'^s^' ^xj^i^l ^^i Iv^j 

idLOj^wJ IjJiiilU Jj-J *J ^ ^1*^ ''t-' '^^'^^ >lr-^" (*^ ^■'^ ^^' '^^ 

'<>^" (^¥ Ls-^"^ ^^^ ^^ US* ty- (^ -? '^'^'^^^ ^^- ^--^^ '•^'; 

^.l>i^ ^^J ]j^] Ukiii" ili ^_^A^■♦J1 iJuUl icAJ'l^j (^:^^ ^ '^}/'« '^^ f^ 



UsU? 



s- 
i3>j.^l 63 <xil Az . <»j*<-l'o (/■^'^l ^l"*" (J-^J ^1 tV^i" ^ ^ ^^tl iM* 

. Is«. ,.]1 r— cl • ^-^*^ Jb;'i J.i^»_) *li <Jcjkikj ,_Ji J.-i?'.aJl Jo . ^Ic 

^ J- ^'y? ^i= ^' /-Jl ^>^ ^? Jj-i ,. c;^ ^^W> 

^jJib Ai ^Jjo3J (_J^ JtJl As:-^' Joe J^**^ <J'^^^i (**-^ ''^j'^ 

iJuu ^^1 »^, I a.^2juUi ,^_^/*,A>fcs^' ibJ CJIJ L-^jJic (J-ai ^^1 ^^iy _j 

>j ^Jot>/i, 'j»-J '5*^/ C/*^' <-^^ JtM-t" I^!a^ ^ — yi d-'Li-i Sft.>J\ JlC 

( jils^ .Ld Ul J '-i^^ly ^ s-'^^ ^^ .1^ .L«.>«j J.4sr J cLAli ^11 

Jl __/'^l cn,^' ^ yji>«J! _. Jos'' Jjfc) J idibl <uJl *>«oLs-l^a«» 

jJ.ASr JJklis:-* Cil^Jls J i^^'>j^^ i^ ^-0 (j/V ^T^.i^^ll d'^'^S j^^ ^ 
Jast ^^Jt i-Jf*J (_5a11 t.^^i*s'' y J i3Jr syj ^Joi' j_cA11 ^jUy 

u 

W 



^tjul ^_^J ^ dc.fc^*JI aIJI JlgJii S^fli ^^Ic ilj^t) ^^1 13^ ^ai" _. Jj«^^ 
ii&..5^)ll ijljliis^ ; J>^)^' *s"-^-^ 1;:^^ ^rj'^^^' ^-'juaj LitU '^sJ^^ ^^^ _j 

ilijjil S^5-j lal'^ 'ijk:^\A\\ j,Ss ^xs- ^^Jr«51 ^'--^i (J-^ Ijjl (J-* 
ej'j^.*'^^' *it)'.kcl _. 'kf<i\x^ Lji)^! ^'JL. _j Jj/^' l«-'^^ -*:^ J U^T^ _. 
^^ ^Jki lx«j 2.A^. J s^yic iXj-l:: 1^1' I _j (J-ii ^^j! ^^J! s^(3 l_}*i.i 

J^A£ C^ ^!'iJl d;!^, ,.->.^ , ^ <k1 .s* atJkiis . ^ CL^J j'-^i^l 






J^ ij:^ ^ k^^'^^ ir!^^ jl-^" J^ ^<^. <^'^; ^j^^ ^:J< '-^j 



w 

!jo ^ d^I'i l^^ ^_5JJ1 ^x,^ '^^^^ Jljj'o ^ j _. ^^1 X^ ^cJ 
^ULflJ A*>j-^ ^'Jli ^Ai: jj^ ^As- ^ji^ J.J ^ »^!is^l Sx>^\ J\ ei^^i* 



' i^W ^ ' Or Aj ^^k ' ^i-t-^^ ^ 



>»«al<! ^XAs^IaS Lj^O *j <iC>!l clj Jcil^^li) ^\i s_^ck!l y;*-*^ ^^ '^;^•'^ 

J-ai U^' J'^-' J'-^'-^ *^]/i i»1A!aj )^-^ z*'^ ^ ' '^'V' ''^ ^ 3 

jA*«^_ h ill J ^riyi Ac j^x^ tJiAJ 8jJj ^Jl J*'-;^. J^ i\ J»el il 

^jjl »j (^--flj^ ti^jl (./2*^ '^'^^ *J^ ^ lLA!(3 .^^i^ (J.*ii U^ ^ lL2aj 

^ Kbi, j^U, 



a:^-< ^Is* a;/^!^ ^i=- Jo! ^^.j s^j ^_^ril ^j^ j^'^'-iiJt ^^J *_jJ^S! J! 

^^ lujj^Xz j^l ^jl^ ^jl _j ,'jup I — ;^J1 'iJLc jjs. Ars: ^L« baj \^ 
ilx> L_j]^_i^l iJAJj Uli ^^r-=*- c:;:^^ '^*^' f-< 7r>r*" -^'-^^ u'^^ 

(J.i''j' (Jj-J ^ S-'t*^ L)•:^^ ti^J^;> ,^ (Jw^'Jl SA.sr^ ^ (t-tt^ji^ <^^1 

'ijJs^j^A}] s>ri l^A^ rj-^ r* ^j'^ i^D^ J^. ' — '^'^' ^^^ .j-^=^ V* 

^AawJ %-^y^ xXmjjo .'s^ '»«JJ 'i^j isV*" ti-f?" "ti^J^ll ijr'.r-^ 15^ 1 

jJ *<3>11 .1*23 ^i^!j l^Ufli j^if-i-c ^<j\^ U *Ca^ (Ji-, J^ ^•'V^ 

"J' J^a Uj.-. ^ J^I ^kib^f-^I l^^U Uli s^3.^1 Jl .Xr-y 






w » 



JLflJ 1 "Or ^\J,\ 1 ^ j^n 

u 



1 



^J'l J^i o^ l'^ ^ (^-^^ ^. ^ ^^^ 

Id 
IJ WW 

i3»*M)b («-|A^A^ ^^ _5 (*_^aJ./fHj <)ui iiCjcx) (j^ ^-Jlc J <X>llj lJi»-J _j 
, >UU> ^^^ ^^^JJU, ^_jaJ1 Lull ^1 _5 j^W^ 4^1 S-^:'j'^'^l iW^^lJ 



^jc , or pjc ^ ? 



j^iiJb (J^\ _j Jew ,^_j-<i« J>as *''.is- ^jJ^" U ^^3 ^J^ ^^^^^^ J-ai 

Joj CJl JJl ^ _j ^^1 Jl 'v-e ^>- (»^ ^^ J^'^ ; J^' j^ 
4? J^ ^Y^ -^^^ r" J^^ ^^ i^ '^^ '^ J'"^- 6'"^^' li^ ^^v* ! 

o * 1 

Hi aULL ^i^'U J ^.i^^j^l c;^i^ ^_j '^^^. J-*?* ^4; /«■•V:^^ j^'j* > 

" ' ti 

J^ ^1 I^iW j^=^'^. yb'iilill ^ ^yks^' «-^^ } y^l ^^ ^i^ill J 
l^rvUl-l J l^s-Lo Jjui ^^1 .^-flj' «KJ! ^ jJiw >^ ^ C^' ^j^ 

^=-^ J-^^^ J^ -^"^-^ ^'^ ^^^ c;^' /'^ '^' J c-f^^ ^ J 



= ^jl, 1 1 ' Khi, ^^y 



\ 



^^AjJIj ^Lj^fill ,Ui-l If* I* 



^JJblc AJ' J |c*^ ''^J (itaH ci.;.«j ;^tJ^* 4-J&1.J . Aftio ^ 4_cJ>JU: 

jl_j JO aJ .y*^ (J^ (iT^^ Lj''^'^ ti)^ J ^'^'^. ^'•*"-<' (^^ CI^siA/aj 

<iujU«j ^ ^sy^ril J»i-iJo «^^\ , c-^x>Jl i! jJUA^I «xi^)j 
^^ ^j^ J ^1 ""^Tf^ L_j,iAll *j.iii j^-xjkc sj.!_j iicUs ^\ >^1U!L.1 ^ 
^1 ^^1 j^$liS^.Mjj ^li jLljuJl j^i (JJiAll *^ i-r't-*2J ^^^.^' J^' J'^tV 
l»Uib ^fkr_ t^J>^>*ll ^jll (*-^Ci (jJJ^U ^ ;J:^*'^' _5 '.^^A*' ^'^ ^5 

sAJj: J] ^ir^ j:j.1c CA! J . i^ Jj«^ . ciJ^Jok! j;>*L*j' (^Lo CJjaj 

w 



2 



^^ I '^^1^]^1 



j^jL=^ (jj^l ^'>=^ f--* 4/- |»-j '-'^^^^ ^ '-jy^^ 1^=^ Z'^ f--o 

** 9 9 



^1? 



, .... f > 

w u 

aJ^_jl ^^Coj J ^^11 ^jUcl J^l L-^fti>«Jl (.f/^ ^jul ^Ijh aj^ ^^^ 

'jl . «- 

I 

J-<ai ^^^1 *ti«i> l-4Jii 8jJ^ Jl iilcjJl J^l ^^j ^\ ^ Jcl^J jj J 
l^j^-i-l] (Jjfcl ,^ (J.-(23 ^^1 (j! J t)],JI aJ li jj» <ol ^J;1, jus-^ J 
^Uj ^jJ.4>J1 ^jl *>**liill Ij b .»*flJuJ jj;j'*>^ J>Jii 'ti^b J jcj _^i^^ 

^^IkU ^ ^^'^ l^ UC! ^^;^>*^ ^^c^^ Jl ^jl^^ ; ^^1 J! cUi 

l^t> U ^__^11 <):j1.2^U s^^i^ t2->U'.-cl ^J*^J^ ^J-c v— ^ i}>^ jyox* J^ ^ 

w 

J-^jl tiT^l ^S' L5^ c;;^SH f^/ '^ ^'j-2^ J'^' \r^=^ ^svloj 
•..5^ j-i;'l ^A-w ^j^] CLjJLi ^JA,J<\\ c:^li»-J j^-o ,^Jil '^A.« blcy 

u w w 



Khi, obUl ^ Read i^^=>.iS Khi ; so also ar Kazi. 



v-^ur ^K ^^sj^\ ^i-^.-)v ^^'o^*^^ jV^^ 

^^Aj*2^ j^ ,»-i2jl<i _j »JU jJuu (J^ ^^ b Ba^l^l ClJ,^ JuIjiJ jJ _j 

_5 ^>^. _. J^^. (J«^ ^-tf^ '^ ij-t***^ AyA-« 5^'jJ 'H/^. l5!;*^^ ' 

w 

^' sj'akol ^h '.xaL J'Jl CAii- Jlc J^ ^1 IjI; ^J lUSk:^ 

w 

J 'is ailrt) j^jo Jj ^b ^>»^ll ^! [^\S: ^^fi ^s- y;/j. ^ ^^ 
^'i j^^ jJU i^^^UIl J ^A^l ^ ^iA.< CA!3 J^i ^^1 ^ 



^jS>. 



"ill I ^ >i l;^ J'^' c^ l5^ 



5 

lX L5* J C-JJ'Ja y^_ Ji SJ^c ,^^S/io Llkj' Jjus- J I l^jT Jij.*^ 

I 

I 

' jjCJj iJ^iiJi ^j-wa^ ^^>kSl iXiji J^i J Jmj^ ^ ^^r; Jai' ^j 

; SjjiJ ^ jyoyji^ <idJl Joe -,^-«Ul (^! J^.*^^ l^'j l^jJl^ cji _j 'u^jJx 

j^j^ .^ J «*«j <s;l*. <^) j J Jx«l J <!o «_jIj . *f<'-«i JiyuJ! tX/K2>-^ aJ 

... 

iUU^I ^jt^ /»«^ *U'j yt> ir^i Jyb (».f<a«j ^j^ ^ ^.'VJ'^' ^.'-^ J 



I 



jji <xlil JkJL; jya.XA^\ ^i Lp"^ (**^^ yu-**! j (*-^»;<' ^ S-vJ V4 

jjj l*>«il <XjLc ( »'^ ivj'*^' '^' ' ^^J 3 ^-*-'*'^'*^ _j ^i;;^**^ J e;:^^ ' 

4>^>t«*>»Jl iOiiJ . .^j-oJuJl (-_>'.s^' e-aiii-l («.* e;^--2=:" V-lAl^J ^^1 JjJ' 
iLl CJ.) J 4^Ji<^^^>«^ ^^ iijU'jUM ^ (jJ^^ il*. .^-flJuJl j^y ^ iUj^ 



^.^liJl j.£^^ 



rri 



^.1 ^LUm CuU j C.^.x%iS^A^| ^jJ^-^>*^ <Ki>l J^JkJO jJ^ 5A^ juJb 
Xi«j Ji'^^ fJ'^1 (^■>'^:i^^ U^ J J'-^' (^'H^' J.*=^ _5 ^.,^"JUJ1 

^j;^Uj.1>J1 >l:s.- _5 (»ir^^ ' '^ Cf' U^ C^' i!u>;l2« JSAx^J -♦•Y^-cUl 

Ci^vi^l J i$J.*Ai2; *yjk '^^ A'^^^^l (*'^^^r*'' '^ "^ ^"^ U"^ 



y^ii L'^^^ ^^u ji L^>T jui ^ i^'j ^^^ ^ ij^^uii 

S^ J Iv-?/- |J s^N^^'jJl j..«>^l CiUi CJJjt> J »^jy^l ^1^ I 

t^ _j «xi.>;^~< ^J}J^ '^i'.^ c/^' J'"^" u-^' cJ* LT^ ^ 

u^* ts^ y'j c)^ i j/'^ y '^•^-^ '^^^ ^^ }y '^^J^ i:;^ r^ 



9 



r^ _j e/*^' ^ J"^ <-^ h-y^' V-r'.J^ i^Ia.< ^^ ^ 



I e 



p1< 



vCiU) »_5» * ,.|vA£ 



_J_a _J ^^ ^^ 



■ ^v^^V ^ J^' ^h '^> o' ^ iiJ"^ ^ ^'^^ '-^'^^ >r^' 

ji^ ^^;i ^ii^X^ii J^. ^ (^-1'-* ^ ^'^" ajul jsj^ jy Cil'^ 

^ ^ ^ '^1. ^ ^- J.^ c,^'- ^'J ^ ^'- ^ 



''-^* "Jo' (^ iUUo j^l^ *-J kJ" i\jt« ^^ 1^ As*-! ^^i *J . 

S-^^ u^ o-l/-'^ c5-^ L5-* ^-^^^"^ c:;^' J'^' ^^3*r^ ^'^ 

|*:^^'^1 O* v^* J (*'4^ J^T^ ^«^J (^ J ^'-'J' ^ ^^ ^* V J 

l^^5 Jo^ h^ Ji] [^ 'ihx< jiS \ J S^S^ UL e;r^. 3 ^^'"^ J 

w 

^a. u->^^!I 5^^^ Js, IjU Jj ^^I J],1 J'Jb_ _j ^ILs^' ^ ,_j^_, 

w 

^I L^ e^jl^ Si^\ ^z ^.L . Cilj A*J ^y liars* ^^J i_j^. 



K^^XA,^ 



3 



^--jJl ? ' Eead Jl}\ ^^ a*\^ ' Read ^_^ ^j) bJjA 



fil}^-^^J' 



..^j.s^ jr< 



jJmJI |«-^_Mu»**j jc^UIi j ^^^--jJI^ ^ ^ ^^ss>. J\^ (^>*.->Jl l_5i>^*w 

Vj'> J^ J Jj^ u^^ J'j' 1^^ J cJ^:^^^ ciJ-* tj]r^ o^ ^^ j'^ 
Jlr^ '•v^^V ij^ ; ti;^' '-'1'^^ ^ir^ ; u^^^-^l Wlr- l5^ 

^^AJ Jx J^^ ^1 i^AkJl J'i _j IJlt^i _j ^y l^-U^ ^^ _5 J.^!; 



U. ^< ^Jl^l J j ^ ^Kll ^,3 ^ J^ JJI^j ^ ^ JJI^ ^ 
JW J^'^ ^^ c:;^! 'i;/-^^' CJJ^.* JJL: Jjyi J^jjfc ^^ic 1^- 

Iv.j^ k(i.l _5 h^] ^1 UjIc ^ iUlL ^1 '^^1 ^[-iS 

l^^iiJl ^^] \^Jj ^,^3 ^SZ^Ji . CJ^ \> ^ J^ , J<;-11 J 



«t~*- 



fo-S 



jj^l ^^ya^ CJA< j Jj^^' t^;^^ S^jJI ^>, ^Lasr ilij 
4^' 3 ij'^^ ^ i '^'^>^^ J>j^ J*^ J^ ;«* ^^^iaJ* ^1 J 

i ^^/^ ^ j^ u^ 

,'yj^^" ; e;^' J'-:^ '^r (^^^ l/v:^^' J'^Olr" 1^"' cr* -J^ J 

I i» 13 

Ljj: *&y^l J l»Ji)j)Lu »^j-iaJ] (j^ Ajly 

jCoil ^ jjX ^^^-^irv jJlc ^yJUo J!^l yb ^-^J^ J ^y^^r^l ^'^^ 

^^j ill 4?^ ^x. JA.. J J X^! JL Jic ly^yil _, 

t^ 1 



a 

jj^' 4j) ji ^J jiuJi Ij^i j ^^1 Luuii ji-'.^ ^,ir '^ 

^r^^ ^Jy:i^ _5 ^ l^;-^'^ J ^'"^ (3^?-^ S^xX^ li^l^ ^Ij i(i*>»Jl 

' Read ^ 






Jxill ^lyo-^ !$JoO Cl^lc _j JcJUw*>»>r>. J ^J:^j'«^ _} CI^^w <JU«j U>- 
4X111 JAC ^^ 1^1 J<J_5 ^ ^^Ult JxsaJl ^) SA>sr< l,^^ ^ t^;^'^ 

-^ It •? 

w 

Ijuas^ Jh U Lo'^ j^ic Jdk/Jl J'as" Jj'*j«-o (Js-l ^^ J-^o 

^i J^ 3 ^^-^1 ^ ^3^^ ; Jr^ o-^ L/-y r^^' y^ J ^^ 

^ Kead ^ (J? ? 



«-^/=^l ^:^^ li;? ^y^ (Mr*^ *S^^ Jy^l ; J_.A^* ^^^ J^ a_jAii: 
ji[ft^ i-JJlsr* ^ £iy^a^^ j^*^ <-_Jils^ *^ ^\^ _5 (^^'^ 15^-^^ 5^ 

.. - " ■*■ 

^;-fll» J i^-ylulj }Ji^V\ ^ Jl^l ^_jA*^ d^l^ ^ jlc J'jb Uoi ^jub ^ 

4_j4)J^l j^Aj ^^jj;i- S^ wr^il^ $UL<r JIacI ^ j^\Awi (iT-as- 
t^ (V^^l r^ '^J -? O^--^' ^ ''^ J cr^^ ^;;:^^,;:^^'' 



S^J-JI ^j^'^* ij^^"^ J^-flAcl J Jo^ iou^V* JjJ ^ Ucb ^jjJI 

j^J J^>kJl 1^ j^'^ ^=^ •'i ^_y^ _5 ^,^1 ^^-<aj=^ ^jiJ^ c:^^OL< 
A^'^^ u"^*- 1^ ij^y^ tiT* >lP' (J^ (J-'*^ S-^j ;^-<' '^ jjj^j^ ^cI'a^ 

^J^r'*^^ ^,^^ ^ jdLaiiiU^l ^ Jw^^l ^'ilJ JiAx*. <Us^. J JjiX-fl^ 

ji3^^/jJll i^lc l^UU ^ jo'Jil! e:^ ''^jj 3 A*^-* ^^^ J^ 

Ai)_jc< ^^ ^ja]1 ^^^J^' ^j^ ^^^'^S' '^r^l c;''^' f^3 'i^^^J^ ^ 



uUc ^^^^ ^^^ dj^ij v'yT- o~* c:^'*^' viAi'-^ ^j« ^j.^5. 



l^*^ ^ J Ic^j C>JuJ il _5 I*.^t> s/^ CL^L* ^ly^^^Jl lai^ ^^ Uj.«j _j 
isjjuuj./«Jl sa.s>-\ ei^ Sj^su ''^j ; ^ ^UXc j^j^^ /vr* (♦J^^ ^^ 

i^m^- ly^ • L_^Jl5.- ^j^ .^IsAmJ ci^Jo _5 fs-*"^ (J-iU^ j^ ^jO _5 



i 

C. 

JolC ^j J ^-j^c s'j^l (jJiii ^^^1 jjl ^^^ _j ^^1 ^ ^uilssxi 

J^^\ jiJA\ J Jill J'^ill _5 Jajj Jl^kcl J cUx-. ^\ J'i J 
Jl 8J'J^ ^j lv:}lU>i J A^_^- 1^ J ^ ; JW J^' u:f^ 

^J LJl^Ul J Ja>.;ll JJb>Il ^-AJ^l J J'o^^l Jl LiJ.ljJ' ^ 



' o-^*^^ 



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^^!1 Ja>J ^s^' l«i^,c)l ; ^c:^-5^^1 _5 l::^a^ ; IJ^i Jl^l (^>^ 

^! Jl J.J.^j Jil ^^ ^*i ^-^ ^^13 Jj^. jj _j l^J-U ^AAJ 'i J 1^1 



- Klii, J^s.* 



' Khi 
» Khi 


, ^^W ; I. Wardill., 61 


« Khi 


, JljjVl C>«-J 




' Khi 


, c_.U^) 




' Khi 


0)^>.l 




■• Klii 


, Ljlx~H cUj' t_/i*j 


i^.f 



^aU-<^ *4a'U 



J\hi. ;:^-)l^*3i!l 1^.* 






^UA^l J'j' Ia^ 'Jl^ 
Ij^'UiA? j^lc 1_.J.!_. '.^1^ ^ i*-?'-'^ '^-<'»:^' C:^;:^J l^ol^ 

XL. j^^l ^ 2^^1 ^U b^'rv J'as' Jal j^< ^yL' ^il ^* 
).J»k!l &XiS^ ^ A-flJ' J la] I ^J.jO ,] iUj '>.C»Aa^ f^?" • iMT^-'^ i (J''*^ 

j^ iUii2-« 15-^5 (jftM'*' ^'^•^ ^iSLol jj^.i^ i_^''^^ (j^ LS^ i*"^' 5 

.."' n ..1 " 



■' J, and Khi; i;^ Jl l^j 



c?^' ^>.J^-^ 



Sr 



itlT* l-^"*^ U'^' '"^^ ./^^ ^-^-^^ ''^ {J*-^^-^. (^^«-* ^^:' ^^i- ^^^' 






(^f 









4 .. I " 






Lj . la<*.U Aj ,3 . S^xi^l <K_^AJ 



tX-Oj (Jv:>-'j*0 X 



5^1 ^, 



'Jl 






■^>Ji ^j,\ ^tX)l« *ic ^ ti-Lw Si>^ 



JK 









J. and Ivhi, »As.**' 



^ Kbi, (^j-flJ 



' Decst, J. and Khi. 



' Khi, s^Ul, 

- Deest in Khi. 

^ J. and Khi, ^i^\j.t^ j djlil 



Khi, JyV ; r(;id J^ J '.' 



\ I 



u 



Lo-ll 5,. a; 






j^a!] *rsr auiiiU 






Ji«*jJ cijlj^'j JL>_ji^ J.*.' J^_ * J Jc::'.yi CL^sr c^^l .^^ 

** " .. ti 

sic ^Ji A^ J a;>ic aJJ' 1^ a;lil J_j--.. ^_^c is:v.s*a^' ci^ljJu*-*!! 

w 



'r 



^^.. .• 



r" j^" 



<ojo ,.w«.j 'as-'. 'aju?. cXi-^ • 1,'vAj^ ^«^^> , • J'uu;i ,«=_*.' , J 



»_«J iju. j^-« jd'.s- sjjb J^> /^ ; ^ .y^Aii KLtl] S/s^'o ^--♦'jirs;;. ic^»- 
A^JJJ dill JiA.s^, sjjfc SJ.s^-< ^i iJJi ^1 II 4.^'..«»>*>«>i- . (.T^. r^ J 

CALo ^ i^^J^ ^^ is-^-- ''^'•' L5-*-"=" l/d^*^. ''^ ''^'^ -^^f L].j>Jl 



see note 93. 
^ Khi, Jl,j j;l J 
^ Khi, sjLo c:^9j 
^^ J. and Khi, ee' i-- 
" Om. , Ic ? 



(T,; 



^ J, and Khi om. j ii.^». 
" Khi, AijC 

'^ Deest in J. and Khi. 



9 



I "^r ^ 

j^jJ^il! (^Ull sy^ ^^ ».j,L i! ^S:sxs s^lj ^_j'o 1^1; yb , sjss"^ 11 

>'.<iiaLl SJ^r, , Jl j:l^J j,!: [^^Si , .xJl CLJili'js^l i"AJ ,s>- Cl^l, 

c^ja\] ^ "*il^l j».lc ^ JUill _j .sail _j Ll^)As^' 5 ^i ,J^1U1' ^ sl^iill _j 

■ ■ . " ■? 
^J^> «^ <i;ji_^C*«.>tJl ii-c ^i jls- ^A«j ^J.3 s ' , a_ll ./iuc ^c'*— *1 

i.. " 

*^r^ JJ'jk>- _j iJ^AJUw.^1 («^»lf^l ^j- ^?')'>=^ ^'<='J 2^ ^'^i^ ' ail 

WW 

i(.j»ll ,j^JU« AjUw J^ l^-i <3c]U d-^J^J ^c-i^ <)JUzl 1^^ J^4.3:^' ^^1 

1^^ ^ l^jly" ^ ^:^'^lJ^ _J ys" ^j^^^ <^^-i^i Jl J;>»>s'^' 4jl ^^^-i^P 

6 • 

,UjJ I all -i»j; i/j*Ai- ^.>J>^1 ^^ao ^glu: 'waj jJi^ 

;)5J^M*^ 1!^^ jciJI a^r^. I^CIaII .^.*« A^sro^jl Jo' Jill ^Jl^ ij'*^^ 
'^ lyillj _j * J;IA>*1'^ '^^^^ ^Jill Ac\ J^ ^ ^ili' _jl JjJil u-LaJ Sf<.) 
(ju'JjXjJl JjS)l ^^ ljo-1 (J.J d^j'^jlt IJsii ^^ ^^=^' ''■•'' J;^. ^ 
! iLiCl Ul .l^Allj j_cAJic ^^11 J^-«^I1 (c^ U^J"^. ^ ^r^' *-r'''^j' ^ 

_j^ J5_5j^_ ^AS Jl Ul L;^ ^--flll J"*? Iti'j ^IxJl i?;Al _jl ^j^'Jill 

-.l^j 4>Ai: .1 X^lj jl ^--2^. <— ^:^« ^s^-^ jl 5$t>^^. u^,^ 



^ J. i-»*i. ; Khi, ^_j;j1 

' Om. J. 

^ J. and Khi, Uil 

* J. and Khi, c:*-u> »\ 



'" Khi 



, i^jjjJi^ 



' Khi, ,jbm iS^Jl 
^ Khi,"^bi 
' Khi, »Vj* 



" J. »j.-4. 



v.? " > (^" f • 

a:=saL^ ^^j^j c:^j^ a/j_5 ^sr ^j j^-vc v>>l!) J J'i !». 
j^A>^ 5 AC i'ci.i'J:,! uz-^AX . ^'vAjJ (—fill ^y, J.^ ^ ^^'.-fl.*, ^ isl<, 

^ylc Jus<*j' ^'Js jyj Jlc (Jo j-lc ^^Wl ^— ^ • ('■f'-'H^ ' Jlii-I 

l^j^-flj! IJ'J I'-i^-^l (»*'^'V '*c5^- ^ c.'^>r"^-V. 1*^ f*^'^*: ^^ ; (HW 

c:J;J l^jJl J-^j 1^'J V^»V ^^^1 ^^ t:;^^. ; ^'y^ ^ j^^^ 

w 

•^ J. 8.-J1 o^lill I > J. XU 

^ Blank in ]\rs., Khi, J Jj_, 

N 



9 



^ ^ *jx ^ ^li^ ^c HylAll ei^l^i |^_y~l>i! i^^' (*^ ^'*'?.J«^1 t:/* 

w 

\jJ[mji!i] jsi.a Jl>^ l^c^^ ^C _j l^jlc jj.«*i ^Kj'lil^^ ^I J^j j^As^ 
♦s:«*^' L5^J r^ ^J_5J^11 Jal Lil^ ^_^lc ^^.-. ^M ^As^;-*^' e:_>U.j^AJl 



' Khi, :y 

* Khi, olLWil 



' Khi,>i 
^ Khi, jU» 



Av . _L*jkl] 'i.^^z ...jjJl i^s:" ^JOflAl! 

u<JL]] "j .a J.A^^_ ^l^'sill J-«;-51 ;j^ ^ ^'cj^'Jl ^jZ JO j^jli!i^l _5 _^\^1J1 

WW 

^A^ '^* <^j^..j,^'^ Jj^. (.5 ,. ^j ^ ^ yj^l ^>1 ^ 

(^ ^ ^^^*:?. J7?.'JJ (^^ ^'^ ij '^i JW cS* J^ ^-« 

w w 



Khi, D. i!jjJlj 
Khi, D. »^j,j J 
Khi, Jjt,!* 



1" Khi, 



■2 



" Khi, --^**^Ij 



' J. JjJI ^Uj 
^ Khi om. J ; J. om. j j* 
^ J. and Khi om. ^ 
* J. and Khi, ,Jcj S^ 3 
Khi, iji ,j«J J 



CJ*:^^1 ^.}-^ ^'J 



Jb^jl ^b ,_^ l^j.1- J^svAII -j ^ ^^ jli" ^ _5 ^>^i *i ui-^A^*-;! ^ 
j,Li.xcii ^ijJJl cLili" j^i ^jl^ UJ _j Jia*s-o J'i A*^l ^j .jvA^ j^jJl _ja ^ 
Lib A3 Ajliill lil ^ U«*ls^ S--^:f^ ^'^ } ^"^j^ ^^ ^^^"^ J' 

7~^.. ^ c^*:' ^^I'f- ' ^^-^^ ;>L/^ i^y^"^ Jt^^F*^ t^;-* (^r-' i^' ^'V '"^ 

W Ul 

ii.jj.Jl L-^jaJ Uil *^ Js:\ll J^' '^-^^A^ (♦y e;^ 

w 

w 

jj^ <uJLs- J Ci'lall 'ijsA j^jM tik4.s^ »;1 (J.s>-^1 i^j'-iin y& ^ *-|(.-«Ul 
^1 ^jIju .^/♦i «xl^i ^!^_ ^^ i.kiij iXjb XtJ.jl llK ^ iLs^! i^^as^' 
is .J' ^.j ^^ cliibl ^ U».AJl _^J J^ll (Jii> '.>«i LLAi'i ^^J .^--alo ^\ 
,y£iX^ ^ji l^j'li aU^. lj>i_j ULySJl^K.! J is-lJ' J.jj; 'ij=^ iJl^! 
^j . ^ ^J>s>-i t_5 »**< 'J<3> ^jlS I.U^ Uli-c. i/iu-is'' 1^^ lajk'J ci^cujI 
e:^V^ ; Ci^lU>kll ^j Ali!^ _j ^^ 5 ^^J ^^1 l:;^^ ^^ la^*- ^i 
*j Ja^ J ^J^J » t>A«j . L>U*i ^a!1 s j.^ jJ^ Ic ^'*>''-J^ll <JtjJ! 
*i' >«ic k^] J y^lM*~-^J'j >§CUi J^W' j^ Lfl-j'.b ic LJJ^sJl !_j 

' J. J_-j_;_:JI ; piub. J_«^I^_-J1 



J-Jy^' CS"*^^*" '^j^ ;1 lA^^ (J*^^ J'"^ ijj' (-^-^^-^ '■^'^ '"^ ; 
d^^'^ ^ ^'♦•?- ^'^* (•^^ <^^l_j JiJ Jv*., CL^Ac»i (r*A=^ l-;^^5-'wO 
<L«l^ ^^ ^J^CSX^^ CI^jIj <A««jI i^ fT^'♦'^- •£=^■'1 5.»>iK>«J ,_<.^l2jLwl 
l^ir^ J j'^^^l ~<^y _5 ^^ i^J^^ y^ (^' IjojLc ^;^r'i^ itXUi J'-J^*l Ul j 

^j^ ^^^ jl"^^ i ei^i- .c3.i' _j iiulL-- j^"~- j:j J;! JJ .^^1 



3 



.511? 



'jLJ>r-f 3''>'^^^ 



* <ljj*.jj 1 ^ i^ J ^ Aj Aja.\j gj^ff J t 



* J I A--J_Lil 1 



^' 



9 



A>e 



.ii cu'.Wl u!Ls * Jci.ti .1 A^-^. ( 2-^' ♦s?'*^' jj>J^ ''*^; iJ'*^''^ 

. 'u-ajj^lU ^li-« L,!lil _j "t-JfL ^jj < }ils-< lIALo 3X<,y_ ^jfc^j |JLw.s^' 

I 



tr^ 3 Kj^j 



i^l 



\:^< j^ j^j.*4 Jo'Ji]t |«M5J^A]i lUj; Jjb] Ic ia^] 1,-cJ J^^ 
' .^ jJbj JUc^l ^ l^^ U _* *^^^'' J'.>«x'o AJviiij *s^^'j j,_xiU 

:ej'^ lA^' t^^=- Jl ^^ ^^ ^«:^^ ^^j- jjil^'i ^jV-^yi _j 
JUi"! ^J*. ;^1 ^'^i l^! Jju* ^ ^i- ^j^ J^iJl ^^<e ^;l^ Uii ^j^jI ,b 

CI^aIc U ^1_j 'Jk**. JU?) J ;^1 J^A^. j^A^ c'ju'i A««-l ^> rr^-•^ 



<o ,1-^ St),, 



I .. 10 I j^ • • « I "I ■ 



* Khi, Ji.^ J ^j^ jjUI J.J ^ 

' Khi, j..> [J)jl jj^:^ ijc 

« Khi, JLi'.^;;^l. 
'" J. 



«ri du-j 



' D. in Khi. 

" Khi, (^-j (jl^J-. i_j^si'* 



Khi, iili? 
Khi, ljUii;i 






Jjl '^,S)] ^Ucl ' Jl Ja\\ Ur^ Jli' ^ ^U-J CAi:> ^ ^! l^jL^I 
Jili. (Ji>i l^JUJ ^^M*^' l«-«j)jJ _j (J/^^'-^ lij^^^ _• c^U_J^' sijt) ^^ 

w 

O^ '^J ^ ^ 3 ^^ J^ ^ -^^M ^^^^ o-^^' '^^^0^' 

|.*1jIc j Lc'^" _1_j^ ^ Li,Ck!l ,^y£»- V.1AU _j Cfj J'^=>- ^1 &!^^ ; 



« Khi, ^J^l 



Khi, 



C^^ 



'" Khi, aI-U, 

" Deest in Khi. 

" Khi, ^U J 



^^ Khi, J 



* Khi, Aj^ls:* J 
' Khi, ^ ^^c 

' Khi, l»)^" 

* Khi, ^U ^^. 

^ Khi, i_^jj^l jjj^ 

^ Khi, iJU^l i-a.Ul ^A 



Sm*X 



u^' ^.}-> 



Ar 



[aJ 






^lU^l tjl (J^ ^ic ^Ai' _j U^ ,AC j_^J>jij.All ^cic Ji.^ i_Jii)j iXli 

jLa-s- j l^ ii.s^X< i_sj=>-^ JJA^s Ac by ,Ujt> ^'^JL) SJou: ^^ 
j^ ••L'oli J ^C^Jl Ji^s'' J.j.Jkc 1^ JWv '^^ cijl/io ,_j-fljlo ^ji cLli'ls 



^ Khi and I).,^;c 


' D. v^ril 


■ Khi, U 


Khi, >JI ^jlxjj u_fl^j.ll cj;49 ; 
' Khi, ^jJlj^ll [^ee note 80. 


•* i-kUl ? 


' Khi, jcl^ll 



ej^^l '^1 ^ IfL e:^!^ <xl ^l^J ci^il^ ^'J ^^.^ j:>j sj.^, ^c^ 

I^Lk5 ^JJ l^i <U^ cLJJ^saJ Jj jd Jt-^" '^^t^ ,<^ ^ij^' ^J^■ Cl^ii' 
iUJ^ ^ji Uwc CJJj (J.jtai 'JtjJoi ^»**:^«*J _j iij,^ ^j^ C/'S'*^- e^' 

w 

Jl UxKs^ Ujj; J Ijol lijo j^^G i! d^\ ^ J'j _j ^AC**^'j U^ii 
II ^>^' Ji ii^'Jl >'Ji^l jJb ^^^ J ^^^' ^ »lJJ':L.l U^J^^ 

cir-"*-^ y ;^1 U! _5 Jljj ^^^^ ^_5^ ^U« ^ /jl 'v^J ^i^ ^^jJl 
l^ cuyJ 1 (^ Lli^-^w-jil Jij,_j CJJLo ^jl J'j j ^Ju: «)i^ ^ icbJ 
^ji Uj ^tiljjJI ^'^J^ ciJi" lLAjv^ j_^jJl Ui ^;X*5«- is^J" 15-^ 

Jl U>ic |.ji- Jli.- ' U^l ^j1 J,^^*«l ^,. ^l\j^ ,^y 1 ^;1 * 



^ Khi, Jl ^1 U; 


see 


note 85. 


' Khi, ;;i^j 


« Khi, l^_i L 






' V>4;1 ^ 


' Khi, ^ ^ 






^ Khi, Oi J-^' ^j* 


* Deest in Klii. 






* Khi, dJ^ JC 



M 



tJ^' ^.}^ 



A* 



jUo; ^1 J..4CS* &xx^ Jc i <Kil^jj^l 5J^_5 _j V^lj J.*jj UjIc 
LyLo ^i» r^ cJ^^ "^^'j L5* ci^<^ci>:: i^uwlj 'aLa^m,] [iSs^^i J^^ 

LLJ>*J (_m^ 'tl L5"'^ '^ iSw^ 5 <U/«>i) ^Ic ^j->»A«l ltiwj.:>- j_^j«X<il IwAJj 

w 

^:J1 jc^l CJ^ (Jiii ^ ^^SM^ '*^' ^j'-*ji«il d^ij .y^l 'w^ Luum 



' Deest in Klii. 



" Kh 
« Kh 
« Kh 
1° Kh 
'' Kh 
'- Kh 



jl^l ; see note 84. 






' Khi, 

=* Khi, ji J <i,^ ^j^ ^j\ 

' Khi, ^1 ^^r;i ^. liAc u J 

^ Khi, ^^jilj l^ j>Jj jji 9 



vl 



Aa^j]] 'i.[A,c ,.,.'4^11 *a^ <U.aall 



'^1 LU'Jljb c:^.! ^^^1 ^ ^ij J y^^\ 1^ ^^j^i, j^i^ , 
Jioll ^^xi/ iyUIl ^M*^ c:^%^^^ ^j.i>' s^^U'*'' _jl5- ^^^ 5 ^ 

•■Hi" 



e;:J^^=^ 3 "-^ 












.:: 45 Ic J l)-=F^ J <^JU) ^::^\->*.! t^-V. 



^! 



^A- 






11 



^ Khi, dol^i Lj,i 

"' Khi, di^lj:.. 



=^ Om. VI 

'^ Khi, laji;^; 



^^ti:"^"^ ^./^ 



VA 



•■■' • '.'^l 



.'• " 



• iki) CU.J.3 lO.A*>j»«>»- . i^j'*^ J r""*-/' ^"^ ■ '" '■^■'^■*'*' 



^\ AjU*.v,l J 



I 

j*b ^^i^ 5.1^ ^ J l.s^^^. >ii Aj>jJj ^j^jJ^^'l *5)j'ijl Lol _5 f-_J:^'*' 

j , _ ^ _ 3 

jUac til^ Uli ^JvS! ci^.l^ /ii'li. ^^^ y'U (^jaSi J.ill Jl*^! ^jli ^c;.Ail 
^=^\ ^C) J. !SA-ic 1^^'* ''•^if^ _5 ^'^j^ <^^ Cl^-ii ^ SAAc ci^^j'ii 5 

a^&Lc .^ ^Cl^:*- *ti.>- » iSilti , c* ^•^:^•^J■' 5 AST. ST ...-* >«-'.Jj«'« • 






iJc 



1 ^r 



^"^liij (^-" ,jj6-^" p4--Vj »^^j 



vv '^'*^^ ^Xa^ ^ji:^} j^sf Jrjoial! 

ijj-i^\ ^J[AJC ^^l] ^,U- ?c>,^ p'sXb. ^j^ |^>&. J^ ^A^«1 U ^-^^ 

^s j-*^'*'^ c:^3o 'o-'.Aa« bfcA^. J d^ji' ^jl ci^ii* fc_5iXii ^^yi> 

"UUl U^^ ^jl^j lft^J»< ^^,ljb_ U (J^j i}^jij^^ W.r-*'*^. (^^^ ^-^^'^•' 

iulj *^JLo ^__jCjJ*^] ^^'4!^ tLAU!! j^\^ _j "-r^^ u^ li.As^' aI^J 

(^ '^>. u^ 'J r^- ^^-^ Pi c5^ r^J <^.^' '^.^^; J^ 

JIas'' i^'l JC)'.A/^^.>K=^ >^Lc J«s^ '^i_.J ^1 (^^'-i *— ^1 '^^j ^J^ /»«^ 
|►«:^^ Jr^^ ^■^'« '' ^y ^i l_jl-^£- '^ _j ^s'^" ^^5 "^ lo Wi^ l_j=saii 



= Om. Jl ^^.Ifi 



1" ? 



^ Kill, i—Lsj) U J 
" Klii, \j^a\ 






I * •■ ' . " 

i ^^^i^iu 45>J>jjj ic^s^' Cl^I^i UJ . "s^' 1^^' ^] Ajo JCaI:: jJJl iuo^ 

j .. ^ ...... ••. 

iiils^' L. Jl <)d CL-Ui' i^A-^Ti' ^^^ L-^«J <id jj\^_jl U^^y^" O'*"'^' vi^'^ ^ 

^Ifl^ JcJ J'Jj ^Ki lUaJ'j '.s^« izJ^J^h "(*•* J CAj'i L^Jor; ^j\^ ^ 



' Khi, ji 



• o«a.A-a y 1 



•'• 



m. 



r*-' 



i 



vc , J^ikll 'iX^s. ,.jj>!) *!sr <x>iiAil 

w 

jUW !$jjt! ^_^ j»-xjiji" ^ ^jJ"!' 1«J^ Ji>Jl l1J,aj ^1 ci^i/i jjl J'J" *i 

W I 

A!ij>A«.ii cXJ" lilu \SS _j 'a^ v^! d.--*it3 dJLci ci^s^ ^jl J'i J 



'j^;^ I ' |»fc^ 



c 

u^^ ^.J^-' 



vtc 



i . 

", ^,3 , ^S ( SJ(3,I1 (AstLe , J-C kiy^ ^{r^ J^'^^ ^J^ (J> 



y^s-^ Ji 



i\ 



\ff Ls' "-^'yj' '-^""^ Lj""- '''■J'" "ir^ ^"^ o^ <-^^*^ &■' u^j 

^ i6\^j ^i J^i J^ ^l^^l ^^ic ^i'l ^jl^i ^^ ['^\ ^ K^j, ^ J 

9- 



t:r» ^-V -? 



(KA^J ,j 



;^. ^^^\XS \ UL ^^ili- Cljlil ^ ^j ^^. 



l; ^ * J, 

. M . w .11 

jjb ^ (».; ,«j.s'l A ASS-* ^J <A^5-1 ^-^'*o:> ei^^<^-2i^ (Jjbl ^^ 'ok\>i, 

^«*Gli (J^!l ^b U^i i^'xi Sii ^i \jJ:Xi ^ jcji) .'Jjj i_ill 
Jx (J,rs-, jsj^iT (J,^ ^^11 l^i^ ^jy ^jls'^^i^sa!! Jr^-l^ ^i S-^^ 



^^ Khi, 


^^ 


lli 






* Khi, 


^JX-.^ Jj.liill J 


JUl 


j^AHll 








UJ 


Xyu!i 


' Khi, 




9 cJ* P^. 







' Khi, Jl lafl^) |_^flJl 4J l^^l 

" Klii, ox9j ij^ <u^^ Iftj Ac J.«.s? 



vr jujul 'LIa^ ..■^^^ *is: ^cj-iiij 

[^»jjtj LU>sJS\i J'.As^'j iiyoy^ kj::^^ . laJ^l. _j it-'-^t^ (^ i^t'-*^ 

^jJu Loj Ujkic . CijJj: ii*i^»«.!l ci^Avwl l_1j1 j:! ,1,iiJ ^1 ,^ , jl 
p - •• J •• uj ^j (^ 

w 

w w 

^jjjl .cii" Js-1 J.5 ^1 ^r,l ^y^-Ji ol'.J _|^OuLc L^.b J! Jdj.UI sJJb 

w 




•?" • 



^kj-aJl "^ji>jj !»'»^'C ^ L^X^.aJ iSxj jj» J <)t.j.AM*/i.i- 5 jJ ->ifcC • 

I s.c[Jl^ jiJ) ^ 7-''^;' ^'^ ''^'^ d-J/sriv/i.! jJ^ AJtJ ; (J^bl ^ic iftJ 

j^i Cl^j'o yj) _j t:;:^^'t' ''^■^'* ''y*' O'^h ^^'**-i ^j^^^ A^=:* Jj^>''^ 



® Khi, ^U^l LuJ Ala e^ft^***' J5 J 



^ Klii and J, (Jj , \ 
' Khi, ^«U1 
* Khi, \mj^ fjuAj 



U'*'^^ ^.J 



\; 



vr 



:jj^] yt) _j ^jj&'Ju^l! ^^^_^^^1 ^^jj^As^'i ^*/i, 1^^ .U^ ^Ir*-^ 

S^^^ l;_j-aLc (>^' ij' (^^^ '^'^ 1*'^:*. f^ ^U»**A»- ^ S^c -.A«j jli/^ 
.^^-flJU ^^ ^j'i II icO.-4.ll i^s" ^^^ CAi'li ^^ ;_5'^j^-* Uiaas. ^^ 

lUi] >^^c Jl <)uJU3 d^Kj _j la>^l^ .^j i^r a*a1'j ijol^l c:^^«**s»- 
^^j1 e:^^*^ l«l LL-il^ _5 2ci.lj ^_^a^ \j^-^ <j} ^ ^ ^^^-^ _5 j_^ilX.«^! 

C:^ J UjiXt>l lil J ^'iJull jjMi.^ ^ JUs:''o ^ioli ci^il^ ^ ^ji-ji_i_ll 
{j^J '^ w-^^ ^-^^^ <-^'^; iS '^•— • i:^- '^*^'' ' '■^-^' <-^=^'^' 

WW w u» w w 

e/" (^ J L5-^^ u«^ ^ i-C;^' c;^ u^-*-* ^ ^«--' (*^ ^^^ c;^-* ^ 



;? 



« Khi, 


iij.!j* 










' Khi, 


J^-^'"' 


> ^ ciaIj 1.4I 


o> 


^J 


L-A.M. 


.S,ll 


l^! J.-.^ 


1J.4U 


(^Jl. 


' c;^ 








Ll< 


.Jl 


SJA 


- U'-^} 


? 











•^ Khi, Jl 



V- 



jL} 



w 

^Um.Ij icCw "j '^^J^ ^"^^ a:M*aJiJ J.^c ^.^-^^j j^ 15* J uy*t/i 

(♦-^V* ^^^'^ cj-^^^-^ J^ t./^ ciU^' '^^:^^ 'j;-?'^* '^^'■» '^tJ^' 

"^Ixo^lj ^>!1 ^U |^>».Ai a:.^j^:v _j ^1^1 j^ik^l ^j JC«.I, ^-Lj aAJbl 
Uj ^.^-fli* '>aJj«,l ^ ^_Lc L^ J'jb_ lusU L^'^ i^-Jj'l ^j} ^r* 

1^^ cj:^^ '^*^ ^:^t/ yr'^ ^'^^ r^j ;^^' ''^l i^ ^-^^ '-^ 

c_;^Jl ^^ l^^i JJi ^ ^^! ^^1 ^ j^^l ^^ ^j^] -^^ ^^ 



^^^^l' ' Khi, i^V l^U- 

Khi, J>, ^1 



•■' Read j5Lj.i ^^^Vl ? 

* J. and Khi, JU^l iL« il^ jsj 



AJU) O ,\i v« 



,?L^all ^^ AcUs^ aC^Le SS ^^] ^j-25- ^jl iCib ^Jx»- *^jJx tiLJI 

^^^H^lij U! *Mk!lj ^**i.flj jjjk-j" 1^ a^j 'JUlsJ Lo ^j^ 15^ '^^^ lJ^ 

Si^\ ^J^s ^^j\ S^J^fi J cL^J'li ^i j^^Xa^ j.s..'xm] j-^'^] ^J\ *_j" (^J^-i^J; 

Cl;U Ul 1^' i^ls^' ^LaSl sj!s:^' ^1 »_aj ,^^Xa]\ ^J^ t^yi *_> 
Cii'lflJl Lai] ^Uu^l ^ <j;Ic j^jl ^^Jl ^^^J] Jijijl ^^^Ju JSJ>!_5 » CAS'j 

«_j .1 ll*. tj'^J'S^ TTj^ i^>^^-< (^-J /^J>^ ^^-5' e:Jui.*iil _j IL^Jl 

^-^li ^il ^ L.^'s/jjJb ^1 Lj^Mki^J' ^ f-i-'i^ S-y*^^ i^_jU) (^O J-J 
L_J^11 tji <':-^ _j ^'^'_^-?- W-^-* '^^^^ ^M-^ U_^^c V-^T" '^^ LJ-^-'' 



* Eead dJU 


o".-^*^ 




' J4«i'? 






* Klii, 
' Khi, 








' Khi, 
^ Eead 
' Khi, 










LW'' .-. 



^^'^ ; ^^ L5^^ ^'^«> ^_j5' i=:^ _• ^'i'^9 ^^\ <=->^'< S*> [^'^-^ 
^^^ ^J^^ 3^ '-j5 J^ kj J^ \fi'yS Cii'i 

y^! ci^ji^ _j ^j.i\ CJi* ^^s- u~'^?- u-' "^i"^ '^ J' r«^ 



w<j;^;=? 



>-> 






•-^'^ (^^.•^'' ^^^=^1 •^i^^ '^^^1 jij.>*«.!l ys^'j ^ ^«l!l v^^: 
^rs-^i^li ^'.j^ ^i s^\^\ sxc ^ ^^ly^j ^ir jLll ^.;^, eL;\^All 

^ Kill, s^jl J 
^ Khi, ^^^ 



Khi, ft.-3j\ i_:_«. ^ (^Ji J 

■••'I 



' Lac. in MS. Khi, ^^ ^.^^a 



Khi, ^_o eliU J----C 9r^<-s- Uls 

cJli. J |«-a;jl Jlii] tj^jA (Jl J.:Hj 



(9 



w 

Uj tH WW 

^^ i^> 3 '^J J^^l cJ^ '-^V^ (j-^y^^l U^^ v^c-^ i?.*^ ^^^ 
I s'-aill ^-e'i Jail ^j.5^ '-^'4t" ^-^islis:_ "ill ^^ t;;:6>^^^ J;^:>. J'-=^ 

^^./kj a J i<j^^. l^*:^^ ^J'*:^^ r^'**^J '''^^; fV Ly-?" <^i^^^-^l 

cJss-LJl Joe _5 >_j>-2b^l _. Lj-flJLc _5 LjoL^n j^ v^j'ill Ji^j^l ^-< 
aJOfc^l a^s^l Julc i_jills- J t^i'lall J;Jbl jsAjo ^^^ ^ Ja^ J;^l j l^Xo 

J'^^' eiJl ^ |^^>ir. >.^jj1 i\j.Ac c:^^-**^'! ; '-r'^7^ ; t,'-'^-^ l*"^^ 



^ J. and Klii, *) 4llj olis 



' MVj^o-=^? I ' ui3U-..? 



•• u 

jj!il! 'ijy^^ jJI sjo j^^i auo^ <uL«ar>»li JtjLJu "ii <xiMJ ^_/^^ ^J-• 

jl^^l i^llr^ S^r^ «1;-J '-e J*i'J *flJI ^^1 'iXJ J'JU |,^jJl 

j»V.^l _5 --'sr JL)_ Xi^ lLe/> L< c-;'^ j_^l ^ J'Jii L-^'^^i, ^1 
CJ\X^ ; U^l^^ ^i Jl« _jaxll jU ^ Jl^ J ^Ul ^ JV- 



5 9 



® Khi, ,yo U-i 
Khi, c_5^ (jiL^ j^U 



^ See supra. 

^ Khi, ---dl VI ^j.3,*-^ J; Read 

11 t . T 11 1. 






H' jl^ jJ'jl-J ? 






e;^:^^^ ^.)-"' "t"* 



jij _'^* ^ ;^'-Af- '*!' <^-^^l ^^ lia U SjJlj <)cJ Jlai ^ 4a^l 
u:,.*jijtii LJU aaaIs ^_j e;:!^*'*^ "^'j ^^ 7-;*" i*-^ '^h^^ jV ^-^'.-^ 

J^ 1 JU ^'urs-" JL ^i 'Julc ^1 J^ Jyb. iUl _5 j^y. J^ ^ ^yt>j 

jj»" ^jJJl jy 1 ^_5i UiiAii J ,Ujp (_j1! S*^ JjU As* ^U joJ^sj*" 
iUJUw , Jl ,.,x^s51 c:^£ill ^' Lu^i«!l L.U' J^ia sjl id-J <lJ.l:sr 

y^J ^'1^ J' ^j'JaUl }^ ij^ Uy jU |,Jill ^^ (1^:; ^^ji Uy^Jl 
lLU^ L_,^'1 L5~*^ u?'^ V. '^'^^^ C5"^ J'^' ''^^^i^ liA" •'*^ ii>'>i^ 






^' Kl.i, J^ 



S-^^?""' cir* ; J^' V:^^> ^^1 «^ii' ^^ i^I Jl IJ^ >-j* ^«>il 
^ycb 'J,>lji Ul'o- jjC s'ill*^ eL;LiLju^l .'wvi^-lj J'^ <bl 1^: . jo 

w 

^_^ ei^JiUi LaaJ) 1j^I=^ ci^^yoil _j lixi l^^ ^^" ^o * ^k- J 
tXAs-l e:^ 5jJL.il KUJl s^l <u=-j, ; ^1 _^^! ^j^ j ^-^r^ 

^'^1 eJ'Jlc _. ^a^j y^ e^xss^U jJlgJl iijLr j^^ C:^:*^^ ^ 
{ji O^ ^-o* ci^J^i' — lual! ^ ^JJl c:^5^1 1 jl _j IxJlLLJl 

C-UJ J j^-^j .KxOu^ ^'^ JT ^^ y^ ^^j ^ ^5'j L<^-^. 

,J >^i'.j J^' ^^ 1^]; '^jJ j^ J ^'-iJl ^_s^l J^ic ^^ t:;:6-s^' 
LiAclii >.jo d^iiii £ A=^Ij L_^*iS' ^^»M:sr ^Aia Ij 1 Jlai J)J=lJ^\ 



= Khi,, ^^ J ' I J. il^ ^^, ^_^^. ^ 






AiliJl v_Ji-«a^ *Ia>jJI cLA! J , J Us: ,1 , jij^ji.^' 

ul 

j;*jji (j^ ^oi A_jjLj Aj«j s^-c ^M\yj\ ^ <^-^>\ tj-ll Aj-^mj (J.sr.1 ^' 
Ljywjlwjil j«y_ A^j ; (J.>l5 j Ut}ii.*j c)^»^ (—jill iSi^i _j laJtis^j LJ^ 

liUi^l _5 ^.jSA_ioJl ^^^^, J ^^_;:JJ*J"*' _j c±j1j" ^-" iJAaiii!! j_^j ^^ yilC 
L^^ ^ j^'*' j\S:i liSjJI j^jLs- i-jla^i Cl^Jb ^'..^-.l s^.s^l TT*^^* i*^-*' 

<xJ.J.J ^^-c jji^ ^_jJ^ '-r''*^ ei^ij ^^Ai^\ 5;.s" a^VAil^ ^^ ^ ^j^\ 

ci^JL) S(^jk<aj.!l VAa^\ Ji,.s" ,jjia1> .jjt/i:/.!! ...^s^ 'i^i^ ,J ^djui' ,.,^ 

w 



' Khi, j,«c ; Read lall ^^j^^c 



1 



' Kan. U^ac 
^- Khi, ^.yi 



Ic .!is^ <Xaj'j >>»J: ^ ^'viUil (^,! j .^ J*^*>*j ^wl i;^ Li_J^ J 
ifL?-^ >_it> J |._r^Ji_<3jl Jb 1^^ l^Jt^ j^^ ^ »fljo . y^yt^\ 'i\XjJi\ 

LjU-^ Lii^l uLijJI 'jUr^ _j (^j>Il U„^l jj; ^ U^_l^ U*:=^^l J 

^j^^l ^^ J_j3l Jyjj lUjum ^y^-^'j '^_j=-<^ jlj^xilaii ^ l^lfl 
UiJl l^«.^ ^Jo"'J 1>K,^ v.IuAi' ^jjl Itfiyo" _j i^xill L-^j j ^IsiiJ' ^ 

jdlb j^jo l»«^>»>i>- U^i-o k::jL!iiii aJ^Iy «J»s'' j^jiiJl ^#1« ^^-^ ^■^^:''.|; 

w w 

>Li3- ^ Cii>«Jl ^_j.ijJ clAlJl tiJ.IU i^-^l JJ.- ^c/Ull ii^l^J ^ 






w 
|i ./" . ........ .1/ ^ I 3 .. .. «... 

L1^A> > J;fl_«.«j,j ^/jjI, a^tba , ^a»- ^tjlS.^ ...^ ^f_j J, jcji.5,t> L_^5 .a 

4J' ^Jl».. ILo (JaJj UUi Jw-k=s^ '-r'r*^' LJ*;'"^ tJ^ ' i5^;^' '^'♦^"* ;j^ 
w w 

j^^j J.AJUW (w^i', J' :s^.i.^l ^s'sj^i^ ^a^ t>.«.s'« (^j Jcill 4iac i^j^K 
^JJ! J.s***'^' (__;lj ''^__ji£ a:<UI ^'-'_^-^-< ^i;l*«]^' _5 J^-^s-* j^J ^1 Ja^ 
^-s^j^h^] L^J JliJi :sn,_LfiJl ^-5^.; i—j'^^ C>"i^ ^'v-*/>j1 Jij.J»aJ! <Lxi 

j_5J^jis3! iK^^iiil -^(C,--o' Jy» < Jj/1^^ '^^t"J J CJA^Jl 



jjJwiii i_/»ii^ V .«j5 (^ Jcl iiU ? 



T 



^ Ivan. i__ijW 
'" Read ^i.1 

' Khi, ^^-:. 



w w 

^J.s^ 5 J^iJ! llAk j^ilil ^1 ^Cjl jJiJ _j i^ib'juJ'^^^J! s^^ UlIU 

J'i J ^jyi jiivi ^ j^^ uuk ^^i i^j^t juci ^^ ^i^!b 

U-^i J7=? L--^' ^^^-« j.^ U..>^ _j v»^>J liJ'J J >lj^ii.ai ^^' *l_lfl 
Ur;^' 3 ^^ Jr^^ ^'^ ^;J ^^^ J H'i^ cij'4;^ Jj.ill _j .'^1 y«*^ 



I Ajksr 






3 1,^.1, ? 



AJl 1 or , IJI ? 



iJ^V ■ "^ O": 



'" Kan. tlflUjt_*3o. Possibly c_.Uc_*«J 



9 



'.JL>,i: <)Uw.flJ JsliJJ rJ^^l (»LJ.U.-c l_<Li LlAJjfcJ ^_j '-s^ i ^.^^,^2^ iSjo 

w u 

<j61 ^! "AJ'yjj y&. tJ^i^s'' c ■^1,K> ^-w^l-II aJl: LJajJj '^^^ mU>*jI ^ 

^ w 



l/J- • I ' U^^^*J ? 



«l 






(j-J r^*^ i3.>iJi ^JjtX»- 



(»:f^ 



^U 



(*-^ '*—-'-■* z*-^ L^^y' 3 f^ !r 



^1.«jum "^c^Sl ^;;:^*51 jj-« J'-c ^^ Jilj cuU f3 ^Isr |^.oj.,a>. 
d.;^ 1 J <)U2flJl 1^ ^.-voi* ^ Cu'wAjKs^ ^ ei^'o*.'!? _. J^la*" ^ Jill* ^ 

cljJl 8^5^ Jl ^SH'^J f--:^W (J>«-J^l J^*" ei-^s: J«i-4iJ 



J 



ty>fc=r« 



1^^ jsj.^ ^j^ J J^ c^ Cf''^ ^^' C«-*^ J'*y '-'^^^ d^ J^ ^'^ ; 



,^1 Ai'iiG 






^1 l_?.mJu) 






c;.^ 



uL^s- 



W1 



,vi iiuiC? 



je'^jj'^ 



>'J'' 



'-' Khi, ^j-«H 






OuOx^Mj • 



^ See^_p.' 



inDozy's Diet., also 
Bui. Ed. of Mae. II. 1200, where 
ol^* is suggested instead of oU^c 



^^i■■<J^' ^:^-<i^ ^j'*^ ^;-a^ y^.i> ^!1 i^^y^ <>^1 ^_5-fli» _5 <kjJ1 ^^11 
Jl-^n t^Ji^Jl L_->U^ jj^A-i^ U 4\^s-» ^ (j^*- i}^^'^' ^<J J^' 

,^tXAJ_ J_J ^^-^JJl J'ji iaJwgJij tU/i^ll ^^^Uil ,xJ JIj JUl j^ 

w 

jcUs^ j^^! ^_5^1c^!l ^^^ ^^^^ac Ui j J^i"! j^^Jl ^>^=^J' ^IJl ^ 
\ —jd ^i«il J'>»J1 ^^ LcJsll ^_^.-J i<-^^' ^'*^=s^' ^j-i i$\Uc <)!jJi,al! 

|J5'v.fcA*i.4.i- _j (jJ'J^ J H;^ ^'*' fV-^ ^** Jli^ ^"^^ F-^'"^' ^"^ cJ' (^ 

w 

^S.j^\ j1 JoA>a>.ll ^i^All SJ^)i.Ji\ i^/ijl .Ui-1 1^ s^^jii Jj.^a1I ^11 



' Om. V1 1 

=^^5 1 

^ Read jij>. ^Ji Jl> 






c.^? 



^!yU) Ja»ti <):!ii.^y <):>.! 1 ^j-cAjLwJ txij^ ^_^J ^.^ t>uo : \\ isJo^ 

^ _j 'L^ 'd^^J^ U *1!1^ ci^U _^^I i*! A.^1 U J'i ^ Uoj^cl 

^^^'Jill Ja£ j_^jJl ^^j^l ^^ii '^^^'1 J ^-^^ (^^ 'i^''^ O"^^'^-'. 

iia^il ^Ic l^^i ^ill L^U«.^il J.^1 v^li ^^1^ ^ L^'^ill _5 JlJl 



> 

? 



-^-" 



if? 



^^l? 



9 
w 

.^xam^ ^y ^ {J^i^ (^ L)•:^^' 15*^^ j''-V,^ Aj'^]o' 'jb.Us-l Jliis XX>d 
ijoc ^ cijUs^b I— i,^, ^yo iJ j^'^ j^^. ^'^ ^^l ^-5/xa^ ^ *^^^ 

iJ J«fli ^ A^_Jj iii^ 'Ni^'* ^* J sLiiiJl ^li' t_^tJsAs^' ^_5*^'^:^J1 ii^=^* 
^La^ ^_^'i ^^. ^j1 \ ^^^1 ^j ^>:s:. ^liiil J L^-xk h^jW 
j^cljJl «-/3li Iii]l ^1 'ksu^ ^ ^A.^\] Jjbl Joe A^j^] ^ ^ _5 

jj^iUll Sass^ ^i Li yl L5'^''^^ ^^^ Acl.«^' l«Jii ^Ic Ci^J^ 

ij^ .^-oJUo^J.^^1 s]^! ^jJ-J" _j ^^^?- u?'^ (j^^ «_Jili^' ^1 i^tli^n 

^ (sic) Read *_L.a-i. l_)L-»1 ^ 1 ' Eead ^s: ^_3l ^^j j,^:^! ^ 

* Khi, jlc iJUi 



J^'^1 ^[c ^Ji ^^JJ^_, } UjJI jAs> J-^s- ^^/*-^'j »;«»- ^ <uLIj 

lisft) jdil jjtl ^liij |^x.«^l .Las" iJA^ s jj^ L_^"'afl]'j -^Ljl! ^ 

^ J».«owl c>.>^l ^^-i'Jill ^^l^ J Iju< ^^ i\>*s^ e;*^^'* '^' ij:?^. 

Jlc^l Lj.j^s'^' s^jCjJl c\jdft_lo l^IiUSl ^^fV. ^J^ ^j». Ai' OJ^l 

j^^^l ^Ji>«.Sl *lajM.!l odUi _j '-J^ ^^ 4X/«.=sr* " s^r jJl jiai cuU 

^jl^ . ajJwJI ^^j^-*^! t^^«-JI ;i!;_>iJ'o r^.rS>- t.,j J^ ^. ;^ c:^^ 

_yfclla; iji-a^l ic» (^^;--.>^l <Li3^I AJij Joe *^_ j_^i Juul. ^ lti^'jo^I j, 
«J.I ^ (►^ (Jj' 15^ J''^ JO/iaJ'j ^^yo'-*Ju >L«*^] ^ 8jAs" idjJ^I 

JLflll yl _5 fc^ii^W' j^'^jil S^si-* ^ji J^i ^\ ^^U^'Jilt jScUc ^ yjjj: 
J»«>sc-* J Ijuw i^^'i' i^-ijl (JjL« ^J;'^^1 i.^\<^ ^ h.^^». ^ l)>«***^' tji 

. ' Khi, ^_^U. Ai-^ J ' ^l^U ^^ ^L.1 ^ jl ? 



* uW ^J ^ 



Khi, .U.1 



^:r^:^^l ^./U ci^ 



1^ CAIJ _j uC/*^'^ «>J^*M; _5 ^-J;-^ j^aaJU Pj'>.!^-'1 ^ij'.v^-o u^^ 

'^_j^^l jc^Jl ^j^^il ^K _j iuuijj ic^I^l ips'' ci^^ j>o ^^^jjlJj ^ 
lljLx^ cu'v^J yji^^ ^^ iS^i (J^ (^ 3 s_ji^jJ'j Uj^a^ U*« ^ " Ic 

:J.-iA^ ^ .^-flLo _j ^J-'^^ _5 («J''-»- ft'^J _5 !5i3^j^ ^^V J-C^^' 15"^^^ 3 
<0 Ijjjj J (J^aaII j^^^AaA-fJI ^1^ ^« U^ ^j> Sa.:s^ Uuki-li (jiiiwAJb 



or , .XA,j]\ S.'vAi ..►.'jJl J^^ Aj-'iol] 

w 

Jii ^jJ. Lj _5 J'i J CJJJ ^l-^l J*Ai ,'Ju_J uJJ! j_jJt _j 

^A>- IjI 1j_ CAAc <dl] «3i> (JI3 ^ .'JbJ ^aJl 'w>«^i:: iki-'i ^KJ^l j 

Jlif J^l /^ J^ ^1^1 ^ J'Jii ^JiC J J^^ ^k Jb J 

k1X<S '^\ U <)dufli^ v.::^'-^ ^ J'i J'»>J1 ^_^«io Uli .UjJ ^'..«.m*.»ow 

J'^1 1^^ ^^J ^^^ _j lf<y c_J,^ I — ijfCi vji^l ^ ^j)IU ^1 ijlU 
ei^^l J'i J JjoJ ^'vo j^'jJl <»! OJJ <Xj *^b'il ^jl ijJo U 

^U ^ j-JJo' J'^ j^^, ]j '^ ^ JIj ^^1 ^Jixi _5 U^l J lil 
JL _j U~i ^J Aas-* j^cliiJl j-jijJ*5^j ( aii'i Jj; ^Us^ v_«ftjuu«jl 

^ cS^^s* ,j*-J^ ^_^j1 <-S?^'i-5' Jj^ '^j^l^'^. ij^.*^! cJ'^- J^ LT* 
if 



=> Eead j.j iJ- oi:::-:-! ' Or J^l 



l:>s- 



JLs^ 



- Khi, U^:-* 



I 



U' 



,ajOI 



I ^.>- 



«"' 



JI5 _5 <K»i*flJb ^-^ jjjijj ^jJlj ^-^H^' '^ <O^La« ^_gj <jl_j^' 

w 

I 

I 

I ^^;JOUUi Pj'«^l ^j^ Cli^'il J'i Ia^ ^^ J^S-« j^ljJl ^j-ij'io- J 

^ Jl^Jl jkh ^V J5I ^5 ci^l^Ull ^] ^Ji S^:^ "^^ ^Ic J^ . 
I Uy. yjl J^ ; iiJJou, ^jj] JUil> Jns:^ jj U ^_5cl Jl Jio ^ Jl^ 



•^ Khi, \jSLJy 

' Eead J..-JLJ 

« Khi, «9l^ LI li 

8 Read ji.1, or omit ^^ j^s.* 

'" Khi, i^ J^j 



^ Read J--i.) 

^ Khi, oUii" 
3 



Khi, iSJ Vljjill ; perhaps .Ul 
' D. in Khi. [»ji,.VI 

'"* Klii, ii\ij*s*\ 



«» 



, A^J^] Ji.'.Ai ,,,JjJl *:^ ^aaU 



j^ y'i _. 'u«. j^^jcljil ic^j^ Jly^l 'jiiiisl _j 1^J«*J1 _j aUI i 
ci' V°' ■? ^'^ '^V v'"/^ (J^ J^- (J^^"*^^ AJj««Jl -js-^'il ajjij" ^Jj» _j 



8 I.I 



''^*-' t^ 



J'JiiJ! lil LJuuLi'l 

w w 

^^^ ^^jt'"^' ^.^^ ^_^» c:^ J'i Iju. ^j j.>fs-< ^clji! ^-ijj^ ^ 



" Oiu. Khi. Read ^J.JSi 

' Khi, ij^i ^j^ ; J. u_fl(u ^Jlj 

^^ J' J> c^- bl-^^ ef '•^' 
« Khi, J;U 
3 Read i^ L-u i^ljJi! J 



1 


Khi, 


liilli LI 


2 
3 


Khi, 
D. ill 


L Khi. 


4 
5 


Khi, 





^-rij 



p 

c;^' ^.^^- 



^^] ^j-i] s'.^ ^^I^y U^i^l ^J«>^^: ^la^J! ^'iii*JI l^ (>-i^j=^^ 
^ ,^=^.^' j^-V '^''^ (*-*j S--?.'^' J''^ c;;VV. Vj-^^' y^ ^ i-i^^i 

j^ljJI _j JcJu_J.J'i J J^^il^Jl j^lc _j^:^il ^ic ^_^1 ^>J1 l^s^' ^^-^ 

-,lj ^Ul i_fiju>*> U^aII cX^ iiils^i t«J^^ clAUll jcs-* iliJl As^j^l 

w 
uJfjO IJ^ yij' ^^C ^.lA^ ^j^ icl>K2w J Ix-i ^^J tX>fc3r« (^''>^' i^jJ^*'^^ 



* Khi, ^.^Ijl ; Kdn. ^^C]\ 



»Jj(J ^XJI CaB^o . '^ 






l^Lxa^ ^jir^ B.>L Efs- j_^j ly^li ^^1 Jl Jy l_j^l^ J ^Jas.s ^ ^J] 






^^ Jl 



• Khi, iiJ 






v.->^s;Ajsr j^l ^li: (^Aiill lJJt> <*--^;^^ y;^ J j*^-*!! ^uic J.^^1 ^=^ 

w 
w 

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w w 

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cLu^l cJ^^J AJ.JJ jiL ^} iijJ^l! <.--^iSr ^^1 <Krs.y LlAlibJ ^s Jy^tJl 

jlAJiJl ^^^ Icl LiJ^j^fJl ; Jill) ^ cb J^iij ^^1^ ^ t^IjJ dla>]j^ _j 
vi^L^l _j Ki.4.11 ci^wJ^UJi t^^ ^1 ^L; a ^IJi ^U jElj jJl 



^^ Om. J 






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oy ^'j^' 



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• Khi, 






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^ \jSs. or ^ ? 



I 



J:j>lc ^iJl (^i-^tii^l ' 2->I lair ^Ij t-^^ icJ.<l_W4Jl sJ:;«5Jl ^ (J.2^ 

s-i lJL^'i j_5^^ (^y^l Jl ^J-a^l ^;J ^^ i=ii***i ^^^i^ ^^:^^ t^' 
,__5»/*. ^jj^.-' ^^ ^-:> Jj >^«'^' li)'*^^' tj-^ !$^w- *j«J'J (^yiH 

S.\z ^JU^^ _5 ^^^Iaw.!! ^! J lib J>^^, ^.sA^ ^J.l ^^jl~- JUj 1^1 
^Jo_A>«j d^JuJl Ay_ ^w.^'j &>Mcs'' *y^ H^^^ ^^ ^»!1 ^^ ^.i\ll 

( sjj _j ^iiii ^il*»*^ ^^Ic ^'j./».^l Jfjlal! l)'-'*'^ j .i'-w>j.^ <)fj J lib 

jjl aIj^II ^^:^'=F c;^' '^'•^ ; **-r^ O^ ^J"^' ^-^:^^' c;^' '^ 

iXJui^s.- Lib** \m 'i^^^\ C;^^^ jjj) 3 ^:''.;J 1^;^ (J-^aixs 
"ikys^j^\ ^j^ii^l ^^" CJ1a£=» ^LAll ^s:\j ei-j^l j^ j^jj ^ 

^ Klii, AJ^:-- ■ Om. % ' KeaJ J^l axo 



^Jbj j\i ji) _jl ^W _5l jy— j1 ^1 iVw*i 1^^ ^_^1 t—j'^ ci.-as^ U * 
^J'0 iiT^^ tj-* ^?y ^*"- c;i ''^^^ i_?'^ U"*^ '^ Jji' j S-*^:!^^ (*^?. 
*j'aj ^ y^USJ>-\ ^^jX=>- Laxlj ifjjJii Jj>\\ ^_^'vC ^.c^iJl Ajuj J«^. yb ^ 

J^j=J' j.=v'i *!^a!1 ci^Aj ^j'aa* 3 ^jij _5 '^^Sa1\ yj' ^i^l ^1 
^^y> |,I1 i)d-»j,l^ ayli »_i^* 8,'sAJki-l ^ij aJ_jjJ1 v^^^ji:^ ^1 ^^ 

w 

^^c ^^AJ.11 Jjbl ^-».AJl ^ KJUsJl sj!s^' <*--^'^ ''^ J^ J 1:1^^3^^^' (•'il J 

s- 
^1 jTy-e Jl<jJ '^^jyi J ^r^^J J^^ !/^ J-^J '^ (^» ^ fr'^y ^J>. 



* c;^ 



Khi, xii jj^-»i U^ iiJ--Ji iJ^*l 
Khi, Ac l^ial Jj^ J^J \/-^ 






j ^Ibp (—j^! 'i^/Lxi ^^1 c:,Ji*a5 s^sshIj j.s:Lw>_ S^»^ ^-J'vO^ »a . 
i:;:? '^•ir*. J'«^* (_5-^^.-! '^-^ 1—5;*^ j^a J.* JU' _j l^>.ll l^ c:_jS,s ^^5« 

cJij l>»Ii l^^jCiU jjl j^ jL ^c Jsr^li IJ^ib IJ^I ^Ic ci^ij'^ 

Aj.i>.\ ^^jA^ J'Jii A=-! ^U ^ib ^ ^L ^^A> jjli ^^.<, ^j js^l^ b 

^;'j (Ji/*^ ^..J^ (J"* '"^^^ c;^ v'^ 1^:6^-*^^' ^:^'<' 15^^*^ l^;:'.'^' 
f^y^\ j\jJ\ U_j4i.Il L^^^j^ (^j^ i__fl^^ jj;>jJl tXx«o- ^^> j>cL« 









w w 

ei^s-ij: i^] J A«o ^jl^ '^ ^^ j^b L^' l>^i«i l^> d^^l ^ l^Jus 
2jJ^ cLl>L« JL^\ c^'.^ UU icJl^ ^ 'ji!i^^ ^^ _j a^'aju^ ^J^^ ^ 

A>. ^j;1,a:; u-abijU U'.J <Kj cXajL.! ^ ^$1*aJ!' ^^.^ais: <Joi!^^ aOiaJ! 

ilCUJI ij.^" lU>'^ u!/'*'^ '^^ ^^^^1 Jw^=- '.♦ii Jylc j^j U Jls>-JJ! 

11 c:^l«,i IjA^o Ai" ^\j IJl sJ-J j^* ^j;il^ aI'o- jsAa J^J A 
l«j.ll ^1^1 ^1 ij^ U«.^. Jli J^yi _. ;^^UJ1 y'u^i ^^>]! 

3.9 II 



G 



''/L>,1U ? 






Mi 

\ L^ ^-^ (J'* f-:^^^ J _•* T^'^i ^ (J.-<2AAjl "jjJJbLikj Ll^^ ..^iiil 
^ l.^*.« S^_ ^y ^J^ Ui'',^ J^o! ^J;J.r^l J'i_j ^iil <^lj' ^^ L1_5U 

I Jl *«AAk^J J >UAa]l c:^A.'\^ ^^a!1 l_jIj ^ic t^'^y.j c:^^>=^ _j 
i .. ^ " 

^.^ <D,J-%2J ^1 jC)>J^\ ^ d.\jji tXxj ij^'^^J 1^ f^SUji] clA/fci: ^i:'Ar^ 

w 

w 



4 7 



^ 



5 \- 1 



' J. and Klii, Jkju1\ ^jc «.U;9 



w 
w u 

J)y.»^aiy! _jjl J'i 'JL« d:^!! ^-^i d-Jj Cjj>jb Jcibl o.l'i _j j:jJ1 

^.Jvs* (♦'V-'^ '^^^j '*-^^. ^ (*^ ^'^. u' r* (*^ (4*-^ 3 Ai^lJl cNac 
L^^yj .ifo\\ |J _. LeV-V ^o'J' Cl^!'^ J (Jw-ai^l i^^^^,^! ^i. 
<);>S1 i^^-isi iv'^.^''^ K«*^A^ Lo/kaii^ jJ-As'' IJJb ^j\^ J iJ./».2s'' <x! J lib 

w 



O* (J 






^^:^' ^l}-' 



r s 



J] dji it>' ^ s.i ^ysLXi ( fl>^i aUI s iJ..'^ ^l) (^ 



* C^'^' 



Jii J _j! ^CL^llj' ^»jJl .i.*j ^a:^3 ^Js. lL^j JLUs ^i J ^i^i'li yl»aSl 






U' O' 



ic 



U 



_vc ^-^j l^ ^y^^ J «^^j J (j^'^ J 'cjW"^**' iir° !;:^^ 3 '^i^^ 



" Khi, A»ij* (^-.s: 
' Ivhi, ijlk^ 

o ■ • -' 



■' Khi, d! oUm 

4 



Khi, d^i>.ja.\ 
' Khi, ** 



rv 



^^.^-^ cLU^ ^^.fcjJl |^!1 ^L^\ ^^A,t \^ ^ 



.1- l)v~ * S ,A.(UC 






'^' J 



^;*jC;J\ (._,o-lvO (_5\;^.^ 

i^^Jjo ^j <iijl Joe J'i^i*:^ ( jiLs* 

uW J t^':^^^' Jl '^-^- ciW^ ^^ (^-^' ^^^ 

Ui _5 U«A.^^ gl Jl _j ^JCJl c;.UI! J5'^^ ^i ;iaj| -^^J J.Z 



>1 Jj^'^U4^l^,/,JljUi^ 



=' Kead juall 11 



Ivhi, 8^^.^ 



- Kill, j,J^l ^, o^Jl W J«..j 



9 



'l,J^ ^\ JsArvl ^j '.^ ^-^^^ lU;^J ^X^ly^ 'JJ'ij-* J^ij_ J^l 

jJl ^b Jl '..Jl J^.^^!l J ^ ^ jly ^1 i/i^, ^!' ^; :^^!l 

^1^ ^ic iii."'^ L^'.J' c:^i''.Ai cX4.^1 ^ [x^ ^cUl' Jl uL^.IJ 
^j-^j^^ } J^^^^' C.^^ ''^' ^^ '?:^^' '^-^^ t-!/^ ^ u~^'^ j^ J 

^i 5i ^j ^ ^._^^ ^flij 1^1 ijoi.^ ^^^1 L^'.s:^ j'i J j^yi 

^^^.^^ A *5j _j s^jjiil ^ LL^] c'.s'*' HA^il sj^ ^i J.S-J . ( ^-'.^ 

l^'uX^'.J li;J.::^_!i^J U^^ !1 i.::^xxCs '.jjli '-Vr^' />-' ^^'♦^' ^i^ L-i-e 

1^ (J w 

j^LoIj ^>v1-«^ ^^ <ss«.j^! J'^^ l.«/*Jl ^M,4^ Ic .l^s'' *ij1 * 

j^ !$'ai:l AJi jj\^ ^_^iJ! ^-ijJvll cls:'^_^J..<^Jl <U.I1 (J.«os- ^ S.^Cj J^ 



**-« ,. 



" Read J-^ftilj I ' Klii, 3.J. 



>> 



rt> 15 -^^^ 'iX^*^ (ji'^^ (^ a:j.AalI 

Hj-j^mj e/i/-^' ^'^:f=*-^ ^y^-'' ^:^'^J' iii^j^/Jl Kl-*11 5^' ic ^ J-> 

^1 li^/Ks-l ^i IjUj C-^aL Jj -^1^1 '^tXiUJ ^^Lls.-! .Ji^ '-^> c.)'^^. ■ 

^ Khi, ^1 

^ Khi, ^jA:^-*-^ 

^ Khi, -lc ,.p 



' Khi, 


^b 








«>? 










■ Klii, 


<)lX« ai 


-mCJ 


^93. U j 


-^ Omit 


lj:.l 


? 










^i ^^^ ^jJJl CAiJ ^i Um, L-^it. _. (--jI^s-'j tx» ^.J^^'' c^ia _j 

..,j U^ ,cl.J>ll U^lai- Sa^\ \,^Xi 'is.lJ^ Jc^^l X.s'' , ,c ic , ,^ 

w 

> (^ •• • •• > •• • ->' •• C/" 

fc5) . jU/oj!;!! >.Ki' ^As^ (^(j ^^ j^!' .^jk^ ^jb^ L^A.^!-! »*i^JO isj^jv^H 



^ Klii, ijj,ll, see Malcrizi I. 440 



' Khi, l^JI^^-j J 









W w 

,^.^_ 'a«. ^jJL _, A>*o jj^ ^^ jLJI j^ — ^J^-JS*. c;' '^' 

U^^ J'x bl ^ "'yb syj"_. JlAiiilj I^A^ ,_yJl Jj^^ ^^G S^lii 

w . ^ 



^ Khi, 0,4^ ; perhaps lh^U:* ? 


' Yak. ijj^j jU 


* J,ii ? 


. ^ Khi, J':^^,i. 


F 








rr 



—Sa,]] I- i>.^^x),} J _i^/t>!'j i. -okL 



_L^/«J'J ,^t>.AJl 



c5- <3''";^ 






f-; '^ } ,J-^ O' 



L ij^i ^ay ,^J4)!; ^. i^,^j _i^ 



A I /. 4 .1. 



za.-fl!l ^_^ AAlal' ^^ ^A,^ Cl-^iii 



Jubl^ ^A=^ (,_/*^' *:^'l Cl-iiiLi 



L_iJ! 



11 



»-_>CS^' ^ ^ . jj:f^J jjJ y;l^J>i/JJ \^j^^^ t^''^^^ ^ "^CjJJi J .Lj.^ 



y^^ 






^.>i-^ I i^^-o (j* ^UaI! ^1 ^Jl t»fJ.ij U ^ ^-c'^i jli&_j ^,1:: jll^j' ^Jl 



10 



J. 6-, 



" Khi, ^ 

^' Klii, ixdlj^sJi J.9 

^^^ Yak. ij,iS ^U 

» Yak. l^ 

1* Yak. UV 

'« Yak. J.-.jUc 

1' Yak. ^.- J I sl^ 
r' 

'« Yak. '^V 



Khi, da..iU ^j>^ 



^ J. and Khi, cias^a* 

^ Khi, J1;U ; J. Jlsl^ 

* J. ami Khi, ^■^^x.i 

* J. aii'l Klii, [jjx^_ 
« Khi, Lkc 

" Khi. a;.iiJ 

** J. and Klii, ^Jl 



Khi, 



^ 






f^ 






l^jijtai JjJ^ ^_i< ^'i] J^J^_ J L/v'"* ' ''" ^^^ (^* ^'"^ L5^ 

''^J'i- ^jwiiwAs'' j^isl r:^^«^' t-)"^^' *-i:^^ 7-'"^^ LI^ '^:^*'*' Jr' '^^ ) 

M^u!l j.>_j^J! (J.S'il! »j^^) i«!l s_jiAll ,^3 ^y^^' «^^' _j ^^- jjj 

^js_ alaJl i^A^^l ^j U«j ,J»«o- (jl ^Le^l ^Jk^l rfils^ SlX/*.; .AlaJ! 

Lol J ^j5Lk« * — ^--il ^^-^ ,^i t>'^j ^ ^J^' ^('^'^ ij^^ ^^ ^' 
l^j^Ai^ ^lyi Lj^JbJ^'j l^'.c il^'j UjJ! Ul^i, U;^ •<^'j?- tj'^i ;* 



^' Khi, l,^i 
* Dcest iu Khi. 



- Khi, ijlil i^i 






fiULe J.al jJ.:: lJ^J_j-« l) (J.«j.1 z*^^-*^ cul'i' _} ^ Ui^ Jl djjlc 

w 
w 

j^5 jjlilljjtll^b l^^ LXi^'i aU^^ j_jj Jl ^J^j^\ jj.^\ (JJiiLJlJ ^Icl 

u^--< jyjt ^iJi ^Ua; sj.pl La^i d^^i ^ jyji ^.U!i ^ic ^ 

al]l \a.^j 'islJ^\ ^^1 ^* l^ ^ j'J;!! ^ijl As*^^^^ yb ^ UJr^ 

4_jA=-l l\^ 'ij^^^\ ^J^iUJl J«!l ^b .Ull ^IL ^ ^ ^J^ ^\ J'^" 
^1 v..::^j|y ^'J ^^i-^^SI LiJ_jU j^^yl ^>J^\ Lil^'l _5 <):J'1.-<1 c>jj 1\ ^<1 

' ^^ ^.^ii (Jos'' (^-« (^jsr ^ Lel^J ^j-o Cl^il ^i^s- t_?0 ^_jJ^ ^'^'i 

j^ (^J./*L«.^1 i! t a2»-1 ^G'.As (J,^'j lii^b d\^\ *Oj1 ^^J _5 



J. and KJii, ^ail 






^^-1 ^.. u^ ^,^^11 ^^ ^ j'^^ji ^^^ \^^.pi ;\i^ ^^ 

CJ* i^'' 7^^^' ^'^ ^'^ _5 'j^^^^ ^^"^ ^^i ^^ '^d^-*/' ^''-^^ 
''^^JjJ ij'^r*^^' 0^7' ^'"t^ '-^^ '''•^-'' ^J^=^' '^^'^'z* LL-^'>^ ^^s^. 

»__;j^l . cUaJI ^!1 ^.y--' _. A-«^I l::^' !iA>>Jl iCUJI ajjo 
^i ^ui>a**,l '.^'1 J'i..* J ^^3'.) aa2w1 ei-Ju iiAj.>Jl K^UJl l:ljaaju«1 ^ 

w 



C5 



s 



MJ , 1 






^^=-\ (-!'>;>. is.^]\ &_^a_).J^ ^U ^Li^\ 






,^.La!l 



o^r* u^ ^• 



.iu 



s- 1^ tX^s^! ci-^l> 



iAJk^, 



.^^♦.A. 



SA>MJj| 



il i^%'' ^1 Aas-1 UJb ej 



r" o-"'" U-' ^f 



c,.fl)l CI^AJ 



bjl 



IL. Ua!^ ^K ^, xj.lz ^\ 'k*,s^j l^Vj ^j.jj^l ^j] ^ ^^^^1 
U,V>^ ^ '•«:^:*.'^'-^ i—jI^^ d^L >U^1 c::^lji' ^ ^^U^j^l ^ ^^rf^J;' 
Ul _. a«*AC« ^ajj J^ l^j^\ ^J:^i}j AaJI U^; c:^] i' 1^1 J'jij _, 

w 



.MJ CS' 



:^' iLcl^ *-ri;^'' ^j^-^^l , Jl c^'^-i^' ^-S'^"-»«-« LcIa!1 'i,S>S.o s-^ 



.A^Si- 



A*>«J1 _j laiJJl j^ l^Jb (__jljkOl i_jia«j ^^j ^iis^ Ci^il^ Ia^ (j;***-^' 
l^li- ^1 .3) • is^l* j'l (M^^ (M^ <_W:>-l ij'JijL**'! '^^^.J_iJ ^lA^a 



° Read j,Jjll ^^) 
•^ Khi 44 i. 



Khi 



dj ,aj:h ; pel'iiaps ajj ,^a 



Read j.)l, 



■' .1. and Kliij^fixs. ^) j>«s.-* ^j 
' Oiu. Khi. 



r V 



^.i^' i^'^AZ (^jJI ^ <XAiLai] 



yt Ui ^ii:sA.,.«>^ ^ isSj^ J J'.^l Ijl ^-j'-^-i- c:^ <^l>«-*-l Cl^'ii 






'il 



<>Li>*i > ^X-U2J 



--* u' 



C_>..2>^ (..l^OJ 



'..J 



.jdy 






• > J \^ " J •• 1 J ■ .. .. J (^j 

^r^lj^W U« ^,J A^c^ ^^ J^^ ^cLvl J. ^^' J! KJl 8AJ. Jb 
l^ cjV- U^:^' ; *-ry*^' "^^ t:/"iP' (^;U A>-^1 JC_!'.J« U 



lilU 



; '^^^ t^' 






5-- ^. 



V 



A>»^1 e:^ i^j^ll icili^l ii^'^Ui^! J Us.^ vb jco]] ixlll 



' Read sWj 



• J. and D. 479, Khi, 474. 
^ J. and Khi, l^-9j 






e.' 



n 



w 

^>fcC U^ci^J ^.kvJ l^=*.j,j JJ ^s l^ijU i^_lj _j If^s-* ♦i^' 

tl^lxs:'*^ ''^^'* (j^ ijj* ^^} ^^ J^ c;:^*" M^y^^^ v.::^!l_5 i-->'.a-i- 

«J,J i^^^. *y^^ ^S^Xs, j__c43'J ^ <):^l2ji.:v ^AwV ^J\ CL^'JU '^j1 J 

• 1 !• I " \ ■■ ■•( • A • I !• t' " 

■ jJyC »^ \./K£2; 5 .^«j 1^^ » S»i_A_5J ^«j.A2^*^ v^cjLC >niOl ^A^J 

w 

''-^^'^^ _j ^^^'-^ i^*'' y.j^ S-''-^'^ ei^ji^ ^Ua*iU Ui^ !1 (Jsr.l J 
Jy*^ (_],=^!! ">.A^,y (x! tJ.jk3 JCA^I^ LS*^**^^ f*''^'^ ''^' '^:^?; '-^*' 

WW w u 

', JL, ^ A^Ks-l ( alii Jc^liiR^ '-7-^'^^ '^;'j t^^ >Uaw! c>3^a_5 



* Lacuna in text. 



•' ~' 



I'^b 



L s^\ ? 



fl-),u J>x, 



I 



' Klii, ^i-Ul 



fo .jl>ijul 'H.A^ ,.P^1 *S^ J:jkAAll 

w 

iL*j^ xAz i^aU J ^'J Xj>c Jl ^,U=e' ^U jJLJ ^^1 Oi Ji<] 

ei^i^ J (Jt**|; ^— S'l ij>..j^ ic^ c:--^ 'ij' J^Aco i^UAs'' c:^^^ ^ 
A»-l^ L«J«J (^^^'♦JI 1^ (J'.J' _; <t4j: J t__j'..«i j^^ i>jt«.l! L-^l j;i>«a^ 

>j Ji^iLw ij-l^ 2s'>x=^'x? '^>i- ^vu.i ( ^jt!l jc-w, L' Us-j^ ci^S'Jii lJo^J«/« 

LilJ^ CAIJ ^ _, ^J^Jl Ul^. ir^^ L::^i'ii ^^_j ^^ %jjl 






' a^.:-Vl ? 



E 



^ Khi, aid »;~«:A'j 
^ Eead i.\ LA 



1 



Cl^l^-Ai ^^1 Aic y:t)l y^l jJ^J ^ ji^lljkll Jl 4o^ ^a _5 Cl^-^j^kvi 
,j*»««iJl c JlL Jar ci^ljki'l A3 Jj^s^' 131 _j ^Ujsll Jc j^JJ yj) _5 

i JUic j*L*J ^^ J^j^Zj J^ _j Cl^JkJ' lIa! J J^s^ j^< " 'i^:5- J l>^j] 
' ^ J ir- (♦''^1 _j '-'^^j-o CJ.=-Iju3 ^1 ^:1 <jd *^JU:^ J^ j (.Jiiij ^ 

IaJ) Ul J'Jii ^^a> (^ A«Nw^ LT^iii Ajj : (Jal \lAc &h)^ *Gsr 
*y3ls !aJ!> ^C!o\ J ^.:^^1 "L: i^^ a-*.>-1 AJ.**«.'! t^i^'l *^CJ'j 
l^-ifC -J (J^ <)0 j^/iU^j jJ-C ^S\ ^^s>-]»jA\ jj^i Ia2> Ul J ^<<'•:^5^ 
j»c J t—jl^ ^j1 A«»«1 *c _ja ^ JjtAji Ji ^«>.!I jJJa.; jjl ^1^ j^ic 

^ J I — Sjj^ s '^jtiV, .tJ ir*i^ _5 4->'^ t.:i-Ju >Ia>*.! saj^I 
^■c^ j^-0 t.2•^l2i-*- . jt^"*^. Ci-^J-sr ^^das^ f*;^'*^^ i*'"* ^^ '«--^*w.=>- 









^ »" - v • " o • -> y 

^^XKJ^\ jijc\ j^lLl**> (--^»J^ (♦J;^ (V^^^ vJALJ\ jJ;—-* jV»-^ 

w 

^"Uj ^ er^"^- ^ i *lA5^il _5 e:_>'jui'j ^j^i^ Ic'^*** 'ju^I^o- '>^-*^ 

V^. iJ> cr« (»^ iJ^'^. ; u^^^ ^--i=^. J>^ J^ ^«^ Jy. ^j 

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